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Abstract

The sol gel method was used in preparing a series of A site partially substituted La1−xBaxCoO3 (x ≥ 0.1 ≤ 0.4) perovskite catalysts coded LBC1, 2, 3, and 4 and their potential as catalysts for soot oxidation were evaluated. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES), Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTG), X-ray analysis (XRD) were used in characterizing the prepared perovskite catalyst. The result shows that at (x≥ 0.2 ≤ 0.4), there was an increase in surface area when we compare it with that of x = 0. The increase in surface area helps in increasing the catalytic performance of the catalyst. Also, when evaluating the catalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts, it was observed that doping the perovskite catalysts helped in the general improvement of the catalytic performance for soot oxidation. The best performance in this research study with a T50 of 484 °C was observed at x = 0.2 catalyst (LBC2). This shows that the non-noble perovskite catalysts prepared in this research study has the potential to replace the noble metal based catalysts used presently in the diesel automotive industry.

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Abstract

The sol gel method was used in preparing a series of A site partially substituted La1−xBaxCoO3 (x ≥ 0.1 ≤ 0.4) perovskite catalysts coded LBC1, 2, 3, and 4 and their potential as catalysts for soot oxidation were evaluated. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES), Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTG), X-ray analysis (XRD) were used in characterizing the prepared perovskite catalyst. The result shows that at (x≥ 0.2 ≤ 0.4), there was an increase in surface area when we compare it with that of x = 0. The increase in surface area helps in increasing the catalytic performance of the catalyst. Also, when evaluating the catalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts, it was observed that doping the perovskite catalysts helped in the general improvement of the catalytic performance for soot oxidation. The best performance in this research study with a T50 of 484 °C was observed at x = 0.2 catalyst (LBC2). This shows that the non-noble perovskite catalysts prepared in this research study has the potential to replace the noble metal based catalysts used presently in the diesel automotive industry.

Open access

Abstract

When it comes to teaching vocabulary in foreign language classes words are often taught in isolation, without regard to the context in which they appear. The paper draws attention to the importance of teaching words in context so that the meaning of a word often results from the meaning of a larger construction it is part of. After presenting the morpho-syntactic and semantic characteristics of collocations, and the difficulties language learners face in acquiring them, the paper presents a few ideas on how to teach collocations, giving examples of activities and exercises that can facilitate the learning process. The focus has been laid on activities that can complement the lessons in class, can be applicable at different levels and also require relatively little preparation from the part of the teacher. In addition, an important aspect has been to choose activities that language learning have fun doing (that include creativity, problem solving, humor, real life examples, own experiences, etc.) and that integrate the necessary language learning skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing). Without the intention of being exhaustive, the paper concentrates on those activities and tasks that present collocations in their entirety, as constructions, assuming that these are the most useful for students. While the ideas presented are generally applicable in foreign language classes, the present paper has been written with native Hungarian speakers in mind.

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli from a dog population in Spain and assess specific virulence factors. Susceptibility to 22 antimicrobials was tested along with the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC in faecal isolates from 100 dogs. Virulence-related genes associated with attaching and effacing E. coli (eae, Stx1, Stx2) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli – ExPEC – (papC, hlyA and cnf1) were detected by PCR. At least one kind of AMR was observed in 73% of the isolates. The highest prevalences corresponded to penicillin (45%), aminoglycoside (40%) and non-extended spectrum cephalosporin (39%) classes. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 53.4% of the resistant isolates. No resistance to colistin was found. Production of ESBL/AmpC enzymes was detected in 5% of E. coli. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli were not observed, enteropathogenic E. coli were identified in only 12% of them, and ExPEC were found in 25%. Dog faeces can be a source of E. coli strains potentially presenting a threat to humans through their virulence factors or AMR. The non-hygienic keeping of animals may increase the risk of colonisation of such pathogens in humans.

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Abstract

This paper reports the detection of the myxozoan species Myxobolus elegans Kashkovsky 1966 in common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus) that has not been previously listed as its host. The problem of differentiation of phenotypically similar Myxobolus species is addressed. During parasitological survey of common dace from the desalinated part of the Gulf of Finland at the city of Sestroretsk, Russia, numerous oval-shaped plasmodia, 0.2–0.4 mm in size, filled with Myxobolus spores were found on the gills. Pear-shaped myxospores were 15.4 (14.8–16.0) × 10.2 (9.6–10.9) µm in size with a rib on each valve. On the basis of spore morphology, the species appeared to be similar to M. elegans and Myxobolus hungaricus Jaczó, 1940. In order to identify the species, molecular genetic analysis was performed, and the species was identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA data. The results obtained indicate that the Myxobolus species observed on the gills of dace is M. elegans. Thus, common dace is another valid host of M. elegans besides the type host, ide (Leuciscus idus).

