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Authors: Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Valero-Solís, Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Isabel Baenas, S. Fabrizio Contaldo, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Neus Aymamí, Laura Moragas, Cristina Vintró, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Eduardo Valenciano-Mendoza, Bernat Mora-Maltas, José M. Menchón and Susana Jiménez-Murcia

Abstract

Background and aims

Due to the contribution of age to the etiology of gambling disorder (GD), there is a need to assess the moderator effect of the aging process with other features that are highly related with the clinical profile. The objective of this study is to examine the role of the chronological age into the relationships between cognitive biases, impulsivity levels and gambling preference with the GD profile during adulthood.

Methods

Sample included n = 209 patients aged 18–77 years-old recruited from a Pathological Gambling Outpatients Unit. Orthogonal contrasts explored polynomial patterns in data, and path analysis implemented through structural equation modeling assessed the underlying mechanisms between the study variables.

Results

Compared to middle-age patients, younger and older age groups reported more impairing irrational beliefs (P = 0.005 for interpretative control and P = 0.043 for interpretative bias). A linear trend showed that as people get older sensation seeking (P = 0.006) and inability to stop gambling (P = 0.018) increase. Path analysis showed a direct effect between the cognitive bias and measures of gambling severity (standardized effects [SE] between 0.12 and 0.17) and a direct effect between impulsivity levels and cumulated debts due to gambling (SE = 0.22).

Conclusion

Screening tools and intervention plans should consider the aging process. Specific programs should be developed for younger and older age groups, since these are highly vulnerable to the consequences of gambling activities and impairment levels of impulsivity and cognitive biases.

Open access

Abstract

The main characteristics of intra-EU labour mobility are well documented. There is less focus, however, on the pattern of mobility of the East European (EU-13) EU-mobile citizens. This group constitutes more than half (57%) of all the EU movers and show, to some extent, other features than the rest of the EU mobile citizens (EU-15). The first part of this paper gives a brief overview of some key demographic and labour market characteristics of the East European mobile citizens in the most important destination countries. The perspectives of the sending countries are not analysed frequently enough, and thus the second part of the paper focuses on this issue in the case of Hungary, by asking to what extent the serious labour shortages, ensuing from the outflow of Hungarians, could be compensated by the recent increase of immigration of third country nationals. Using OECD data, the paper quantifies the balance of labour gains and losses for Hungary and compares this with Czechia, Poland, and Slovakia. The analysis concludes that despite the substantial recent inflow of third country nationals into Hungary, it remains to be seen whether this has a real substitution effect for the lost domestic labour force.

Open access

Abstract

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a food-borne pathogen with a high chance of infecting neonates, pregnant women, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Lm infection in neonates can cause neonatal meningitis and sepsis with a high risk of severe neurological and developmental sequelae and high mortality rates. However, whether an acute neonatal Lm infection causes long-term effects on the immune system persisting until adulthood has not been fully elucidated. Here, we established a neonatal Lm infection model and monitored the composition of major immune cell subsets at defined time points post infection (p.i.) in secondary lymphoid organs and the intestine. Twelve weeks p.i., the CD8+ T cell population was decreased in colon and mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) with an opposing increase in the spleen. In the colon, we observed an accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ effector/memory T cells with an increase of T-bet+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells. In addition, 12 weeks p.i. an altered composition of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) and dendritic cell (DC) subsets was still observed in colon and mLNs, respectively. Together, these findings highlight organ-specific long-term consequences of an acute neonatal Lm infection on both the adaptive and innate immune system.

Open access

Abstract

The problem of not having a language exam by the end of the university years affects thousands of students in Hungary. The literature reveals that this area is less researched, but there are a number of factors that I found important to examine. I did my research in the East Hungarian region. The reason for this is that many studies in this area have a higher rate of unsuccessful language learners than the rest of the country. I used online survey method in the form of a questionnaire, which consisted mostly of closed questions (alternative, selective and scale). My questions were focused on topics such as socioeconomic status, school life, language biography, cultural capital, language-specific social capital, language-learning type, affective characteristics, language pedagogy, drop-out and language learning attitudes. In this present study I highlight the effect of social and cultural effect on the success of language learning. During the query I used snowball method and address list query. As finding the target people proved to be very difficult, the number of elements is not significant (N = 202).

Open access

Abstract

Visiting classical concerts as part of school activities has a long tradition in Germany but has always been controversial. The multi-case study Schools@Concerts aims in mapping different approaches of connecting school music education with classical concert visits in seven European countries. As part of this project, this article gives early insights into the Frankfurt case. Different perspectives on concert visits include students, teachers and concert hosts. After a short overview about the German discussion, the article gives a brief insight into the state curricula concerning concert visits and the school curriculum of the participating school. All participants have positive attitudes towards concert visits but also highlight the organizational effort of it. Both, teacher and host emphasize missing resources for preparing concerts. Although classical concerts do not meet the musical taste of the children, most of them show positive attitudes to concert visits. Therefore the study wants to encourage responsible stake holders to support concert visits, both in schools and orchestras.

Open access
Authors: Ágnes Nótin and Anna Ware

Abstract

At the end of the first semester of the 2017/18 academic year, we conducted research in the form of focus groups on the attitudes of disadvantaged primary school students toward language learning and school. The students were asked about their thoughts relating to school, their self-perceived academic efficiency and their experiences related to English classes. The results show that the children (N = 17) generally have a positive attitude towards school work and English classes. In the English classes, ICT-supported learning (e.g. the use of tablets and smartboards) is present, which the students explicitly prefer compared to more traditional approaches. School attachment and attachment to the teacher in question also play an important role as the foundations of motivation in this work process.

Open access
Authors: Ágnes Nótin and Anna Ware

Abstract

At the end of the first semester of the 2017/18 academic year, we conducted research in the form of focus groups on the attitudes of disadvantaged primary school students toward language learning and school. The students were asked about their thoughts relating to school, their self-perceived academic efficiency and their experiences related to English classes. The results show that the children (N = 17) generally have a positive attitude towards school work and English classes. In the English classes, ICT-supported learning (e.g. the use of tablets and smartboards) is present, which the students explicitly prefer compared to more traditional approaches. School attachment and attachment to the teacher in question also play an important role as the foundations of motivation in this work process.

Open access
Authors: Margo Hilbrecht, David Baxter, Max Abbott, Per Binde, Luke Clark, David C. Hodgins, Darrel Manitowabi, Lena Quilty, Jessika SpÅngberg, Rachel Volberg, Douglas Walker and Robert J. Williams

Abstract

Background and aims

The Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to the risks and effects of gambling harmfully at the individual, family, and community levels. Coauthored by international research experts and informed by multiple stakeholders, Gambling Research Exchange (GREO) facilitated the framework development in 2013 and retains responsibility for regular updates and mobilization. This review article presents information about the revised version of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling completed in late 2018.

Methods

We describe eight interrelated factors depicted in the framework that represent major themes in gambling ranging from the specific (gambling environment, exposure, gambling types, and treatment resources) to the general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological influences). After outlining the framework development and collaborative process, we highlight new topics for the recent update that reflect changes in the gambling landscape and prominent discourses in the scientific community. Some of these topics include social and economic impacts of gambling, and a new model of understanding gambling related harm.

Discussion and conclusions

We address the relevance of the CFHG to the gambling and behavioral addictions research community. Harm-based frameworks have been undertaken in other areas of addiction that can both inform and be informed by a model dedicated to harmful gambling. Further, the framework brings a multi-disciplinary perspective to bear on antecedents and factors that co-occur with harmful gambling.

Open access