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Abstract

The statement of overheating of honey during the processing is important in quality characterization of honey products. Four Hungarian acacia honeys were heated up to 35, 40, 50, 60, and 80 °C and held in water bath for 0.5, 4 and 24 h. The electrical impedance spectrum of honeys before and after heating at room temperature (22 °C) were measured with precision LCR meters in frequency range from 30 Hz up to 30 MHz at 1 V voltage with Ag/AgCl electrodes. The spectra after open-short correction were approached with a circuit model consisting of a serial connection of two distributed elements and a resistance. The model parameters were determined. One of the resistance parameters can be used for detecting the previous heating of honey after detailed investigation of the recrystallization process following the heating. The complex electrical permittivity also was determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz up to 3 GHz.

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Abstract

Research suggests that the clinical and therapeutic effects of psychedelics are related to their ability to induce a mystical-type experience. One particularly interesting feature of the psychedelic mystical experience is the entity encounter - people who take psychedelics sometimes describe meetings with seemingly autonomous entities which appear to possess intelligence and agency. While there has been little empirical research into psychedelic entity phenomena, qualitative studies and anecdotal reports suggest that entity encounters can have profound and lasting positive after-effects. Based on the existing data, this article argues that there is value in exploring the therapeutic potential of psychedelic entity encounters. Specifically, it proposes three possible ways that entity encounters might mediate the therapeutic effect of the psychedelic mystical experience.

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The dance house and folk artisans movements have developed into such a youth subculture in the cultural scope of the socialist Hungary, which the Kádárian cultural policy could support only partially, it was rather placed at the borderland between the ‘tolerated’ and ‘banned’ categories. The so-called Nomadic Generation was attached to the developing domestic dissident opposition just as well as to the cross border Hungarian intelligentsia through many threads, which seemed to be undesirable for those in power. This study outlines a general picture on the characteristics of the folklorist-movement of the 1970s and 1980s, thought to be dissident in nature, then it will show through examples of different life courses and case studies how the search for new paths materialized in folk handicrafts, and what impact this era exerted on the folk artisanship in the period after the political transition.

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The paper focuses on the case study of a settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Hungarian capital, which became nationally recognized in the second half of the 20th century through the staging of the community’s wedding customs, known as Wedding at Ecser. Over the decades, the element lifted out of the local lifeworld – and ultimately constructed – has become linked with various community meanings and interpretive structures, through the examination of which the underlying historical, economic, and socio-cultural processes are being presented. Not only has the cultural relic – initially constructed by and through external actors – appreciated for local society, it soon developed into a central element of self-representation. At the same time, the cyclically growing interest in the staged custom and the repeated re-articulation of the wedding in new ways were closely linked with the social changes of the given period and the transformation of the local community and also dependent on the nature of power discourses at the local level. However, the wedding became not only an economic, ideological, political resource for the local community but also a valid meaning structure beyond the local level. This study pays special attention to discussions of the role that this phenomenon – which has nearly 60 years of history and many layers of meaning – may have played in the heritagization practices of the 21st century. There is particular emphasis on how the wedding as a heritage element and – more broadly – heritagization are linked to local experiences of a changing rurality.

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The present study summarizes the key findings of a multi-year interdisciplinary investigation, performed using specific (ethnographic, anthropological, and linguistic) research methods, into the two color terms mentioned in the title. Originally intended as empirical research involving all Hungarian color terms and individual community-dependent relationships with colors, it was eventually supplemented by a text-based examination of the history of the color terms piros and veres/vörös. A further objective was to answer questions raised in the course of international research concerning the reason for the existence of two color terms with similar meanings in the Hungarian language to denote the red color range. Earlier studies had already suggested that the modern use of vörös, which has more ancient roots in the Hungarian language, may be related to the fact that this color term was previously used more extensively. However, the present research is unique in demonstrating the substantial changes that have taken place in the Hungarian language in relation to the role and meaning of these color terms. It has already been established that the two color terms switched places historically, and that piros today fulfills precisely the same function that for centuries belonged to veres/vörös, until the color term piros began to gain ground in the 19th century.

