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Abstract

This study presents the optimization and validation of methods for the analysis of retinol, thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, zinc, and iron in fortified kernels (coated and extruded) and in fortified rice. The analyses were performed by HPLC-UV/FLD/MS and ICP-OES. The optimized methods showed good resolution of the analyte peaks, excellent recovery (87–108%), reproducibility with relative standard deviation (SD) of analyte content between 1.8 and 11% and high correlation coefficient of the calibration curves (R2 > 0.997). Limit of detection was from 2.8 E-4 mg/kg for pyridoxine to 1.26 mg/kg for zinc and limit of quantification was from 9.2 E-4 mg/kg for pyridoxine to 4.21 mg/kg for zinc. Thereby the optimized methods demonstrated reliability and sensitivity in the detection and quantification of these micronutrients and that they are suitable for routine analysis of fortified kernels (coated and extruded) and fortified rice.

Open access

Abstract

This study describes the development and validation of a simple, specific, accurate, and precise method for quantitative determination of Esomeprazole in human serum using Pantoprazole as internal standard (IS). After the addition of internal standard, Esomeprazole from serum samples was extracted simply by protein precipitation method followed by centrifugation and the supernatants were directly injected into the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatographic separation of the compounds was obtained on Hitachi Lachrom C8 column (5 µm, 250 × 4.6 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of 5 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH 7.4 and acetonitrile in a ratio of 70:30 with UV detection at 302 nm with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The method was sensitive and specific, and validated over a concentration range of 0.06–6.0 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 µg/mL and 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. The precision and accuracy expressed as relative standard deviation were less than 15%. The average recovery of Esomeprazole from serum was 97.08%.

Open access

Abstract

Shape analysis has special importance in the detection of manipulated redistricting, which is called gerrymandering. In most of the US states, this process is made by non-independent actors and often causes debates about partisan manipulation. The somewhat ambiguous concept of compactness is a standard criterion for legislative districts. In the literature, circularity is widely used as a measure of compactness, since it is a natural requirement for a district to be as circular as possible. In this paper, we introduce a novel and parameter-free circularity measure that is based on Hu moment invariants. This new measure provides a powerful tool to detect districts with abnormal shapes. We examined some districts of Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, and Utah over several consecutive periods and redistricting plans, and also compared the results with classical circularity indexes. We found that the fall of the average circularity value of the new measure indicates potential gerrymandering.

Open access

Abstract

A rapid and sensitive High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for determining apremilast in beagle dog plasma and urine samples was developed and validated using clopidogrel as the internal standard (IS). Apremilast was extracted from the plasma and urine samples by liquid–liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed using a C8 column with gradient elution and a mobile phase containing methanol and 0.1% formic acid. Quantification was achieved in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with a transition of m/z 461.3→178.2 for apremilast and m/z 322.2→184.1 for clopidogrel (IS). This method was validated regarding its specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for this method was 5 ng/mL, and the calibration curve was linear over 5–1,000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-run coefficients of variance (CV) of aprelimast in plasma samples were less than 12.92% and 10.64%, respectively, while in urine samples, the CV were less than 11.84% and 10.20%, respectively. The samples were stable under the tested conditions. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs following oral administration of 10 mg of apremilast.

Open access

A number of megatrends are hitting the world of work at the same time. These include the digital revolution, globalisation and rapid population ageing, which are all having a profound impact on the types of jobs that are being created and how and where they are performed. This paper examines the challenges confronting the Visegrad Group of countries and the broad policy responses that will be required. It looks at the risk of job automation, how the structure of employment is changing by skill level and the rise of the gig economy. These changes will require a combination of policy responses in the areas of employment regulation, measures to facilitate labour mobility and lifelong learning, social protection and social dialogue. In many cases, this will not require a complete paradigm shift in policies but an adaptation and strengthening of existing polices.

Open access

Abstract

Calycanthine is an important class of alkaloids extracted and isolated from the roots, leaves, flowers and fruits of Chimonanthus praecox. In this work, the UPLC-MS/MS method was used for determination of calycanthine in rat plasma, and the pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated. Midazolam was used as an internal standard (IS), and methanol precipitation method was used to pretreatment the rat plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column with the mobile phase of methanol- 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution with gradient elution. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization was applied for quantitative analysis, m/z 347.3 → 246.7 and 326.2 → 291.4 for calycanthine and IS, respectively. The results indicated that within the range of 1–200 ng/mL, linearity of calycanthine in rat plasma was good (r > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/mL. Accuracy range was between 90.6 and 109.4%, precision (RSD) of calycanthine was less than 14%. The matrix effect was between 97.9% and 105.4%, the recovery was better than 85.6%. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of calycanthine in rats after oral and intravenous administration. The absolute bioavailability of the calycanthine was 37.5% in rats.

Open access

Abstract

Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka group and control group (n = 6). The rats in Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka group were given Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka juices (1 mL/100 g) by oral administration each day, continued for 14 days; the rats in control group were given Stroke-physiological saline solution (1 mL/100 g) by oral administration each day, continued for 14 days. The rats of these two groups were given a single oral administration of erlotinib (20 mg/kg) on the 15th day. After blood sampling at different time points and processing, the concentrations of erlotinib in rat plasma were determined by the established ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with erlotinib-d6 as an internal standard (IS). The initial mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) with gradient elution. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes were utilized to conduct quantitative analysis. The sensitive, rapid and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to analyse the effect of Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka on pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in rat plasma. There were no significant differences in AUC(0−t), t 1/2, T max, CL, C max between the two groups (P > 0.05). While MRT(0−t) was decreased (P < 0.05) in Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka group, compared to the control group. It showed that Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka could not affect the metabolism of erlotinib.

Open access