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Abstract

Similar to much of the mental health field, psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy has failed to center the needs of people of color. Monnica Williams and colleagues demonstrate the harm faced by Black women and other people of color when working with psychedelic-assisted psychotherapists that are unaware of and ill-equipped to address sensitive topics related to race. Here I discuss the benefits and limitations of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy training for therapists that have not engaged in deep and reflective processes to understand their personal engagement in racism, privilege, and oppression. I call on leaders in the field of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy to adhere to a new standard of intersectional cultural humility for anyone preparing to provide these services. Finally, I highlight the need to significantly increase the number of therapists of color trained to offer psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy to begin to address racial disparities to access to these radical treatments for trauma.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The clinical significance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is spreading worldwide, but its underlying neural mechanism still remains unclear. Moreover, the prevalence of IGD seems to be the highest in adolescents whose brains are in development. This study investigated the functional connectivity between large-scale intrinsic networks including default mode network, executive control network, and salience network. We hypothesized that adolescents with IGD would demonstrate different functional connectivity patterns among large-scale intrinsic networks, implying neurodevelopmental alterations, which might be associated with executive dysfunction.

Methods

This study included 17 male adolescents with Internet gaming disorder, and 18 age-matched male adolescents as healthy controls. Functional connectivity was examined using seed-to-voxel analysis and seed-to-seed analysis, with the nodes of large-scale intrinsic networks used as region of interests. Group independent component analysis was performed to investigate spatially independent network.

Results

We identified aberrant functional connectivity of salience network and default mode network with the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in adolescents with IGD. Furthermore, functional connectivity between salience network and pSTS correlated with proneness to Internet addiction and self-reported cognitive problems. Independent component analysis revealed that pSTS was involved in social brain network.

Discussion and conclusions

The results imply that aberrant functional connectivity of social brain network with default mode network and salience network was identified in IGD that may be associated with executive dysfunction. Our results suggest that inordinate social stimuli during excessive online gaming leads to altered connections among large-scale networks during neurodevelopment of adolescents.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Buying-shopping disorder and its transferability to the online sector is controversial. This study investigates in-store and online shopping patterns by comparing data-based modeling to a diagnostic cut-off approach. Further aims were to test model equivalence for gender and identify socio-demographic risk factors.

Methods

In a representative survey, the Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale (BSAS) was applied, using both an online and in-store version. Latent class analyses were followed by multinomial logistic regression analyses to investigate socio-demographic variables. Measurement invariance across genders was tested with multi-group comparisons.

Results

With N = 1,012, 3-class solutions provided the best model fit for both in-store and online shopping. Most individuals (76, 86%) were grouped in non-addicted classes, followed by risky (21, 11%) and addicted classes (both 3%). Twenty-eight percent of individuals in the online addicted shopping class remained unidentified using the cut-off. For online shopping, only lower age and education differentiated classes significantly.

Discussion

Results indicate a close link between online and in-store shopping, albeit with distinguishing features. The cut-off yielded findings discrepant from class probabilities. That buying-shopping disorder mainly affects younger women of lower educational level must be questioned, given the limited associations identified.

Conclusions

It is important not only to consider different settings of pathological shopping, but also to focus on groups that may not have appeared at risk in previous investigations (e.g., men, older age). The BSAS cut-off warrants further research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Mobile phone addiction (MPA) is frequently reported to be correlated with anxiety, depression, stress, impulsivity, and sleep quality among college students. However, to date, there is no consensus on the extent to which those factors are correlated with MPA among college students. We thus performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively synthesize the previous findings.

Methods

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and Chinese Biological Medicine (CBM) databases from inception to August 1, 2020. Pooled Pearson's correlation coefficients between MPA and anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and sleep quality were calculated by R software using random effects model.

Results

Forty studies involving a total of 33, 650 college students were identified. Weak-to-moderate positive correlations were found between MPA and anxiety, depression, impulsivity and sleep quality (anxiety: summary r = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.34–0.45, P < 0.001, I 2 = 84.9%; depression: summary r = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.32–0.40, P < 0.001, I 2 = 84.2%; impulsivity: summary r = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.28–0.47, P < 0.001, I 2 = 94.7%; sleep quality: summary r = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.22–0.33, P < 0.001, I 2 = 85.6%). The pooled correlations revealed some discrepancies when stratified by some moderators. The robustness of our findings was further confirmed by sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions

The current meta-analysis provided solid evidence that MPA was positively correlated with anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and sleep quality. This indicated that college students with MPA were more likely to develop high levels of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity and suffer from poor sleep quality. More studies, especially large prospective studies, are warranted to verify our findings.

Open access

Abstract

Psychedelic medicine is an emerging field of research and practice that examines the psychotherapeutic effects of substances classified as hallucinogens on the human mind, body, and spirit. Current research explores the safety and efficacy of these substances for mental health disorders including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although current studies explore psychotherapeutic effects from a biomedical perspective, gaps in awareness around cultural issues in the therapeutic process are prominent. African Americans have been absent from psychedelic research as both participants and researchers, and little attention has been paid to the potential of psychedelics to address traumas caused by racialization. This paper examines cultural themes and clinical applications from the one-time use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as part of an US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical trial and training exercise for three African American female therapists. The primary themes that emerged across the varied experiences centered on strength, safety, connection, and managing oppression/racialization. The participants' experiences were found to be personally meaningful and instructive for how Western models of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy could be more effective and accessible to the Black community. Included is a discussion of the importance of facilitator training to make best use of emerging material when it includes cultural, racial, and spiritual themes. A lack of knowledge and epistemic humility can create barriers to treatment for underserved populations. Implications for future research and practice for marginalized cultural groups are also discussed, including consideration of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) as an adjunct to the psychedelic-therapy approaches currently advanced. As women of color are among the most stigmatized groups of people, it is essential to incorporate their perspectives into the literature to expand conversations about health equity.

