Recent developments of nanotechnology ﬁnd its way into various ﬁelds of food production in our days. Nanotechnology could oﬀer beneﬁts in development of food products with enhanced functionality for health promotion, or modiﬁed texture convenient for elderly, and in quality and safety issues in the food supply chain. Nanoencapsulated bioactive components such as vitamins, antibacterial agents contribute to production of enriched food stuﬀs with the required appearance, ﬂavour, taste, and texture. Nanomaterials can protect the sensitive compounds from environmental attack, release them in a programmed way, and provide favourable improvement in the bioavailability of nutraceuticals. The innovative approach in food packaging, including the detection, indication, and control of food products, serves the quality and safety improvements.
Authors:M. Aloudat, A. Papp, N. Magyar, L. Simon Sarkadi and A. Lugasi
The purpose of this study was to compare the energy content and macronutrients of forty main popular traditional and modern meals in both Jordan and Hungary with the national and international recommendations. The calculation of energy content and macronutrients were done on traditional and modern recipes by two diﬀerent softwares (ESHA and NutriComp). Neither Jordanian nor Hungarian foods met the recommended energy content (35% of daily energy intake, 8400 kJ for energy intake). The recipes of both nations are characterised by higher protein, fat, and salt contents than WHO recommendation, a lower ﬁbre content, and sugar content within the recommended limits. The fat energy ratio and saturated fatty acid content of Hungarian recipes are signiﬁcantly higher than WHO recommendation. In general, Jordanian meals were more likely to meet the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, neither Jordanian nor Hungarian traditional and popular meals meet the international nutritional recommendations for a healthy diet, however, the composition of the real dishes may diﬀer signiﬁcantly from the recipes depending on the available ingredients and chosen kitchen technology.
Sudan is suffering from harsh summers, but most of the modern buildings in urban areas are not compatible with the recent and future climate phenomena. Application of cooling devices is relatively expensive and therefore beyond reach. The main objective of this research is to give an overview on the overheating problem and the thermal comfort in buildings. A dynamic energy simulation has been performed for a selected case study using Design Builder Code. The results show that the share of discomfort hours for a typical modern building is 78% and 33% above 26 °C and 32 °C per year, respectively, but after using a combination of different ventilation, shading and building materials options the discomfort hours can be reduced to 77% and 26%, respectively.
Authors:Zubair Rashid Wani and Manzoor Ahmad Tantray
The present research work is a part of a project was a semi-active structural control technique using magneto-rheological damper has to be performed. Magneto-rheological dampers are an innovative class of semi-active devices that mesh well with the demands and constraints of seismic applications; this includes having very low power requirements and adaptability. A small stroke magneto-rheological damper was mathematically simulated and experimentally tested. The damper was subjected to periodic excitations of different amplitudes and frequencies at varying voltage. The damper was mathematically modeled using parametric Modified Bouc-Wen model of magneto-rheological damper in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the parameters of the model were set as per the prototype available. The variation of mechanical properties of magneto-rheological damper like damping coefficient and damping force with a change in amplitude, frequency and voltage were experimentally verified on INSTRON 8800 testing machine. It was observed that damping force produced by the damper depended on the frequency as well, in addition to the input voltage and amplitude of the excitation. While the damping coefficient (c) is independent of the frequency of excitation it varies with the amplitude of excitation and input voltage. The variation of the damping coefficient with amplitude and input voltage is linear and quadratic respectively. More ever the mathematical model simulated in MATLAB was in agreement with the experimental results obtained.
Authors:Gabriel Földes, Silvia Kohnová, Marija Mihaela Labat and Kamila Hlavčová
The paper focuses on the impact of climate change on runoff in the Ipoltica River basin in northern Slovakia. The analysis is divided into two parts: the first part contains an analysis of predicted changes in short-term rainfall intensities at the Liptovská Teplička climatological station; the second part is focused on the impact of runoff on a small mountainous river basin. The predicted short-term rainfall intensities were analyzed using the Community Land Model, which is a Regional Climate Model. The analysis was performed in durations of 60 to 1440 minutes for a warm period. The focus was aimed at comparing changes in rainfall characteristics, especially changes in seasonality, the scaling exponents, and design values. The second part focuses on the impact of changes in short-term rainfall on changes in runoff. The estimation of predicted runoff changes was provided for the period 2070 - 2100. These results were compared with the results from actual observations. The design floods were calculated using the Soil Conservation Service - Curve Number method. The results show that the runoff will be affected by climate change. Hence, it is important to reevaluate the land use management and practices at the Ipoltica River basin.
