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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: József Janszky, Beáta Bóné, Réka Horváth, Zsófia Sütő, László Szapáry, Vera Juhos, Sámuel Komoly and Norbert Kovács

Absztrakt:

A status epilepticus a második leggyakoribb, sürgősségi kezelést igénylő neurológiai állapot. Halálozása 15–25%. A „time is brain” elve a status epilepticus kezelésére is igaz: minél korábban kezdjük a megfelelő kezelést, annál nagyobb valószínűséggel tudjuk megállítani a progressziót. Magas szintű evidenciákon alapuló kezelési protokollal a status epilepticus progressziója az esetek 75–90%-ában megelőzhető, az indukált kóma és a halálos kimenetel elkerülhető. A status epilepticus kezelése akkor a legsikeresebb, ha már a korai szakban megkezdjük a parenteralis benzodiazepinterápiát: im. midazolám (0,2 mg/tskg, max. 10 mg). Szabad véna esetén lehet vénásan is adni a benzodiazepint (10 mg diazepám iv). Ha az első benzodiazepinbolusra nem reagál a status epilepticus, állandósult (benzodiazepinrefrakter) status epilepticusról beszélünk. Ilyenkor a benzodiazepin ismétlésével párhuzamosan nem benzodiazepin típusú, gyorsan ható vénás antiepileptikumot is adni kell: iv. valproát (40 mg/kg, max. 3000 mg, 10 perc alatt) vagy levetiracetám (60 mg/kg, max. 4500 mg, 10 perc alatt) javasolt. Az 1 órán túl is tartó, sem benzodiazepinre, sem antiepileptikumra nem reagáló, refrakter status epilepticust neurointenzív osztályon, teljes narcosissal (indukált kómával) kell kezelni. Az indukált kómát gyors hatású anesztetikummal lehet elérni, elsősorban propofol–midazolám kombinációval. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(42): 1779–1786.

Open access

Abstract

This research aims to determine whether the treatment of food products in a microwave electromagnetic field is advantageous or disadvantageous compared to conventional technologies. In household practice, microwave energy transfer is used mostly for heating. One of the most important tangible benefits of microwave heat treatment is that it causes less damage to the nutritional value of the product due to its speed.

Despite the fact that microwave technology was introduced more than 70 years ago, it is still not clear whether its application results in equivalent products in terms of quality and food safety.

This study demonstrates how heat-treated wines with microwave energy transmission and with convective heating in a thermostatic water bath are affected. In the white, rose and red wine samples pasteurized at a temperature of 74 ± 0.5 °C, significant differences between the two heating methods regarding colour characteristics could be indicated.

Open access

Abstract

Industrial wastewater is a growing environmental challenge due to its high concentrations of organics and its limited biological degradability. Up to date, however, no published work discussed industrial wastewater characterization, which is the focus of this study. Moreover, the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release was investigated in this work. Wastewater samples were collected from different industrial sites and characterized in order to determine their initial properties. It was summarized that the salinity of wastewater estimated by EC was relatively low, and its pH values were in the acceptable range. On the other hand, however, high values of sodium absorption ratio (SAR) were obtained in all samples post to hydrothermal treatment. Nonetheless, our results revealed higher SCOD release post to hydrothermal treatment suggesting better efficiency of COD removal obtained by this treatment technique.

Open access

Abstract

In milling industry, the object of milling is to separate endosperm and bran parts of wheat, and to recover flour. The most important and the highest energy requirement operation is grinding. The quantity and quality of flour depends on: the variety of wheat that will be milled, the type of grinding equipment and the condition used before the grinding. During our experiments two different grain structured varieties of wheat were milled in laboratory conditions with disk, stone grinder and roller miller in air-dry, and conditioned states. The performance of the equipment and the particle size distribution (PSD) of the produced grist were measured, then the energy requirements of the grinders were calculated. In the milling experiments the ash contents of the different particle sized fractions were compared to map particular properties of wheat cultivars.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Tamás Zsom, Petra Polgári, Lien Phuong Le Nguyen, Géza Hitka and Viktória Zsom-Muha

