The main idea of the current paper consists in introducing the fractional order calculus in a control system. To control the system, an adaptive control technique with reference model is used. The fractional order models for the plant and reference model are obtained. To achieve the performances imposed by the fractional order reference model, a fractional order adaptive control law is proposed, which is a combination of two methods (MIT and Lyapunov stability). The original contribution in this paper is the use of fractional order calculus in the combined MIT and Lyapunov stability method and showing the dynamic behavior of the system. Several simulations are used to emphasize the effectiveness and benefits of the proposed method.
Authors:A. Ferchichi, S. Harrabi, M. Feki and H. Fellah
Both the immature and mature Vicia faba L. seeds are used for human consumption. However, there is a lack of information on the phytochemical composition and the potent biological properties of the immature seeds. The aim of the present study was to establish the profile of bioactive lipids as well as the antibacterial, antioxidant, and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory capacities of the immature and mature Vicia faba L. seeds. The studied petroleum ether extracts contain different bioactive compounds such as β-sitosterol, lupeol, β-amyrin, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol. The extracts of the immature seeds exhibited higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities than those of mature ones. All tested extracts exerted higher inhibition on α-glucosidase than α-amylase. The immature seeds appeared as promising sources of natural antioxidants, antibacterial compounds, and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Thus, the immature Vicia faba L. seeds have a great potential as functional foods providing health beneficial properties.
The present study deals with the impact of storage time on the quality of dehydrofrozen versus conventionally frozen apple. Samples were submitted to freezing as fresh fruit or following the first stage of air drying. The quality was evaluated along a freezing storage period of 18 months under -18 °C. Thaw exudate water (TEW), total colour difference (TCD), and total polyphenol content (TPC) of dehydrofrozen/thawed samples were assessed regarding the water content (W) versus the frozen storage time (FST) (0-18 months). Dehydrofreezing exhibited significant effects on TEW and TCD of dehydrofrozen/thawed apples. Indeed, the lower the W, the lower the TEW content and TCD of partially dried frozen/thawed samples. TPC losses were significant for samples without any pre-dehydration stage and decreased when initial water content decreased. The 18-month frozen storage at -18 °C had the most insignificant effects on all quality response variables for the previously most dried samples. Thus, adequate drying of fruit before freezing is a relevant way to maintain the stability of fruit quality during long-term storage.
Authors:M. Drobac, J. Arsenijević and N. Kovačević
Cinnamon bark is used worldwide due to its characteristic flavour and medicinal properties. Ceylon cinnamon or “true” cinnamon bark refers to the dried inner bark of the shoots of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl, originated from Sri Lanka. The bark of some other species of this genus, Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Chinese cinnamon), C. burmanni (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cinnamon), and C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cinnamon) are also marketed and sold as cinnamon. They are characterised by a significantly higher amount of coumarin compared to Ceylon cinnamon bark. Since coumarin may be potentially hepatotoxic, the aim of this study was to determine coumarin level in commercial samples of cinnamon bark and in cinnamon-containing dietary supplements present on the Serbian market. HPLC analysis showed lowest coumarin content in Ceylon cinnamon bark samples (0.08-0.15 mg g-1), whereas other samples contained a significantly higher amounts of coumarin (1.38-5.80 mg g-1). Cinnamon based dietary supplements contained 0.007-1.19 mg coumarin/tablet. The obtained results indicate that the majority of commercial samples of cinnamon bark on the Serbian market do not originate from the Ceylon cinnamon but from other species of this genus, and that consumed amount of certain products should be taken into account since the tolerable daily intake of coumarin is limited.
Authors:O. Ben Moussa, I. Mahmoudi, I. Mahouachi, M. Boulare and M. Hassouna
The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of Aloe vera gel on the quality of probiotic lassi. Probiotic lassi was prepared by adding 15% of Aloe vera gel and inoculating with probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain. Results showed that physicochemical properties of fortified probiotic lassi were not affected by these modifications during the storage period (P>0.05), however, antioxidant activities, texture and aroma sensory parameters differed significantly (P<0.05). Lactobacillus and Streptococcus counts exhibited same behavior in Aloe vera probiotic lassi products as in control (P>0.05) after 21 days of storage. Aloe vera probiotic lassi has a beneficial effect on human health.
