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Abstract

Why did China grow so fast in the past four decades? What were the main factors? Important ones were: attitude of government; opening to the world; role of culture; exploitation of technological gap; role of foreign trained students; and role of government in the creation of modern infrastructure. These factors are likely to play a much smaller role in the future while several negative factors –populism, trade wars, environmental obstacles, aging of the population, authoritarianism and others are likely to lead to significantly lower growth rates.

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Abstract

The recent successes of the Chinese modernisation strategy are substantiated by an array of indicators showing an impressive improvement. Irrespective of China's current growth deceleration, these indicators suggest a highly effective implementation of an ambitious roadmap that can ultimately help China to catch up and achieve a global technological leadership. Still, some scholars point to deep structural deficiencies, and maintain that these indicators – however impressive they are – merely scratch the surface, while much deeper change is required in order to maintain economic growth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper (finalized before the ongoing COVID-19 crisis) is to contribute to this burgeoning literature – documenting the outcome and analysing the implications of China's efforts to embrace a new growth model – and analyse the chances of the Chinese digital great leap forward, that is the radical transformation of its prior modernisation trajectory. Drawing on a systematic review of the literature, the author maps, presents and analyses existing indicators quantifying China's progress in shifting to this new development trajectory, identifying also the gaps in the conventional measurement approaches. According to the findings of this paper, there are several easy-to-measure indicators, often used in international comparisons, that indeed confirm the optimistic scenario of China's development prospects in the near future. On the other hand, some hard-to-quantify factors, such as the localization of knowledge and the spreading of innovation, need to be also considered. These latter show a closer association with countries' development level as well as development potential. With regards to these latter particularities, China still has a long way to go.

Open access

Abstract

In the era of irreversible globalisation, the worldwide economic and political rules of play must take into account of the growing importance of China. Rather than fight the country, one should pragmatically cooperate on solving the mounting global problems. Contemporarily, both China should adapt to the external world and the world itself should adapt to China. There is no possibility of imposing on it a model developed elsewhere, especially that these days liberal democracy is experiencing a systemic crisis in many countries. Neither is there a chance to impose the Chinese model on others, though it seems tempting to a country; it is not an exportable ‘commodity,’ but its elements may prove useful elsewhere. China is not aiming for global domination; instead, it is consistently integrating with the world to maintain its own development. The only reasonable way forward is thorough observation, mutual learning and pragmatic collaboration based on the non-orthodox economic thought.

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Abstract

In the 1990s and early 2000s, comparison of transition strategies of China versus those in Central and Eastern Europe raised controversies in the economic and political science literature. However, differences between China and the countries of the former Soviet bloc in their transition strategies resulted not necessarily from a deliberate political choice but from different initial conditions. Low-income and largely rural China, after its first radical step (de-collectivisation of agriculture in 1978), could move more gradually due to its under-industrialisation and retaining administrative control over the economy. The over-industrialised Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and former Soviet Union (FSU) countries where the previous command system of economic management spontaneously collapsed at the end of 1980s, did not have such an option. They had to conduct market-oriented reforms as quickly as they could, with all the associated economic and social pain. Regardless of speed and strategy of transition, almost all previously centrally-planned economies, including China, completed building basic foundations of a market system by the early 2000s although the quality of economic and political institutions and policies differ between the sub-regional groups and individual countries.

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Hybrid buildings are not a modern invention. In the case of certain types of buildings in historical production facilities, a degree of inseparable fusion of static buildings and dynamic mechanics can be detected. This goes far beyond the multifunctional use of a room and also includes constructional and architectural design to the same extent. They are not simply rooms or buildings in which machines for the production of an item or a product are installed, but the room, or the building, itself, is the “machine”, or at least an essential part of it. Or is the machine the building? This relationship will be explained using the example of historical oast houses. For this type of building, architectural development from an integrated yet barely perceptible component to a free-standing solitary building can be demonstrated over a period of around 80 years. It is not clear which part is the building and which is the production technology. These two main components have become an indissoluble unit, making the oast house a real hybrid.

Zusammenfassung Hybride Gebäude sind keine Erfindung der Neuzeit. Bei bestimmten Bautypen historischer Produktionsstätten ist eine Größenordnung der Durchdringung von statischem Gebäude und dynamischer Mechanik festzustellen, die nicht aufzulösen ist. Dies geht weit über die multifunktionale Nutzung eines Raumes hinaus, und umfasst in gleichem Maße auch die Konstruktion und architektonische Gestaltung. Es sind keine Räume, oder Gebäude in denen Maschinen zur Produktion eines Gegenstandes oder einer Ware aufgestellt werden, sondern der Raum, oder das Gebäude selbst ist die „Maschine“, oder zumindest ein wesentlicher Teil von dieser. Oder ist die Maschine das Gebäude? Am Beispiel historischer Darren soll dieser Zusammenhang erläutert werden. Für diesen Gebäudetyp kann in einem Zeitraum von etwa 80 Jahren eine architektonische Entwicklung vom visuell kaum wahrnehmbaren und integrierten Bauteil zum freistehenden Solitär nachgewiesen werden. Dabei ist nicht eindeutig festzustellen, welcher Teil das Gebäude ist, und welcher die Produktionstechnik. Aus den beiden Hauptkomponenten ist eine unauflösbare Einheit geworden, womit die Darre zum echten Hybrid wird.