Abstract

Broccoli's high perishability and its sensitivity to negative quality changes (i.e., mass loss, ethylene induced degreening, abscission of leaves, and florets) generates quality problems during postharvest. Freshly harvested samples were stored at 5 and 21 °C after separately treated for 24 h with 625 ppb 1-methyl-cyclopropene (1-MCP), 24 h with 2 ppm ethylene and 1-MCP followed by ethylene. Quality maintenance effectivity of 1-MCP was investigated during cold and room storage by non-destructive optical methods (chlorophyll fluorescence and DA-index®) and by the evaluation of the visual physiological symptoms. The highly positive effects of 1-MCP treatment combined with cold storage were obviously proven on quality maintenance providing better retention of initial quality related to the initial mature green stage as chlorophyll content related DA-index®; F m, F v, F v/F m, and F m/F 0 chlorophyll fluorescence values. From the practical point of view, the rapid, and easy-to-use Sintéleia FRM01-F Vis/NIR DA-meter® could be applied relatively easy for the quality measurement of broccoli. The reproducibility of quality determination could be increased by the enhanced number of measuring points or using computer aided imaging methods (i.e., chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, machine vision system) providing global and more reliable information about quality changes.

Open access
Restricted access

Abstract

The hegemony of the Western higher education institutions in the global university market is being challenged by China. The top Chinese universities have significantly improved their international ranking positions. When it comes, however, to the ability of universities to attract foreign students and faculty, the Chinese higher education institutions' performance raises questions. The International Outlook scores of these universities, although showing an increasing trend, are still lacking behind the U.S. or Western European top universities. China is primarily a student ‘exporter.’ It also became a leading destination country for students from Asia or Africa, but it is still far from reaching the ‘international openness’ level of the U.S. or the UK universities. The publication networks of the top Chinese higher education institutions indicate that these universities prefer to publish with other Chinese institutions or the U.S. universities.

Open access

Abstract

This essay joins in the international controversy about the nature and sustainability of the economic system in China. While official ideology continues to stick to the concept of ‘socialist market economy,’ albeit with changing contents, international observers are split. One group considers China as a de facto market economy, which is in line with the top-down tradition of ruling in the region. Others consider it as a sui generis system. And a third line takes it as yet another case of hybrid regime which proliferated globally in the new millennium. I try to create a link between these readings and the empirics of Chinese growth. This may help interpret the slowdown, exacerbated by the COVID-19 epidemics on Chinese output.

Open access

Abstract

The paper examines the importance of the ‘Chinese factor’ in today's world from the perspective of current phenomena such as particular political and economic uncertainty and also examines them against the background of processes of global cooperation and parallel unprecedented competition at the same level. Complex phenomena occurring in this area have recently been additionally disrupted by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Will the world be different?

Globalization processes have taken place over the centuries but have gained particular importance in our present times, because we left ‘the golden age’ of globalization (1990–2010) already behind us. China, ever louder, talks about the need for a ‘new’ globalization, in line with its new aspirations as a pretender to the leadership position in the global economy. The Belt and Road Initiative, launched in 2013, has been in the centre of its vision. It has become the foundation for China's foreign policy in the horizon of at least the middle of XXI century. It was designed to re-confirm China's unprecedented economic success of the past four decades, which to a great extent could be derived from a skilful use of the ‘traditional’ mechanisms of globalization.

Restricted access

Abstract

After the collapse of the Berlin Wall it was conceivable that China would follow the path towards the cessation of communism, as it happened in the successor states of the USSR, Yugoslavia and the East European satellite states of the Soviet Union. But the Communist Party of China (CPC) managed to retain control and avoided the Russian and East European collapse, a full-fledged transition to capitalism and liberal democracy. For a while, China was on its way to market capitalism with the possible outcome to turn eventually into a liberal democracy. This was a rocky road, with backs-and-forth. But the shift to liberal democracy did not happen. The massacre at Tiananmen Square in 1989, approved by Deng Xiaoping, was a more alarming setback than the contemporary Western observers were willing to realize. This paper presents an interpretation of the changes under present Chinese leader, Xi Jinping in a post-communist comparative perspective.

Open access