Examining a human movement can provide a wealth of information about a patient’s medical condition. The examination process can be used to diagnose abnormal changes (lesions), ability development and monitor the rehabilitation process of people with reduced mobility. There are several approaches to monitor people, among other things with sensors and various imaging and processing devices. In this case a Kinect V2 sensor and a self-developed LabView based application was used, to examine the movement of the lower limbs. The ideal gait pattern was recorded in the RoboGait training machine and the measured data was used to identify the phases of the human gait. During the evaluation, the position of the skeleton model, the associated body joints and angles can be calculated. The pre-recorded ideal and natural gait cycle can be compared.
With the self-developed method the pre-recorded ideal and natural gait cycle can be compared and processed for further evaluation. The evaluated measurement data confirm that a reliable and mobile solution for gait analysis has been created.
Authors:Andrej Šoltész, Dana Baroková, Zinaw Dingetu Shenga and Michaela Červeňanská
Presented paper deals with the hydraulic assessment of groundwater flow in the area affected by the realization of the hydraulic gate on the Klátov branch and in the adjacent territory of a dike, which is located on the right-side of Little Danube. This hydraulic assessment is part of the project of the Slovak Water Management Enterprise, which also aims to increase the height and seal the dike on the right-side of the Little Danube. Generally, the project is divided into three phases (Phase I, II and III) to implement different technical measures to protect the area from flooding. The assumption for the execution of the technical measures of the mentioned three project phases is a continuous flood protection of part of the Žitný ostrov area around the Little Danube and the Klátov River branch in the reach from Kolárovo to Jahodná town. Therefore, a 3D mathematical model was created to simulate groundwater flow by changing boundary conditions of surface water flow during flood periods.
Authors:Abbas Al-Hdabi, Mohammed K. Fakhraldin, Rasha A. Al-Fatlawy and Tawfek Sheer Ali
Ignition of waste paper sludge at elevated temperatures to produce electricity in power generation plants utilizing fluidized bed combustion generates paper sludge ash. Due to the high concentration of lime and gelignite in paper sludge ash, it is expected that it will play a vital role as a cementitious material. This paper investigates the use of paper sludge ash to improve the mechanical properties of the granular materials, which are suitable to subbase course for road and building constructions. Also, a comparison study with the use of Portland cement as an additive to granular materials has been covered. The mechanical properties were evaluated by conducting the California bearing ratio test for the two adopted methods. Moreover, the compressive strength of the samples using paper sludge ash and cement are investigated. In accordance to the California bearing ratio test, 4% paper sludge ash was indicated as the optimum ash content at which the California bearing ratio value increased by 173% and 111% in comparison with untreated material and 6% cement, respectively. On the other hand, and by means of the compressive strength, the granular materials with 4% paper sludge ash has compressive strength higher than those with 6% cement.
Authors:Kitti Ajtayné Károlyfi, Dániel Harrach and Ferenc Papp
Packing density of aggregate influences greatly the properties of concrete. Maximization of packing density increases the flowing ability and segregation resistance of the fresh concrete and the compressive strength of the hardened concrete. The determination of maximum density is difficult experimentally; therefore several models have been developed for that purpose. However, these models do not take the size of the formwork into account. In this study, 20 different formwork shapes were examined with defined aggregate fractions. Results show that increasing the formwork size increases the packing density of aggregate, and the growth depends on the formwork size and compaction method.
In this article, the investigation of a press machine with 30 tons of pressing weight is presented. The beam of this machine is an I-beam, which has an open cross-section. It is known that this version of cross-section is sensitive to torsional stress. The stress from warping torsion is normal stress, so the opened cross-section is more sensitive to this type of stress. The bimoment that causes normal stress can also be very high, so dealing with this stress is very important.
Polysaccharides from litchi (Litchi chinensis) seeds were isolated and puriﬁed using ion exchange column chromatography. Molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides and monosaccharides were detected. Preliminary structural characterisation of polysaccharides was conducted using infrared, nuclear magnetic, and other spectroscopy techniques in combination with methylation analysis. In vitro cell culture experiments were designed to detect the eﬀects of polysaccharides on cell growth and cellular glucose consumption. We extracted and analysed three polysaccharides from litchi seed. Monosaccharide composition and infrared spectroscopy detection showed that the skeleton structure of polysaccharides consisted of glucose and mannose. Polysaccharides 1 and 2 are similar and have relatively high glucose content (around 70%); polysaccharide 3 has 39.17% glucose only but is rich in arabinose (about 21.03%). In a certain range of use (50~1000 μg ml–1), polysaccharides 1 and 2 have no signiﬁcant impacts on cell growth, while polysaccharide 3 can promote proliferation to some extent. All three polysaccharides can promote in vitro cellular glucose consumption, especially polysaccharide 3, which shows the strongest promotion, a signiﬁcant dose eﬀect, and synergistic eﬀect with insulin. The above results highlight important roles of litchi seed polysaccharides in promoting cell growth and validate litchi seed polysaccharides as potential drugs for hypoglycaemia.
