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Abstract

Background

Although family history of psychiatric disorders has often been considered potentially useful in understanding clinical presentations in patients, it is less clear what a positive family history means for people who gamble in the general community. We sought to understand the clinical and cognitive impact of having a first-degree relative with a substance use disorder (SUD) in a sample of non-treatment seeking young adults.

Methods

576 participants (aged 18–29 years) who gambled at least five times in the preceding year undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluations. Those with a first-degree relative with a SUD were compared to those without on a number of demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. We used Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression to identify which variables (if any) were significantly associated with family history of SUDs, controlling for the influence of other variables on each other.

Results

180 (31.3%) participants had a first-degree family member with a SUD. In terms of clinical variables, family history of SUD was significantly associated with higher rates of substance use (alcohol, nicotine), higher rates of problem gambling, and higher occurrence of mental health disorders. Family history of SUD was also associated with more set-shifting problems (plus higher rates of obsessive-compulsive tendencies), lower quality of decision-making, and more spatial working memory errors.

Conclusions

These results indicate that gamblers with a first-degree family member with a SUD may have a unique clinical and cognition presentation. Understanding these differences may be relevant to developing more individualized treatment approaches for disordered gambling. Compulsivity may be important as a proxy of vulnerability towards addiction.

Open access

Abstract

Introduction

Chronic sinusitis caused by anaerobes is a particular concern clinically, because many of the complications are associated with infections caused by these organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of anaerobic bacteria in chronic sinusitis in adults as a part of a prospective microbiological study.

Materials and methods

Over a one-year period, aspirations of maxillary sinus secretions and/or ethmoid cavities were derived in n = 79 adult patients with chronic sinusitis by endoscopy in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Hungary. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the total cultivable aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal flora cultured on the samples were compared. Correct anaerobic species level identifications were carried out according to standard methods.

Results

Bacteria were recovered for all of the 79 aspirates and the numbers of the significant cultured isolates (with colony forming units ≥103) were between 1 and 10. A total of 206 isolates, 106 anaerobic and 100 aerobic or facultative-anaerobic strains were isolated. The most common aerobic bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 40), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 29), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 6), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7) and Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 6). The anaerobic bacteria included black-pigmented Prevotella spp. and Porphyromonas spp. (n = 27), Actinomyces spp. (n = 13), Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (n = 16), Fusobacterium spp. (n = 19) and Cutibacterium acnes (n = 8).

Conclusions

This study illustrates the microbial dynamics in which anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevail and highlights the importance of obtaining cultures from patients with chronic sinusitis for guidance in selection of proper antimicrobial therapy.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Strategic games, such as poker, require gamblers to develop several skills to perform better than others and to expect a potential gain. Players must remain as unpredictable and unreadable as possible by inhibiting the expression of their emotions in response to both good and bad poker events. The aim of the present study was to compare several aspects of the inhibition process in experienced poker gamblers and controls to better understand how inhibitory control is involved in poker performance.

Methods

Thirty experienced non-pathological poker gamblers (EG) and thirty healthy controls with no or limited poker experience (HC) completed 3 cognitive tasks. Each task measured a specific type of inhibition: motor inhibition [Go/No-Go task], verbal inhibition [Hayling Sentence Completion Task] and expressive inhibition [expressive suppression task, which combines subjective, expressive (facial EMG) and physiological (skin conductance, heart interbeat interval, cardiovascular and respiratory activation) measures of emotional experience]. Linear mixed models with random effects were performed.

Results

Inhibitory control skills were similar between the two groups, regardless of the form of inhibition tested. The only difference observed in EG was a higher ability to partially suppress the physiological expression of emotion. However, this difference was only present for negative and positive emotional induction and was not maintained for emotional induction related to poker situations.

Discussion and conclusions

The development of specific inhibition skills in experienced poker gamblers was not supported and raises questions about the transferability of poker skills previously discussed in the literature.

