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Authors: Margo Hilbrecht, David Baxter, Max Abbott, Per Binde, Luke Clark, David C. Hodgins, Darrel Manitowabi, Lena Quilty, Jessika SpÅngberg, Rachel Volberg, Douglas Walker and Robert J. Williams

Abstract

Background and aims

The Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to the risks and effects of gambling harmfully at the individual, family, and community levels. Coauthored by international research experts and informed by multiple stakeholders, Gambling Research Exchange (GREO) facilitated the framework development in 2013 and retains responsibility for regular updates and mobilization. This review article presents information about the revised version of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling completed in late 2018.

Methods

We describe eight interrelated factors depicted in the framework that represent major themes in gambling ranging from the specific (gambling environment, exposure, gambling types, and treatment resources) to the general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological influences). After outlining the framework development and collaborative process, we highlight new topics for the recent update that reflect changes in the gambling landscape and prominent discourses in the scientific community. Some of these topics include social and economic impacts of gambling, and a new model of understanding gambling related harm.

Discussion and conclusions

We address the relevance of the CFHG to the gambling and behavioral addictions research community. Harm-based frameworks have been undertaken in other areas of addiction that can both inform and be informed by a model dedicated to harmful gambling. Further, the framework brings a multi-disciplinary perspective to bear on antecedents and factors that co-occur with harmful gambling.

Open access
Authors: Beáta Bőthe, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Shane W. Kraus, Verena Klein, Johannes Fuss and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is included in the eleventh edition of The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as an impulse-control disorder.

Aims

The aim of the present work was to develop a scale (Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale–CSBD-19) that can reliably and validly assess CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines.

Method

Four independent samples of 9,325 individuals completed self-reported measures from three countries (the United States, Hungary, and Germany). The psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 were examined in terms of factor structure, reliability, measurement invariance, and theoretically relevant correlates. A potential threshold was determined to identify individuals with an elevated risk of CSBD.

Results

The five-factor model of the CSBD-19 (i.e., control, salience, relapse, dissatisfaction, and negative consequences) had an excellent fit to the data and demonstrated appropriate associations with the correlates. Measurement invariance suggested that the CSBD-19 functions similarly across languages. Men had higher means than women. A score of 50 points was found as an optimal threshold to identify individuals at high-risk of CSBD.

Conclusions

The CSBD-19 is a short, valid, and reliable measure of potential CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines. Its use in large-scale, cross-cultural studies may promote the identification and understanding of individuals with a high risk of CSBD.

Open access
Authors: Beáta Bőthe, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Shane W. Kraus, Verena Klein, Johannes Fuss and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is included in the eleventh edition of The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as an impulse-control disorder.

Aims

The aim of the present work was to develop a scale (Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale–CSBD-19) that can reliably and validly assess CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines.

Method

Four independent samples of 9,325 individuals completed self-reported measures from three countries (the United States, Hungary, and Germany). The psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 were examined in terms of factor structure, reliability, measurement invariance, and theoretically relevant correlates. A potential threshold was determined to identify individuals with an elevated risk of CSBD.

Results

The five-factor model of the CSBD-19 (i.e., control, salience, relapse, dissatisfaction, and negative consequences) had an excellent fit to the data and demonstrated appropriate associations with the correlates. Measurement invariance suggested that the CSBD-19 functions similarly across languages. Men had higher means than women. A score of 50 points was found as an optimal threshold to identify individuals at high-risk of CSBD.

Conclusions

The CSBD-19 is a short, valid, and reliable measure of potential CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines. Its use in large-scale, cross-cultural studies may promote the identification and understanding of individuals with a high risk of CSBD.

Open access

Abstract

This study's objective is to determine the relationship between the popularity of the foreign language and the study efficiency based on the OKM 2016 database. In our results you can see that the popularity of foreign languages is outstanding compared to other subjects. Concerning the gender and study average it is apparent that among girls and those with higher study average the subject is more popular than among boys and those with lower study average. The results of regression show that girls, those who live in town, who attend high school, who learn in larger schools, who do not attend religious school, who are descendants of highly educated parents and those whose parents' status is active in the labour market have positive opinion. Beyond the socio-demographic variables the popularity of the foreign language as a subject has an effect on the study average. The relevance of this study can be defined in the future research of unsuccessful language learning.