Open access

On the centenary of Gyula Hajnóczi’s birth, we commemorate the architect, the archaeologist, the teacher, the writer, the scientist, as well as the man and our colleague in the framework of a conference. This time, in memory of the teacher of architecture history and our colleague at the department, his teachers are introduced from the time of the start of his career, from life and regime changing times. Hajnóczi’s specialization, i.e. choosing the history of ancient architecture, took a definite direction from the very beginning of his practice. In addition to his certification in architecture, he soon obtained his diploma in archaeology, then achieved scientific titles and professional results. As an instructor, he conveyed the introductory knowledge of the architect profession, architectural drawing, and the history of the profession to the students on the basis of well-developed principles, performed in various ways. He followed the stages of architectural survey, technical drawing and graphic elaboration. His lectures on ancient architecture – Prehistoric Asia, Egypt, Hellas, Rome – were always performed according to an elaborated system, in a logical structure and always in an enjoyable form. His maxim was that architecture was the science of continuous building.

Összefoglaló Hajnóczi Gyula születésének századik évfordulójára konferencia keretében emlékezünk az építészre, a régészre, a tanárra, a szakíróra, a tudósra, illetve az emberre, a kollégára. Ezúttal az építészettörténet tanárára, a tanszéki munkatársra emlékezve felvázoljuk az ő tanárainak sorát pályakezdésének idejéből, a sors és rendszerfordító időkből. Szaktudománya, az ókori építészettörténet választása határozott irányt vett már működése elején. Építészmérnöki oklevele mellé hamar megszerezte a régészdiplomát, a tudományos címeket és a szakírói eredményeket. Oktatóként az építész szakma elejét, az építészeti rajztudást és a szakmatörténetet kidolgozott elvek alapján és változatosan közvetítette a hallgatók felé, az építészeti felmérés, a szerkesztés és a rajzi kidolgozás lépcsői szerint. Az ókori építészetről szóló – Elő Ázsia, Egyiptom, Hellasz, Róma – előadásai mindig egy kidolgozott rendszer szerint, logikus szerkezetben és mindig élvezhető formában hangzottak el. Alapelve volt, hogy az építészet a tovább építés tudománya.

Open access

Abstract

Liensinine is a bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera GAERTNER., Nelumbonaceae), especially in its embryo loti “Lien Tze Hsin” (green embryo of mature seed). A rapid and simple UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine liensinine in mouse blood and its application to a pharmacokinetic study. The blood samples were preprocessed by protein precipitation using acetonitrile. Midazolam (internal standard, IS) and liensinine were gradient eluted by mobile phase of methanol and water (0.1% formic acid) in a Waters UPLC BEH C18 column. The multiple reaction monitoring of m/z 611.3 → 206.1 for liensinine and m/z 326.2 → 291.1 for IS with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was used for quantitative detection. The calibration curve ranged from 0.5 to 400 ng/mL (r > 0.995). The accuracy ranged from 92.2 to 108.2%, the precision of intra-day and inter-day was less than 14%, and the matrix effect was between 100.0% and 109.6%, the recovery was better than 71.0%. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully used for a pharmacokinetic study of liensinine in mice after oral (5 mg/kg) and intravenous administration (1 mg/kg), and the absolute availability of liensinine was 1.8%.

Open access

Abstract

Due to its difficult diagnosis and complicated treatment, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs is a challenge for the veterinarian. Several aspects connected with pathological changes during IBD still remain unknown. Since one of these aspects is the participation of intestinal innervation in the evolution of the disease, the aim of this study was to demonstrate changes in the number and distribution of intramucosal colonic nerve fibres immunoreactive to substance P (SP) arising as the disease progresses. SP is one of the most important neuronal factors in intestinal innervation which, among other tasks, takes part in the conduction of pain stimuli. Using routine immunofluorescence technique, the density of nerve fibres containing SP was evaluated within mucosal biopsy specimens collected from the descending colon of healthy dogs and animals suffering from IBD of varying severity. The results of the study indicate that during severe IBD the number of nerve fibres containing SP located in the colonic mucosal layer increases in comparison to control animals. The number of SP-positive intramucosal nerves amounted to 10.99 ± 2.11 nerves per observation field in healthy dogs, 14.62 ± 2.86 in dogs with mild IBD, 14.80 ± 0.91 in dogs with moderate IBD and 19.03 ± 6.11 in animals with severe IBD. The observed changes were directly proportional to the intensity of the disease process. These observations may suggest a role of this neuronal substance in pathological processes occurring during IBD. Although the exact mechanism of the observed changes has not been completely explained, the results obtained in this investigation may contribute to improving the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, as well as the staging of canine IBD in veterinary practice.

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