Open access

Abstract

Fifty four domestically produced cannabis samples obtained from different USA states were quantitatively assayed by GC–FID to detect 22 active components: 15 terpenoids and 7 cannabinoids. The profiles of the selected compounds were used as inputs for samples grouping to their geographical origins and for building a geographical prediction model using Linear Discriminant Analysis. The proposed sample extraction and chromatographic separation was satisfactory to select 22 active ingredients with a wide analytical range between 5.0 and 1,000 µg/mL. Analysis of GC-profiles by Principle Component Analysis retained three significant variables for grouping job (Δ9-THC, CBN, and CBC) and the modest discrimination of samples based on their geographical origin was reported. PCA was able to separate many samples of Oregon and Vermont while a mixed classification was observed for the rest of samples. By using LDA as a supervised classification method, excellent separation of cannabis samples was attained leading to a classification of new samples not being included in the model. Using two principal components and LDA with GC–FID profiles correctly predict the geographical of 100% Washington cannabis, 86% of both Oregon and Vermont samples, and finally, 71% of Ohio samples.

Open access

Abstract

Obligate anaerobic bacteria are considered important constituents of the microbiota of humans; in addition, they are also important etiological agents in some focal or invasive infections and bacteremia with a high level of mortality. Conflicting data have accumulated over the last decades regarding the extent in which these pathogens play an intrinsic role in bloodstream infections. Clinical characteristics of anaerobic bloodstream infections do not differ from bacteremia caused by other pathogens, but due to their longer generation time and rigorous growth requirements, it usually takes longer to establish the etiological diagnosis. The introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has represented a technological revolution in microbiological diagnostics, which has allowed for the fast, accurate and reliable identification of anaerobic bacteria at a low sample cost. The purpose of this review article is to summarize the currently available literature data on the prevalence of anaerobic bacteremia in adults for physicians and clinical microbiologists and to shed some light on the complexity of this topic nowadays.

Open access
Authors: Ernst-Jürgen Finke, Wolfgang Beyer, Ulrike Loderstädt and Hagen Frickmann

Abstract

Anthrax is an infectious disease of relevance for military forces. Although spores of Bacillus anthracis obiquitously occur in soil, reports on soil-borne transmission to humans are scarce. In this narrative review, the potential of soil-borne transmission of anthrax to humans is discussed based on pathogen-specific characteristics and reports on anthrax in the course of several centuries of warfare. In theory, anthrax foci can pose a potential risk of infection to animals and humans if sufficient amounts of virulent spores are present in the soil even after an extended period of time. In praxis, however, transmissions are usually due to contacts with animal products and reported events of soil-based transmissions are scarce. In the history of warfare, even in the trenches of World War I, reported anthrax cases due to soil-contaminated wounds are virtually absent. Both the perspectives and the experience of the Western hemisphere and of former Soviet Republics are presented. Based on the accessible data as provided in the review, the transmission risk of anthrax by infections of wounds due to spore-contaminated soil is considered as very low under the most circumstance. Active historic anthrax foci may, however, still pose a risk to the health of deployed soldiers.

Open access
Authors: JAGODICS BALÁZS, KÓRÓDI KITTI, DR. MARTOS TAMÁS, DR. KŐRÖSSY JUDIT and DR. SZABÓ ÉVA

Háttér és célkitűzések

A halogató viselkedés kutatásában egyre hangsúlyosabb szerepet kap a maladaptív passzív halogatás és a hatékony stratégiaként alkalmazható aktív halogatás elkülönítése. Tanulmányunk célja a Choi és Moran (2009) által kidolgozott Aktív-Passzív Halogatás Kérdőív magyar változatának (Szabó, 2012) pszichometriai tesztelése volt. Módszer: Magyar egyetemi hallgatókból álló mintán (N = 843) ellenőriztük a kérdőív struktúráját, reliabilitását és kapcsolatát más pszichológiai tényezőkkel.

Eredmények

A feltáró és megerősítő faktorelemzések alapján egy passzív és egy aktív halogatás alskála jelenik meg a korábbiakban használt ötfaktoros struktúrával szemben. Az alskálák belső megbízhatósága jónak tekinthető. Az aktív halogatás pozitív, míg a passzív halogatás negatív kapcsolatban áll az önértékeléssel és a tanulási énhatékonysággal. Az időperspektívát tekintve a passzív halogatás a múlt-negatív orientációval pozitív, míg a jövőorientációval negatív együtt járást mutat. A halogatásfaktorokon alapuló klaszterelemzés szerint kialakított csoportok között különbség van a tanulási eredmény tekintetében. A legeredményesebbek a nem halogatók csoportjába tartozók, őket követik az aktív és a passzív halogatók.