Authors:Ivana Marko, Réka Csicsaiová, Jaroslav Hrudka, Ivona Škultétyová, Štefan Stanko and Paula Brandeburová
The aims of the research are to focus on the analysis of qualitative parameters of surface runoff from the urbanized area (parking, roadways); subsequently, to compare the measured concentration with the recommendations of Danish and Slovak standards. Rainwater sampling carried out at several sites in Serbia and Slovakia. In the analysis were monitoring, the qualitative parameters as pH value, water conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, and heavy metals. The results show the presence of copper, zinc, lead, aluminum, cadmium, chromium and nickel. The concentration of these parameters was several times higher than the allowed limit values. Based on these results, it is necessary to design measures to ensure surface runoff before infiltration.
Authors:A. Dobrinčić, L. Tuđen, M. Repajić, I. Elez Garofulić, Z. Zorić, V. Dragović-Uzelac and B. Levaj
The aim of this research was to obtain a high value powder of olive leaf extract (OLE) rich in polyphenols by spray drying. Since carrier, polyphenols/carrier ratio, and inlet temperature could have an impact on process yield and polyphenol retention, to deﬁne the most promising drying conditions for OLE experiment with gallic acid model solutions (GAS) was conducted. Inﬂuence of carrier type (maltodextrin, inulin, gum arabic, and their two-component blends), polyphenols/carrier ratio, and temperature on process yield of spray dried GAS was examined, and for each carrier the most promising temperature and ratio were selected. Optimal temperature for all GAS samples was 150 °C, and optimal gallic acid/carrier ratio for samples with inulin or gum arabic was 3:1, while for all other combinations it was 5:1. In OLE powder produced under these conditions, polyphenol content and physical properties (rehydration, bulk density) were determined. Mixture of maltodextrin and gum arabic resulted in the highest OLE product yield (54.48%) and the highest polyphenol retention (56.50%) obtaining good physical properties (bulk density=0.31 g ml–1, rehydration time=98 s), while use of inulin resulted in the lowest yield (32.71%), polyphenol retention (28.24%), bulk density (0.25 g ml–1), and the highest rehydration time (140 s).
Authors:J. Krulj, N. Ćurčıć, A. Bočarov Stančıć, J. Kojıć, L. Pezo, L. Peıć Tukuljac and M. Bodroža Solarov
During previous years, regarding the shifts in climate conditions in temperate region, such as occurrence of high temperatures and prolonged drought, increased occurrence frequencies of Aspergillus flavus and aﬂatoxins in cereal grains were recorded. A reliable and accurate identiﬁcation of the fungi is of great importance for evaluating the microbiological risks of contamination. The essential point of the present investigation was molecular characterisation and identiﬁcation of A. flavus isolates originating from common wheat and spelt grains collected after harvest during the period of three years (2015–2017) in Northern Serbia. A holistic approach that included PCR ampliﬁcation of two DNA genomic regions and PCR-RFLP assay followed by fragment length analysis, provided complete and comprehensive characterisation of A. flavus isolated from wheat grains. The presented results indicate that there was no diﬀerence among the tested Aspergillus isolates on the molecular–genetic level. All 38 strains were identiﬁed as A. flavus by sequencing of combined ITS region and β-tubulin gene fragments (acc. no.: MH582473 to MH582510). PCR-RFLP method in combination with a Lab-on-a-chip (LoaC) electrophoresis can be successfully used to rapidly identify A. flavus isolates.
Recent developments of nanotechnology ﬁnd its way into various ﬁelds of food production in our days. Nanotechnology could oﬀer beneﬁts in development of food products with enhanced functionality for health promotion, or modiﬁed texture convenient for elderly, and in quality and safety issues in the food supply chain. Nanoencapsulated bioactive components such as vitamins, antibacterial agents contribute to production of enriched food stuﬀs with the required appearance, ﬂavour, taste, and texture. Nanomaterials can protect the sensitive compounds from environmental attack, release them in a programmed way, and provide favourable improvement in the bioavailability of nutraceuticals. The innovative approach in food packaging, including the detection, indication, and control of food products, serves the quality and safety improvements.