Authors:Réka Csicsaiová, Ivana Marko, Jaroslav Hrudka, Ivona Škultétyová and Štefan Stanko
The aim of the study is to assess the hydraulic capacity of the sewer network and sewer collector recovery in the urban catchment area of Trnava.
The analysis focuses on the evaluation of situations with different precipitation frequencies. Elaboration consists of modeling the current state of the assessed sewer collector B and subsequent loading of this collector by several block rainfalls. Based on the results of the analysis, the recovery of the sewer network proposed.
Authors:Xue Kang, Gabriella Medvegy and Yufang Zhou
China has experienced rapid urbanization, and the countryside has been abandoned over the past few decades, with some of it left in ruins. Faced with the many challenges brought by urbanization, people are tired of traffic jams and polluted air, which is the disadvantages of urbanization and the countryside, is beginning to be re-recognized and explored with new possibilities. The countryside has become the front line of contemporary Chinese architectural practice. Architects, artists and other different roles try to realize the rebirth of the countryside in many aspects, such as nature and humanity, production and community, through architecture and space.
Authors:Yongting Shi, Anna Mária Tamás and Gergely Sztranyák
Based on the consensus that the rural cultural landscape with regional characteristics is conducive to promoting the sustainable development of rural areas, this study explores how to use multiple means to restore the countryside with insufficient or severely damaged landscape resources and rebuild the contemporary rural landscape with regional characteristics. Combining the design of practical cases, the article proposes the use of low-tech, low-interference vernacular technology, and the integration of artistic intervention methods can more effectively restore landscape characteristics and stimulate rural development vitality.
Authors:B. Baráti-Deák, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas and Á. Belák
Bacterial strains with inhibitory eﬀect on Salmonella Hartford, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Escherichia coli, respectively, were isolated. Out of the 64 bacteria originated from food processing environments, 20 could inhibit at least one of the tested pathogens, and it was proved that growth decline of the pathogenic bacteria was more remarkable by co-culturing than by using cell-free supernatants of the isolates. Seven diﬀerent genera (Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Macrococcus, Staphylococcus, Serratia, and Rothia) reduced the pathogens’ growth during the time period of analysis, and the strongest inhibitory eﬀect was observed after 24 h between 15 and 30 °C. Sensitivity of the tested human pathogenic bacteria against the inhibitory strains was distinct, as Y. enterocolitica could be inhibited by numerous isolates, while S. Hartford proved to be the most resistant. Our results reveal that the isolated bacteria or their excreted metabolites could hinder pathogen growth when used in suﬃcient quantities.
Authors:K. Banwo, O. Osagbemi, O. Ajao and A. Sanni
Sourdough is specialty bread made from a combination of ﬂour, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. Composite ﬂour of cassava, sweet potato, and soybean was used for the production of sourdough bread employing autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from the composite dough. The ﬂour samples were assessed for functional properties, while the sourdough breads were evaluated for nutritional composition and organoleptic properties. The ﬂour samples possessed good proximate proﬁles and phenolic contents. The lactic acid bacterium and yeast with the most desirable properties were identiﬁed as Lactobacillus plantarum and Pichia kurdriazevii. Fermentation improved the nutritional indices of the composite sourdough bread samples. Lactobacillus plantarum SLC21 and P. kudriavzevii SYD17 bread had a shelf life of 7 days, while the control bread lasted for at least 4 days. Lactobacillus plantarum SLC21 and Pichia kudriavzevii SYD17 bread had the best overall acceptability. Utilisation of these local crops in a composite blend for sourdough will increase commercial proﬁt for local farmers and developing economy. The composite blend will be of great importance in the preparation of pastries that do not require high gluten content. The strains exhibited great potentials for a better nutritional composition of the composite sourdough bread.