Pomelo fruit juice is concentrated using two different techniques, i.e. block freeze concentration (BFC) and thermal concentration (TC), and both concentrates were spray dried separately to observe the effects of two different concentration techniques on the physicochemical properties of the spray dried powder. BFC juice had comparatively better values of retention of acidity, colour, vitamin C, DPPH● scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total sugar content than TC juice. The powder obtained from the combination of BFC and spray drying had better retention of vitamin C (121.17 mg/100 g), colour, and exhibited higher DPPH● scavenging activity than TC spray dried powder. The physical parameters including solubility index, bulk density, and hygroscopicity were significantly higher in BFC spray dried powder. BFC was observed as an efficient concentration technique in comparison to TC as a pretreatment to produce spray dried powder with a better retention of bioactive components and powder flow properties.
Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a protease inhibitor that affects protein digestibility; however, it is increasingly being recognised as anutraceutical and cosmeceutical molecule. In the present study, BBI concentration during soybean seed development, its loss during processing treatments, and the level in commercial soy products were determined. Significant differences for BBI concentration were observed across the genotypes and seed development stages. Genotype × seed development stage interaction was also found to be significant (P<0.05) for BBI concentration. Boiling, autoclaving, microwave irradiation, and sprouting resulted in significant (P<0.05) loss of BBI. Minimum loss was observed in sprouting, while autoclaving for 5 min completely deactivated BBI. Microwave irradiation of the soaked seeds resulted in higher BBI loss than of dry seeds. Among the commercial soy products, BBI concentration was high in soy flour brands, minuscule in ready-to-cook miso soup and undetectable in extruded soy products and roasted soy nuts.
Authors:E.E. Sage, Y.X. Chang, R. Wickneswari and M.M. Mackeen
The neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a functional food ingredient of growing importance in the preparation of GABA-enriched germinated brown rice (GBR). Quantification of GABA levels during germination in a locally developed high yielding red rice variety (UKMRC-9) was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis using pre-column chemical derivatisation with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde (HN) using a UV detection system. Factors that influence rice germination such as soaking time and temperature were also studied. The results of this study showed that the UKMRC-9 rice variety soaked in water for 6 hours at 35 °C yielded the highest value for both germination percentage (95.4±1.2%) and GABA content (411 μg g-1). This suggests that long soaking times of 1-4 days can be substituted by short soaking times to produce high GABA levels in germinated brown rice.
Authors:A. Eser, K.M. Kassai, H. Kato, V. Kunos, A. Tarnava and M. Jolánkai
Scope of the study was to find more effective N fertilisation doses and applications to reach not only higher quantity but better quality grains as well as to be able to help preserving the continuity of feed and food quality improvement, since wheat is one of the most consumed crops all over the world.
Samples of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties harvested from the experimental field of the Szent István University in two consecutive crop seasons had been examined in the laboratory of the Crop Production Institute. Effects of nitrogen (N) application on the performance of grain protein were tested. Five high quality winter wheat varieties were studied regarding grain quality traits affected by applying undivided and split doses of N. The evaluated samples show that increasing doses of N topdressing and increasing time of application have beneficial effects on the yield and the value of protein content. Wheat grain protein value ranged between 9.9% of the untreated Mv Karéj and Alföld, where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied resulting in the highest value of 16.0%. Similarly, the gluten values among untreated and N applied plots were in a wide range. Mv Karéj had the lowest wheat gluten value on untreated plot with 18.4% and Alfold had the highest value with 36.8% on the plot where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied. There were no significant changes recorded on test weight and thousand kernel weight. In the case of baking quality, there were significant differences between varieties. The best records were obtained in the case of Mv Toborzö followed by Mv Karéj.
Authors:B. Oláhné Horváth, E. Fazekas, N. Kellner and I. Magyar
Medium chain fatty acids are candidates of partial sulphur dioxide replacement in wine, as a solution to the growing consumer concerns about chemical additives. In botrytised sweet wine specialties, large amount of sulphur dioxide addition is one of the effective practices to stop alcoholic fermentation. Increasing medium chain fatty acid levels up to 80 mg l-1 was tested as a sole inhibitor on solid agar surface. S. bacillaris seemed to be the most sensitive, S. cerevsisiae and S. bayanus were more tolerant, while Z. bailii showed the highest tolerance. Then, increasing medium chain fatty acid levels up to 40 mg l-1 combined with 100 mg l-1 sulphur dioxide was introduced into a Tokaj Essence under refermentation. After 56 days, the highest dosage had pronounced effect on the yeast population, but the refermentation was not inhibited completely. Medium chain fatty acids have varying inhibitory effect on botrytised wine-related yeasts, moreover, it could be used effectively in media with high ethanol content, unlike Tokaj Essence.