Következtetések

Az eredmények alapján kapott nyolcitemes kérdőív alkalmas a klasszikus passzív halogatás, illetve az időnyomás-preferencia kapcsán kialakuló aktív halogatás elkülönítésére. Azonban az eredeti modellben használt további aktívhalogatás-típusok feltárására más eszközök kidolgozása szükséges.

Open access

A kastélyok, paloták, kúriák, „várkastélyok”, várak – vagyis a főúri lakóhelyek – elsősorban profán építészeti műfajt képviselnek, azonban funkcionális sokszínűségüket és komplexitásukat jól reprezentálja, hogy többségük szakrális rendeltetéselemeket is befogadott. A házikápolna a világi főúri lakóhelyekben az otthoni vallásgyakorlás legfontosabb színhelye, amely a 19. század közepéig jellemzően a főúri vallásosság szimbóluma volt. A házikápolnák térkompozíciója a liturgia egyszerűsített változatára specializálódott. Ugyanakkor a főúri, valamint a köznépi együttes jelenlét funkcionálisan differenciált, tagolt téralakítást eredményezett. A 18. századi példák nagy belmagasságú, karzatokkal kialakított, boltozott csarnokterei késő középkori hagyományon alapulhattak, ugyanakkor korabeli jellemzőjük, hogy közvetlen udvari bejáratuk révén nyilvános liturgiára is alkalmasak voltak. A házikápolnák diszpozíciója a 18–19. században rendkívüli változatosságot mutatott. Az 1850 előtti példáknál az épületen belüli térkapcsolatot a főúri oratórium-karzat biztosította, amely jellemzően a férfi lakosztály felől – annak földszinti vagy emeleti elhelyezésétől függetlenül – volt megközelíthető. Az időszakban volt példa arra, hogy a kápolna a női oldalon helyezkedett el, és volt példa a két lakosztály közötti diszpozícióra is. A nagyvonalú, attraktív kialakítású nyilvános kápolnák mellett kisebb, helyiségsorba illeszkedő, lakosztályokon belülre pozícionált magánkápolnát is gyakran létesítettek a korszakban. A 19. század közepétől a házikápolnák hagyományos funkcionalitása megmaradt, de elhelyezésükre jellemző volt a tulajdonosi lakosztályoktól távolabbi, esetenként a vendéglakrészekhez az épületszárnyak végén kapcsolódó, tehát az elsődleges forgalmi terektől kieső, „perifériás” diszpozíció, de előfordult a központi társasági terek monumentális csoportjához történő hangsúlyos kapcsolódás is.

Open access

This study was conducted to assess the effects of 2,4-epibrassionolide (EBR) on mold decay caused by Rhizopus stolonifer and its capability to activate biochemical defense reactions in postharvest peaches. The treatment of EBR at 5 μM possessed the optimum effectiveness on inhibiting the Rhizopus rot in peach fruit among all treatments. The EBR treatment significantly up-regulated the expression levels of a set of defense-related enzymes and PR genes that included PpCHI, PpGns1, PpPAL, PpNPR1, PpPR1 and PpPR4 as well as led to an enhancement for biosynthesis of phenolics and lignins in peaches during the incubation at 20 °C. Interestingly, the EBR-treated peaches exhibited more striking expressions of PR genes and accumulation of antifungal compounds upon inoculation with the pathogen, indicating a priming defense could be activated by EBR. On the other hand, 5 μM EBR exhibited direct toxicity on fungal proliferation of R. stolonifer in vitro. Thus, we concluded that 5 μM EBR inhibited the Rhizopus rot in peach fruit probably by a direct inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and an indirect induction of a priming resistance. These findings provided a potential alternative for control of fungal infection in peaches during the postharvest storage.

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Akadémiai Értesítő

A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Hivatalos Lapja

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