Open access

Abstract

This study's objective is to determine the relationship between the popularity of the foreign language and the study efficiency based on the OKM 2016 database. In our results you can see that the popularity of foreign languages is outstanding compared to other subjects. Concerning the gender and study average it is apparent that among girls and those with higher study average the subject is more popular than among boys and those with lower study average. The results of regression show that girls, those who live in town, who attend high school, who learn in larger schools, who do not attend religious school, who are descendants of highly educated parents and those whose parents' status is active in the labour market have positive opinion. Beyond the socio-demographic variables the popularity of the foreign language as a subject has an effect on the study average. The relevance of this study can be defined in the future research of unsuccessful language learning.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is characterized by a persistent failure to control intense and recurrent sexual impulses, urges, and/or thoughts, resulting in repetitive sexual behavior that causes a marked impairment in important areas of functioning. Despite its recent inclusion in the forthcoming ICD-11, concerns regarding its assessment, diagnosis, prevalence or clinical characteristics remain. The purpose of this study was to identify participants displaying CSBD through a novel data-driven approach in two independent samples and outline their sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile.

Methods

Sample 1 included 1,581 university students (females = 56.9%; M age = 20.58) whereas sample 2 comprised 1,318 community members (females = 43.6%; M age = 32.37). First, we developed a new composite index to assess the whole range of CSBD symptoms based on three previously validated scales. Based on this new composite index, we subsequently identified individuals with CSBD through a cluster analytic approach.

Results

The estimated occurrence of CSBD was 10.12% in sample 1 and 7.81% in sample 2. Participants with CSBD were mostly heterosexual males, younger than respondents without CSBD, reported higher levels of sexual sensation seeking and erotophilia, an increased offline and especially online sexual activity, more depressive and anxious symptoms, and poorer self-esteem.

Conclusions

This research provides further evidence on the occurrence of CSBD based on an alternative data-driven approach, as well as a detailed and nuanced description of the sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile of adults with this condition. Clinical implications derived from these findings are discussed in detail.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is characterized by a persistent failure to control intense and recurrent sexual impulses, urges, and/or thoughts, resulting in repetitive sexual behavior that causes a marked impairment in important areas of functioning. Despite its recent inclusion in the forthcoming ICD-11, concerns regarding its assessment, diagnosis, prevalence or clinical characteristics remain. The purpose of this study was to identify participants displaying CSBD through a novel data-driven approach in two independent samples and outline their sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile.

Methods

Sample 1 included 1,581 university students (females = 56.9%; M age = 20.58) whereas sample 2 comprised 1,318 community members (females = 43.6%; M age = 32.37). First, we developed a new composite index to assess the whole range of CSBD symptoms based on three previously validated scales. Based on this new composite index, we subsequently identified individuals with CSBD through a cluster analytic approach.

Results

The estimated occurrence of CSBD was 10.12% in sample 1 and 7.81% in sample 2. Participants with CSBD were mostly heterosexual males, younger than respondents without CSBD, reported higher levels of sexual sensation seeking and erotophilia, an increased offline and especially online sexual activity, more depressive and anxious symptoms, and poorer self-esteem.

Conclusions

This research provides further evidence on the occurrence of CSBD based on an alternative data-driven approach, as well as a detailed and nuanced description of the sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile of adults with this condition. Clinical implications derived from these findings are discussed in detail.

Open access
Authors: Barbara Penolazzi, Fabio Del Missier, Davide Francesco Stramaccia, Anna Laura Monego, Luigi Castelli, Amalia Manzan, Marco Bertoli and Giovanni Galfano

Abstract

Background and aims

Many psychopathologies, including addictions, are characterized by inhibitory control deficits. In this regard, recent studies on substance-related disorders (SRD) have shown an impairment in the ability to inhibit potentially interfering memories, despite preserved motor inhibition. To investigate whether the same dissociation could also characterize gambling disorder (GD) in a transdiagnostic perspective, we tested both cognitive and motor inhibitory processes through dedicated tasks, for the first time in this behavioral addiction.

Methods

30 outpatients with GD and 30 healthy controls performed a go/no-go task addressing the integrity of motor inhibition, and the Retrieval Practice Paradigm, a task addressing the integrity of memory inhibition as indexed by the Retrieval-Induced Forgetting (RIF) effect. Self-report questionnaires assessing impulsivity were also administered.

Results

Whereas RIF was similar across the two groups, patients showed more commission errors in the go/no-go task, and higher self-rated scores of impulsivity than controls.

Discussion

The present findings suggest preserved memory inhibition and impaired motor response inhibition in GD, a pattern of inhibitory deficits opposite to that previously reported for SRD. Therefore, although both GD and SRD are characterized by altered inhibitory processing, a more fine-grained analysis revealed a specific inhibitory profile indicating vulnerability in different inhibitory components.

Conclusion

The present study highlights the need to investigate the multifaceted construct of inhibition more thoroughly, using performance measures able to assess its various components. This approach would enable to both better characterize different psychopathologies and orient their treatment.

Open access