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Abstract

This paper reports the detection of the myxozoan species Myxobolus elegans Kashkovsky 1966 in common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus) that has not been previously listed as its host. The problem of differentiation of phenotypically similar Myxobolus species is addressed. During parasitological survey of common dace from the desalinated part of the Gulf of Finland at the city of Sestroretsk, Russia, numerous oval-shaped plasmodia, 0.2–0.4 mm in size, filled with Myxobolus spores were found on the gills. Pear-shaped myxospores were 15.4 (14.8–16.0) × 10.2 (9.6–10.9) µm in size with a rib on each valve. On the basis of spore morphology, the species appeared to be similar to M. elegans and Myxobolus hungaricus Jaczó, 1940. In order to identify the species, molecular genetic analysis was performed, and the species was identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA data. The results obtained indicate that the Myxobolus species observed on the gills of dace is M. elegans. Thus, common dace is another valid host of M. elegans besides the type host, ide (Leuciscus idus).

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the incidence, resistance, virulence, and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus spp. residing in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs and cats, as a group of animals causing potential contamination of the urban space. A high percentage of strains resistant to penicillin (58%), oxacillin (9%) and tetracycline (60%) were found. All isolates resistant to penicillin, kanamycin, or chloramphenicol carried genes responsible for individual resistance (blaZ, aph(3′)-IIIa, and cat (pC194)/cat (pC223), respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 45% of the oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains. The amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites analysis demonstrated high heterogeneity of genotypic profiles correlating with phenotypic resistance profiles. Multilocus sequence typing analysis classified the methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius strains as ST71, ST890, and the totally new ST1047. The presence of a high level of resistance among Staphylococcus strains may suggest a potential risk of transfer of these bacteria between companion animals and humans.

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Abstract

Two adult barbels (Barbus barbus) with visible skin tumours were subjected to histopathological and molecular examinations. The fish were caught in the River Danube near Budapest. Papillomas were found around their oral cavity, at the operculum and at the pectoral fins, while epidermal hyperplasias were seen on the body surface. Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV-1) was detected in the kidney of the specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and barbel circovirus 1 (BaCV1) was found in all internal organs and in the tissues of the tumours. The whole genome of BaCV1 and three conserved genes from the genome of CyHV-1 were sequenced. Previously, BaCV1 had been reported only once from a mass mortality event among barbel fry. The whole genome sequence of our circovirus shared 99.9% nucleotide identity with that of the formerly reported BaCV1. CyHV-1 is known to infect common carp and coloured carp (Cyprinus carpio), and has been assumed to infect other cyprinid fish species as well. We found the nucleotide sequences of the genes of CyHV-1 to be identical in 98.7% to those of the previous isolates from carp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular confirmation of the presence of CyHV-1 DNA in cyprinid fish species other than carp.

Open access

Abstract

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the skin in cats. Tumour angiogenesis is the pivotal event for tumour progression and metastasis. We assessed protein and gene expression of angiogenic growth factors including bFGF, VEGF-C, TGF-β, PDGF-A, PDGF-C and PDGFR-α that possibly contribute to the angiogenic phenotype of feline SCC (FSCC) and could, therefore, be a good target in the treatment of SCC. In the present study, a total of 27 FSCC cases were investigated. Tumour cases were histopathologically classified as well differentiated (10/27), moderately differentiated (5/27), and poorly differentiated (12/27). The expression levels of the growth factors were detected using immunohistochemistry and assessed semi-quantitatively. Growth factor expression levels were evaluated at different locations: in the oral region, in areas exposed to solar UV radiation including the ears, eyelids and nasal planum, and other miscellaneous locations. Our findings have revealed that FSCC arising from different anatomical sites of the body and showing differences in aggressiveness, metastasis, and prognosis may be angiogenesis dependent, and angiogenic key regulators could play a role in the development of FSCC.

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Abstract

Recently, the occurrence of Ixodes (Pholeoixodes) kaiseri has been reported for the first time in several European countries, but data on the molecular analysis of this hard tick species are still lacking. Therefore, in this study DNA extracts of 28 I. kaiseri (collected from dogs and red foxes in Germany, Hungary and Romania) were screened with reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB), PCR and sequencing for the presence of 43 tick-borne pathogens or other members of their families from the categories of Anaplasmataceae, piroplasms, rickettsiae and borreliae. Rickettsia helvetica DNA was detected in one I. kaiseri female (from a red fox, Romania), for the first time in this tick species. Six ticks (from red foxes, Romania) contained the DNA of Babesia vulpes, also for the first time in the case of I. kaiseri. Molecular evidence of R. helvetica and B. vulpes in engorged I. kaiseri does not prove that this tick species is a vector of the above two pathogens, because they might have been taken up by the ticks from the blood of foxes. In addition, one I. kaiseri female (from a dog, Hungary) harboured Babesia sp. badger type-B, identified for the first time in Hungary and Central Europe (i.e. it has been reported previously from Western Europe and China). The latter finding can be explained by either the susceptibility of dogs to Babesia sp. badger type-B, or by transstadial survival of this piroplasm in I. kaiseri.

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