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As independent scholarly discipline grounded in folkloristics, ethnochoreology was predominantly founded within the state institutions of the socialist regime of former Yugoslavia after World War II and was consequently molded theoretically and methodologically in accordance with the prevailing ideology of the ruling socialist political system. In post-socialist regimes established in former Yugoslavian republics after the 1990s, which led to emerging market economies and caused huge modifications in the official social and educational policies of each country, ethnochoreology continued to be linked with state institutions. At the same time, however, it has been subject to extensive remodeling which included changes within the discipline itself along with its repositioning in the academic and educational system.

This article examines political facets of ethnochoreological research in former Yugoslavian republics, comparing the experiences of many individual dance scholars. Based on interviews with colleagues from Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro, the study will explore the general position of ethnochoreologists as well as their attitudes toward the relationships between dance research and the concrete political situations in each of their countries. Questions discussed encompass standpoints about how the political realities we are living in influence the remodeling of ethnochoreology in epistemological and methodological terms, but also its position in academic, educational and research contexts.

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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: Anna Székely, Solomon Gwerevende, Jorge Poveda Yánez, Gábor Klaniczay and Peter Zolczer
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The celebration of the day of patron saint of the local church is a custom that is widespread among Christians in various parts of the world. In the plain and mountain areas of the Romanian Banat region, this day is referred to as ruga (pl. ruge), which literally means “pray.” These customary events are local community participatory festivals in the sense that they include both active and passive participants, the former joining in the dancing, the latter sitting and watching whilst socialising with relatives and friends. Although these events are primarily held on fixed calendrical days according to the patron saint of a specific church, they are in most cases attended by representatives of the many ethnicities and religious confessions that live together in the Banat region.

This paper examines saint’s day celebrations in Banat as one of the prime community events where music and dancing take place. It draws on the authors’ fieldwork undertaken at saint’s day celebrations in the Romanian Banat where they observed the similarities and differences in these events. Their research is supplemented by drawing on reports from local media on ruge, historical accounts, and conversations with locals. Their conclusion is that over time the concept of the celebration of ruge has been maintained though the precise details of the events have changed over time as these celebrations have been adapted to meet the needs of present- day communities while retaining their function as participatory community celebrations.

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Social Change, Dress and Identity

Observations on the Disintegration of Peasant Culture as Exemplified by Rural Women’s Clothing in Hungary from the First World War to the End of the Kádár Era Socialism

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Ágnes Fülemile

The article, based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork, studies the process of the disintegration of the traditional system of peasant costume in the 20th century in Hungary in the backdrop of its socio-historic context. There is a focused attention on the period during socialism from the late 1940s to the end of the Kádár era, also called Gulyás communism. In the examined period, the wearing and abandonment of folk costume in local peasant communities was primarily characteristic of women and an important part of women’s competence and decision-making. There was an age group that experienced the dichotomy of peasant heritage and the realities of socialist modernisation as a challenge in their own lifetime – which they considered a great watershed. The author interviewed both the last stewards of tradition who continued wearing costume for the rest of their lives and those who pioneered and implemented changes and abandoned peasant costume in favor of urban dress. The liminal period of change, the character and logic of the processes and motivations behind decision-making were still accessible in memory, and current dressing practices and the folklorism phenomena of the “afterlife” of costume could still be studied in real life. The study shows that costume was the focus point of women’s aspirations, attention, and life organization, and how the life paths of strong female personalities were articulated around clothing. It also reveals that there was a high level of self-awareness and strong emotional attachment in individual relationships to clothing in the rural context, similar to – or perhaps even exceeding – the fashion-conscious, individualized urban context. Examining the role of fashion, modernization, and individual decisions and attitudes in traditional clothing systems is an approach that bridges the mostly distinct study of folk costume and the problematics of dress and fashion history research.

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