Authors:Richard Pinter, Evelin Molnar, Khabat N. Hussein, Adrienn Toth, Laszlo Friedrich and Klara Pasztor-Huszar
The objective of this study was to research the adaptability of insects in food products. The created hamburger patties were made with pork meat and insect batter (Zophobas morio) in a 50:50 ratio and the color, pH value, water-holding capacity, roasting loss, texture, microbiological traits were studied during ten days of refrigerated storage (5 °C, vaccum packaging, air cooling). Similar products have already existed in European markets, but these are made of 100% of insect meat or with additional vegetables as an ingredient. The mixture of insect and pork could offer a more accepted texture by consumers than the other alternatives. This study showed burger patties with pork meat and insect meat offering a softer texture and darker color, while it could increase the shelf-life of raw product.
This thoughtful framework to minimize the harm associated with emerging technologies by encouraging collaborations among stakeholders would benefit from adopting the WHO precautionary principle in order to keep public health issues at the core of discussions. It would also be helpful to acknowledge and make transparent the differences in stakeholder priorities, the power differentials among stakeholders, and the importance of institutional duty of care.
Authors:Eva Schmal-Filius, Nora Nedorost, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang and Herbert Weissenböck
The causative role of some infectious agents found in cases of feline pneumonia is under debate, because they are also part of the physiological microbiota of the respiratory tract of healthy animals. In this retrospective study, archived formalin-fixed and paraffin-wax-embedded lung samples of 69 severe and lethal cases of pneumonia in cats were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of nine selected infectious agents: Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma felis, M. gateae, Chlamydia felis, feline herpesvirus type 1, feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The intention was to elucidate their immediate involvement in pneumonia formation. Due to the cross-reactivity of the applied antibodies, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for both targeted Mycoplasma species was applied additionally. In the 42 cases (60.9%) positive for at least one pathogen, several agents were present in a high proportion of the samples (P. multocida – 34.8%, B. bronchiseptica – 29.0%), while others were present in a moderate (feline herpesvirus type 1 – 18.8%, M. gateae – 13.0%, M. felis – 10.1%) or low percentage (T. gondii – 1.4%). All samples were negative for C. felis, feline coronavirus and canine distemper virus. Mixed infections of up to four pathogens were more frequent than single infections. Mycoplasma preferably colonised lung tissue damaged by other pathogens because they never occurred as single infections. Pasteurella multocida, B. bronchiseptica, M. felis, feline herpesvirus type 1 and T. gondii showed abundant replication within lung lesions, thus suggesting a prominent role in pneumonia formation.
Authors:Tímea Kaszab, Lídia Bornemisza and Katalin Badak-Kerti
The objective of our experiment was to investigate the rheological properties of a compound coating depending on the pre-treatment temperature regimes.
Compound coating samples were measured at six different temperatures with 2 °C resolution between 40 and 50 °C. One part of melted samples was measured by RV1 rotational rheometer at the actual melting temperatures and the other part of melted samples was filled into 9 × 9 × 9 mm cubes molds. These cubes were cooled 24 h in freezer (−18 °C) and next day the samples were warmed to room temperature for 3 hours with different temperature combinations. The solid cubes were measured with Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) test by SMS TA-XTplus Texture Analyzer at room temperature.
Results show the effect of pre-treatment on the viscosity of the coating. Furthermore, significant differences were found among the samples cooled with different cooling methods. Our results stress the importance of the correct handling of the materials for confectioners.
Authors:ZS. Molnár, L. Varga, G. Gyenes, Á. Lehotsky, E. Gradvohl, Á.J. Lukács, R.A. Füzi, A. Gézsi, A. Falus and H.J. Feith
Proper handwashing helps prevent the spread of communicable diseases. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare children's knowledge and skills in hand hygiene before and after school interventions in order to evaluate the effectiveness of our peer education programme.
In our longitudinal study, short- and long-term changes in the knowledge, hand-washing skills and health behaviour of 224 lower, upper and secondary school students were assessed. Our measurements were performed with a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire and the Semmelweis Scanner.
As a result of the intervention, the proportion of correct answers increased significantly both in the short term and in the long run compared to the input measurements, but age differences did not disappear for most variables. There is a difference in the process of learning theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Areas not used for handwashing in the paediatric population are different from those described for adults in the literature. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the right and left hands.
There was a significant positive change in both theory and practice of handwashing. In education, emphasis should also be put on long-term retention of theoretical knowledge in age-specific health promotion programmes within the paediatric population.
Authors:L. Havelda, Z. Bencz and M. Veresné Bálint
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of probiotic products in Hungary, to explore consumers' knowledge of probiotics, and to gain information about the main characteristics of current usage.
Materials and Methods
The research used a self-developed explorative questionnaire to obtain the necessary information. The data collected was further analysed with IBM SPSS 25.0 and Microsoft Office Excel.
Nearly three-quarters of respondents (73.9%) have used probiotics in their life. Those who have already used these products, mostly heard about them from doctors (62.8%) and friends/relatives (40.5%), while among non-users the main sources of information were web pages (46.8%) and commercials (45.2%).
We found several differences between users and non-users in terms of probiotics awareness. Consequently, healthcare providers may play an important role in the process of careful product choice and proper usage.
A tanulmány az Athós-hegyi Iviron 463-as jelzetű kétnyelvű (ógörög-ófrancia) bizánci kézirat különféle rétegeinek (ógörög főszöveg, miniatúrák, lapszélen szereplő ófrancia fordítás, ófrancia címsorok) összefüggéseit vizsgálja újabb megközelítésből, korábban nem vizsgált szempontok bevonásával: a miniatúrák és az ófrancia szövegben szereplő piros tintával kiemelt címsorok közötti kapcsolat feltárásával. A tanulmány a Barlám-regény görög változatait megőrző kódexek – ivironi kézirat szempontjából fontos – magyarázó címeit is áttekinti, a kéziratok közötti közös elemeket vizsgálja. Az elemzés az ivironi kódex készítésének körülményeivel kapcsolatban újabb fontos összefüggésekre világít rá.
The study examines the relations between diﬀerent aspects (Ancient Greek main text, miniatures, Old French translation on the margins, Old French headlines) of the manuscript Iviron № 463, which is a bilingual (Ancient Greek-Old French) Byzantine manuscript kept on Mount Athos, from a new perspective by including formerly not investigated viewpoints: by exploring the relationship between the miniatures and the headlines that are highlighted by red ink in the Old French text. The study also mentions the explanatory inscriptions in codices that preserved the Greek versions of the Barlaam-romance and are relevant in connection with the Iviron manuscript, furthermore, it investigates the common features of the manuscripts. The analysis reveals new important relations regarding the circumstances of the creation of codex Iviron.