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Four strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium including L. plantarum 01, L. fermentum D13, L. rhamnosus B01725, and B. bifidum B7.5 exhibiting naringinase production were applied in grapefruit juice fermentation. All investigated strains grew well in grapefruit juice without nutrition supplementation. In all cases, cell counts were 108–109 CFU ml−1 after 24 hours of fermentation. The highest lactic acid and acetic acid productions were observed in the case of strain L. plantarum 01. The L. plantarum 01 and L. fermentum D13 strains prefer glucose over fructose and sucrose, whereas fructose was the most favoured sugar for L. rhamnosus B01725 and B. bifidum B7.5. At the end of the fermentation process, antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of grapefruit juice decreased in all cases, but the changes were not significant. Significant decrease of naringin was observed in the case of L. plantarum 01, 28% naringin in grapefruit juice was removed after fermentation. This result is promising for development of technology for production of probiotic grapefruit juice.

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Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a perennial plant belonging to Asteraceae family. It is one of the most suitable plants for growing organically. Artichoke has been used as choleretic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, cholesterol-reducing, and diuretic in traditional medicine. Artichoke has been cultivated worldwide because of its nutritional value and medicinal properties. In this study organically and conventionally grown artichokes were compared in terms of phenolic constituents, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Artichoke leaves, bracts, and floral receptacles obtained from 2 different sources (organic and conventional) were freeze-dried, powdered, and extracts were prepared with methanol. Phenolic constituents (chlorogenic acid, cynarin, luteolin, and apigenin) were analysed by HPLC-DAD system. It was found that organic farming enhanced cynarin, chlorogenic acid, and luteolin amounts in receptacle (edible part). Organically grown leaves had also higher amounts of cynarin and chlorogenic acid than conventional ones. Cynarin amount was higher by 35% in organic receptacle and 20% in organic leaves. Organic farming also augmented the antioxidant property and flavonoid content of edible parts of the artichoke. Additionally, organically grown leaves had the highest antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoid contents. Antibacterial activity was observed with both organic and conventional leaves only against Staphylococcus epidermidis. This comparative study revealed that organic farming enhanced the health-beneficial medicinal values of artichoke's heart and leaves.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Á. Vajda, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, L. Ózsvári and Gy. Kasza

Salmonellosis is a widely known infectious disease in Hungary that played dominant role between 1960 and 1996 and remained one of the top food-borne illnesses to these days with an estimated total number of 96 048 cases (2019). Beside direct costs of treatment, indirect costs are also significant on the level of population. Among indirect costs, consumer well-being losses are difficult to be estimated. For this purpose, the willingness to pay (WTP) method is used most frequently that measures the cost an individual would undertake to avoid a certain harm. For the well-being loss estimation, the data of National Food Chain Safety Authority's annual consumer survey was used, in which 323 respondents gave evaluable answer to the open-ended WTP question. Results indicate that an average respondent would pay 18.6 EUR to avoid salmonellosis. Main factors affecting WTP were size of family and number of children. The numbers indicate that the consumer well-being loss could be about 1 786 060 EUR annually, resulting from the multiplication of the estimated number of annual salmonellosis cases and the average WTP value. It can be concluded that consumer well-being losses alone would call for further interventions in Salmonella eradication, not to mention other – more direct – cost elements.

Open access

Increasing the protein and antioxidant content of food products is a constant challenge amongst researchers. Dried pasta products are popular amongst all groups of society. The most important factor in pasta processing is the quality of the flour. Millet (Panicum miliaceum) flour has high nutritional value, enriching it with cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) flour is good choice to increase the quality of protein composition and antioxidant properties of products. Flour mixtures of millet and insect flours (5% and 10%) were analysed after mixing and pasta processing. Addition of wheat gluten improved both texture and nutrition value of pasta products. Total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, total protein content, free and total amino acid composition were studied. Quality analysis of dried pasta products were carried out according to Hungarian standards. Data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's pair-wise post hoc test was used with Bonferroni correction. The correlation was determined by Spearman's rank. Addition of cricket flour modified the pH, acid value, moisture content, and colour of the samples, these changes lasted during storage. Enrichment could increase the total phenol content significantly even at the low level of 10%. Heat treatment during pasta processing had negative effect on the antioxidant capacity except at higher cricket flour contents. Cricket flour's high protein content proportionately increased millet flour's, thus pasta products'. Dried pasta products passed all quality norms. Enrichment of millet flour with cricket flour is favourable from both nutritional and quality aspects.

Open access

This study examines the occurrence of aflatoxins (AFS) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in bread and durum wheat samples. A total of 141 samples were collected from eleven different regions of Turkey. An analytical method based on liquid extraction, immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of AFs and OTA levels. As a result, AFs and OTA were detected in 2% and 9.2% of wheat samples at concentrations varying from 0.21 to 0.44 µg kg−1 and from 0.1 to 3.2 µg kg−1, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) were found positive in samples ranging between 0.21–0.35 µg kg−1 and 0.094 µg kg−1, respectively. However, none of the samples contained aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). The study also recommended that contamination levels in wheat and wheat-based products should be routinely monitored in greater sample numbers to insure food safety.

