Authors:Csihon Ádám, Gonda István, Orosz-Tóth Mihály, Kincses Sándorné and Holb Imre
Plant nutrition significantly influences yield and fruit quality in fruit orchards. In this three-year study (2016–2018), different fertilizer treatments were compared in an intensive sweet cherry orchard. Trees of cultivar ‘Carmen’ were grafted on Prunus mahaleb ‘Cema’ rootstock, and were trained to free spindle. For NP, NPK and NPKMg treatments, yield ranged between 11.8 and 16.6 kg/tree in the three years, while the yield was 9.1 kg/tree on the control trees. Crop load (fruit amount calculated to the trunk thickness) was 151–166 g cm-2 for fertilized trees, while it was 120 g cm-2 on the untreated trees. Fruit sizes of fertilized trees reached 30 mm in 2018, while the fruit sizes of control trees were smaller with 2.5 mm. Water-soluble dry matter content (%) of the fertilized trees was lower in 2016 and 2017, but higher in 2018 compared to the control plots. In 2017 and 2018, fertilizer treatments resulted in an increase of the content of phosphorus (16–70%), potassium (4–22%) and magnesium (12–43%) in the fruits compared to control plots.
Authors:Aliakbar Rezaei, Hossein Fazeli and Jamshid Faghri
This study investigated carbapenem resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory specimens. Epidemiological relationship of the isolates was also evaluated. In this study, 81 respiratory specimens of A. baumannii from AL Zahra Hospital were confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by disc diffusion method. Carbapenem resistance genes were identified by PCR. The isolates were typed by RAPD-PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods. All isolates were resistant to imipenem and 80 isolates to meropenem. Frequency of oxacillinase genes was as follows: blaOXA-23 gene was positive in 74 (91.3%), blaOXA-24 gene in 50 (61.7%) and blaOXA-58 was not found in any isolates. On the other hand 22 (27.2%) isolates contained blaIMP-1, 3 (3.7%) isolates contained blaIMP-2 gene, 5 (6.2%) isolates contained blaVIM-1, 4 (5%) isolates had blaVIM-2 and none of the isolates had blaSIM-1 gene. RAPD-PCR typing identified 16 different patterns, with one pattern being the most frequent one in 26 isolates. In MLST 6 different sequence types were identified, the most predominant being ST2 belonging to clonal complex 2. The results of this study showed high resistance to carbapenems as well as high abundance of oxacillinase genes.
Authors:Kelemen Bettina, Füzy Anna, Cseresnyés Imre, Parádi István, Kovács Ramóna, Rajkai Kálmán and Takács Tünde
The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) inoculation were investigated in wheat [Triticum aestivum L. cv. TC-33] under controlled conditions. The experiments aimed to reveal what stress responses belong to the different levels of Cd load in the growth medium (0; 1; 2,5 and 5 mg Cd kg-1 substrate). To detect the effect of Cd stress, we compared plant physiological and growth indicators measured with both in situ and destructive methods. Electrical capacitance (CR) was evaluated during the experiments as a method to indicate stress responses through of Cd-induced root system changes.
During the growth period, the photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), the chlorophyll content index (CCI) of the leaves, and the CR of the root-soil system were monitored in situ. After harvest, the membrane stability index (MSI), the cadmium and phosphorus concentrations of the plants, the root dry mass (RDM), the shoot dry mass (SDM) and the leaf area (LA) were measured. The root colonization of AM fungi was estimated by microscopic examination. Data matrices were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA) which had been proved to be a good statistical method to the sensitivity between measurement methods.
Taking all parameters into account in the PCA, a complete separation was found between the contaminated and non-contaminated variants along the main component PC1. The measured values of the Cd1 treatment sometimes overlapped with that of control plants, but differed from that of the Cd2 and Cd3 doses. The parameters well reflected that AMF inoculation alleviated the stress caused by Cd. PCA shows a visible effect of AM, but the separation between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants is weaker than that between Cd contaminated and non-treated ones. The Cd stress significantly decreased the Fv/Fm, CCI, CR, SDM, RDM and LA. The CR and growth parameters proved to be the best indicators to characterize the Cd phytotoxicity in the TC-33 wheat cultivar.