Open access
Authors: Monnica T. Williams, Amy Bartlett, Tim Michaels, Jae Sevelius and Jamilah R. George

Abstract

Equity and diversity are essential to the development of inclusive psychedelic research. However, oversights and misattributions are common, particularly when it comes to accounts of important psychedelic moments and key figures. Dr. Valentina Pavlovna Wasson is an important early contributor to the growth of Western psychedelic science but remains under-recognized. Psychedelic researchers must continue to address the glaring need to ask questions and examine the foundations of what we think we know about psychedelic studies—to question our assumptions with a critical and intersectional eye to resist replicating social and cultural inequalities in psychedelic research and history.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Impaired behavioral inhibitory control (BIC) is known to play a crucial role in addictive behavior. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for cybersex addiction. This study aimed to investigate the time course of BIC in male individuals with tendencies towards cybersex addiction (TCA) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and to provide neurophysiological evidence of their deficient BIC.

Methods

Thirty-six individuals with TCA and 36 healthy controls (HCs) were given a Two-Choice Oddball task that required them to respond differently to frequent standard stimuli (images of people) and infrequent deviant stimuli (pornographic images) within 1,000 ms. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded as the participants performed the task.

Results

Despite the similarity of standard stimuli between the groups in terms of reaction times (RTs), the RTs of the TCA group to deviant stimuli were much slower than those of the HC group. The behavioral difference was accompanied by group differences in the averaged amplitudes of N2 (200–300 ms) and P3 (300–500 ms) components in the deviant-standard difference wave. More specifically, compared to the HC group, the TCA group demonstrated smaller N2 and P3 amplitude differences for deviant than standard stimuli.

Discussion and conclusions

Individuals with TCA were more impulsive than HC participants and shared neuropsychological and ERP characteristics of substance use disorder or behavioral addictions, which supports the view that cybersex addiction can be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

To date, a number of studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of addictive food consumption. However, these studies have mostly relied on models that comprised a narrow range of variables in often small and heterogenous samples. The purpose of the present study was to comprehensively examine the measurement aspects, the prevalence, and the psychological correlates of addictive eating among a largescale national sample of Turkish adults.

Method

Participants (N = 24,380, 50% men, M age = 31.79 years, age range = 18–81 years) completed a battery of tests including the Food Addiction Risk Questionnaire (FARQ), the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised.

Results

According to analyses conducted, the FARQ had a uni-dimensional factor structure. Based on Item Response Theory (IRT) calculated cut-off scores, 2.3% of the participants were at risk of addictive eating patterns, whilst criteria varied in their discriminating ability. The correlates of addictive food consumption were being male, being younger, having lower education, presenting with higher alcohol use, psychiatric symptoms, alexithymia, positive/negative affect, and anxious attachment.

Conclusion

These results suggest that a minority of Turkish community are at risk for addictive food consumption and that adverse psychological states promote this problematic behavior.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a mental illness. Cognitive and emotional illness representations affect coping and health outcomes. Very little is known about such perceptions related to IGD, in both general and diseased populations. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for IGD in a general population that included mostly non-cases while a small proportion of the sample was IGD cases.

Methods

An anonymous cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in a random sample of 1,501 Chinese community-dwelling adults (41.3% male; mean age = 40.42, SD = 16.85) in Macao, China.

Results

The confirmatory factor analysis identified a modified 6-factor model (i.e., timeline cyclical, consequences, personal control, treatment control, illness coherence, and emotional representations) of 26 items that showed satisfactory model fit and internal consistency. Criterion-related validity was supported by the constructs' significant correlations with stigma (positive correlations: timeline cyclical, consequence, emotional representations; negative correlations: illness coherence). Ever-gamers, compared to never-gamers, reported higher mean scores in the subscales of personal control and illness coherence, and lower mean scores in time cyclical, consequence, and emotional representations. Among the sampled gamers, probable IGD cases were more likely than non-IGD cases to perceive IGD as cyclical and involved more negative emotions.

Conclusions

This study shows that the revised 26-item version of IPQ-R is a valid instrument for assessing illness representation regarding IGD in a general population of Chinese adults. It can be used in future research that examines factors of incidence and prevention related to IGD.

Open access
Authors: Philip W.S. Newall, Lukasz Walasek, Rebecca Vázquez Kiesel, Elliot A. Ludvig and Caroline Meyer

Abstract

Background and aims

Request-a-bet services are a modern gambling product delivered via the social network Twitter, which allow sports bettors to design custom bets. The public nature of Twitter data provided a unique opportunity to investigate patterns of bettor preference and the bookmaker profit margin in soccer, the UK’s favorite sport.

Methods

Two multi-method studies. Twitter users’ engagement with request-a-bet services was monitored unobtrusively (n = 1,406), meaning that potential patterns across users’ requests could be observed, and the bookmaker profit margin could be estimated. Twitter users were also surveyed directly (n = 55), providing self-report measures of request-a-bet usage.

Results

Twitter users requested bets with an average potential payoff of £56.5 per £1 risked (median = £9). Overall, 9.7% of requested bets paid-off, but these were mostly bets at short odds. This meant that requests yielded a high bookmaker profit margin of 43.7% (roughly eight times higher than current margins in conventional soccer bets), which increased to 74.6% for bets at longer odds. Requested bets also tended to involve star players from the best teams. Finally, 92.7% of surveyed Twitter users reported placing at least one bet via request-a-bet services (mean = 44.4 bets).

Discussion and conclusions

Researchers can use request-a-bet products to increase their understanding of sports betting behavior. Sports bettors should be given information about how much higher the bookmaker profit margin can be in modern sports bets compared to the conventional sports bets that they may be more familiar with.

Open access