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With the continuous expansion of the global dairy trade market, the quality and safety of the Chinese dairy market have a wide and far-reaching impact on the world. Based on the development of the dairy scandal in the past few years in China, this study illustrates the serious damage of melamine on human health and the negative impact on the dairy industry in China.

This study shows that the lack of effective government regulations is a key reason for dairy market failure. Consumers are lacking confidence in the quality of Chinese dairy products and the government's market regulations. The Chinese dairy market will continue to rely on imported dairy products. By analyzing the typical cases of the dairy market in China, this study aims to provide a guide for dairy industries in other countries.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Vásquez García, S.H. Gomes de Sá, G. de Sousa Silva, J.E. Mejia Ballesteros, E. Barbieri, R.L. Moro de Sousa, A.M. Fernandes and M. Mitsui Kushida

The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of oysters and mussels grown in Cananéia, Brazil, by analysing mesophiles, psychrothophic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., and to compare the efficiency of Compact Dry EC method and the conventional method for counting of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The microbial analysis showed that the mean values of mesophilic counts were 3.14±0.81 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.92±0.90 for mussels; the mean values of psychrophilic counts were 2.78±0.75 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.22±0.75 log CFU g−1 for mussels; the mean values of mould and yeast counts were 3.70±0.58 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.33±0.81 log CFU g−1 for mussels. Salmonella spp. did not present positive results, and the maximal count of Staphylococcus aureus was 1.7 log CFU g−1, therefore, within the limits established in the legislation. The correlation coefficients between the Compact Dry EC method and conventional method were >0.87 for total coliform and E. coli counts for both types of shellfish. The data in this study show that the Compact Dry EC method is an acceptable alternative to conventional methods for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in shellfish.

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Physicochemical, pasting, and rheological properties of pearl millet starches were studied and correlations among these properties were calculated. Amylose content, swelling power, and solubility of starches varied from 11.57 to 21.93%, 11.11 to 17.91 g g−1 and 12.20 to 15.20%, respectively. Volume% of starch granule size less than 10 µm varied from 36.23 to 48.34%, and 12.16 to 18.75% for above 20 µm size of granule. Peak viscosity of starches varied from 1291 to 1853 mPa·s, cv. RHB-173 had the highest value. Frequency sweep measurement of starch pastes revealed higher magnitude of G′ as compared to G″ with increase in to, indicating visco-elastic behaviour. Yield stress (σo), consistency index (K), and flow behaviour index (n) were observed as 40.73 to 115.72 Pa, 0.729 to 3.998 Pa·s, and 0.604 to 0.964, respectively. Starch pastes from cultivars studied showed shear thinning behaviour.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: É. Varga-Visi, B. Toxanbayeva, G. Andrássyné Baka and R. Romváari

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of refrigerated storage on the microbial properties and organoleptic quality of Bologna-type turkey sausage, in which fat was partially replaced with pea fibre or potato starch. Each manufactured sausage had lower counts of Esherichia coli and enterobacteria than 1 log CFU·g−1, counts were below 2 log CFU·g−1 for Staphylococcus aureus, moreover, no Salmonella spp. were found in any of the sausages. The counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria did not exceed 4 log CFU·g−1 for each sausage formulation during four-week storage at 4 °C. Spectrocolorimetric measurements revealed that there was no decline in luminosity (L*) and redness (a*) by time, namely colour fading did not occur. Saltiness and juiciness values of sausages were directly proportional. Low-fat sausages were perceived less salty than full-fat analogue with the same salt content at the early stage of storage. Nevertheless, this phenomenon was temporary as sausages had the same saltiness at the end of four-week storage period. Sausages, in which 25% of fat was substituted with pea fibre or potato starch, were assessed as having the same odour, consistency, taste, and overall impact like control during the four-week refrigerated storage.

Open access

Sustainable nutrition (SN) considers the environmental impact of food production. This study aims to analyse the relationship between nutrient density and water footprint (WF) of the most consumed food items in Hungary and to create a classification of nutrients. Based on a comprehensive analysis of literature and different data sources, the authors analysed the stochastic relationship between WF and nutrient density of different food items by Spearman's rank correlation. The analysis proved significant (P<0.05) relationship between nutrient density and WF of the most relevant food items in Hungary. Based on the classification, there are nutrients that are overconsumed among the Hungarian population and positively correlate with WF (e.g., cholesterol) and there are nutrients that are under-consumed among the Hungarian population and negatively correlate with WF (e.g., dietary fibres). In general, it can be concluded that the re-structuration of food consumption patterns in Hungary is an important and urgent task, which serves both the public health and ecologic goals. These efforts should be based on a complex evaluation of the problem. This study was one initial step to analyse SN focused on Hungary and further studies are definitely needed.

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