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Abstract

Background

The TIRADS classification system is commonly used in ultrasound imaging to evaluate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules, but there is still debate about its accuracy. The BSRTC categorizes FNA biopsy results to determine the likelihood of malignancy in thyroid nodules, and this remains the gold standard for diagnosis.

Methodology

This is a cross-sectional study design conducted in the Radiology Department of Chughtai Lab Head Office in Lahore. This study assessed 154 patients with thyroid nodules. The ultrasound equipment used for the study is the Toshiba Applio 500 model, while the equipment for FNAC included topical anesthesia, 21-gauge 10 CC syringes, glass slides, cell block, and the Olympus CX23 microscope. The sampling technique employed is the consecutive sampling technique.

Results

Out of 154 patients, the mean age was 42.0 ± 13.6 years. Majority were female (89%) while 11% are male. The P-value of <0.0001 suggests a statistically significant association between TIRADS and Bethesda categories. The findings suggested that ultrasonography is a highly reliable and effective method for diagnosis, with a superior degree of sensitivity and specificity in addition to invasive cytology tests. Results from the ROC curve analysis showed an impressive area under the curve of 0.972. The sonographic features show significant associations with TIRADS categories (P-value <0.0001). The association between TIRADS suspiciousness and Bethesda diagnosis is statistically significant (P-value <0.0001). Benign nodules were most commonly classified as not suspicious (56.5%), followed by mildly suspicious (9.7%), while malignant nodules were primarily classified as highly suspicious (11.0%). Notably, no malignant nodules were categorized as benign.

Conclusion

Healthcare professionals may consider utilizing TIRADS as a first-line imaging method and then BETHESDA if needed to provide patients with the most accurate results and minimize unwanted interventional exposure. Combining these two scoring methods appears to yield the most precise outcomes for identifying and distinguishing benign from malignant nodules, which is critical for arriving at a definitive diagnosis in individuals with thyroid malignancies.

Open access

Psychedelic Christianity: Commentary and reply

Commentaries on: McCarthy & Priest (2024). Psychedelic Christianity: From Evangelical hippies and Roman Catholic intellectuals in the sixties to clergy in a Johns Hopkins clinical trial

Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Michael J. Winkelman
,
G. William Barnard
,
Marc G. Blainey
,
Jerry B. Brown
,
Thomas B. Roberts
,
Joseph Lorenz
,
Jaime Clark-Soles
,
William A. Richards
,
Harry T. Hunt
,
Timothy R. Gabrielli
,
David M. Odorisio
,
Tracy j. Trothen
,
Brad Stoddard
,
Paul Jonathan Ungerland ii
,
George G. Lake
,
J. Kaleb Graves
,
Bryan McCarthy
, and
Hunt Priest
Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that affects a sizable proportion of U.S. civilians, military personnel, and veterans. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Assisted Therapy (MDMA-AT) is a novel treatment approach for PTSD that has both stirred media enthusiasm and drawn criticism. This critical review analyzes individual randomized, controlled trials of MDMA-AT and provides a narrative synthesis.

Methods

A library search and analysis of extant literature reviews was conducted to identify publications containing original research findings with inter-group statistical comparisons from randomized, controlled trials of MDMA-AT. Seven articles were identified. One pilot study was excluded due to a lack of inter-group comparison.

Results

To date, six (four Phase II and two Phase III) randomized, controlled trials of MDMA-AT have been published which met criteria for inclusion in this review. Study design, sponsor, recruitment methods, and participant demographics are similar across trials.

Conclusions

Five out of six reviewed studies provide evidence for the apparent safety and efficacy of MDMA-AT. However, the lack of suitable comparison condition, poor blinding, and rigid study design across trials make interpretation of results difficult. In addition, the high costs of MDMA-AT and lack of head-to-head comparisons with validated PTSD therapies cast doubt on its potential promise as a treatment. The role of the sponsoring organization behind all trials may further introduce bias into findings. Though research to date is encouraging, there is not yet sufficient evidence to suggest that MDMA-AT should be see widespread adoption over current, validated forms PTSD of treatment.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors:
Hasan Kazdagli
,
H. Fehmi Ozel
,
Suleyman Ozturk
,
Deniz Ceylan
,
Burak Erdeniz
,
Mustafa Ozbek
, and
M. Ilgi Semin

Abstract

Anxiety is a common issue among university students, many of them experience anxiety, depression, and stress during their school life. This study aimed to compare the acute physiological stress responses of students divided into two groups according to their perceived anxiety levels (positive test anxiety, PTA+, and negative test anxiety, PTA-). Heart rate variability (HRV) and electrodermal activity (EDA) were used to assess stress.

Thirty-one healthy volunteers participated in the study. Participants completed anxiety assessments, including the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Test State Anxiety Inventory (TSAI). Based on their scores, participants were categorized into PTA+ and PTA- groups. All participants underwent 24-h continuous recordings of pulse and electrodermal activity (EDA) on two separate occasions: one day prior to a written exam and during a designated exam-free day serving as a baseline control.

We compared the HRV and EDA data obtained on a regular day and on an exam day between the two groups. Results showed that the PTA+ group had significantly higher heart rate, stress index, low frequency, and short-term detrended fluctuation analysis (DFAα1) on the exam day. The tonic EDA component was also higher in the PTA+ group. Stress-related HRV and EDA parameters were negatively correlated with exam scores.

In conclusion, the study found that physiological stress indicators obtained from HRV and EDA are associated with perceived exam anxiety in students.

Restricted access

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of various mash acidification techniques in alcoholic fermentation for the production of apple spirit. Lachancea thermotolerans and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains were selected to conduct pre-fermentative acidification of the mash alongside a conventional chemical acidification approach. The results confirm that L. thermotolerans and L. plantarum possess acidifying potential and can serve as effective biotools for the protection of apple mash during fermentation. Through their outstanding lactic acid production (1.05–1.26 g L−1), they were able to reduce the pH of the mash by 0.29–0.40 pH units. Moreover, the sequential fermentation of these strains with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful strategy to modulate the aroma profile of apple spirits. Spirits were characterised by an enhanced ester profile with particularly increased ethyl lactate concentrations.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Dana Katz
,
Zsolt Horváth
,
Halley M. Pontes
,
Patrik Koncz
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
, and
Orsolya Király

Abstract

Background

While there are calls to restrict the time spent on gaming because it is seen as problematic and potentially leading to gaming disorder (GD), there is conflicting evidence about this issue. We explored the association between the average weekly time spent gaming and reported GD symptoms. Additionally, Latent Profile Analysis was employed to investigate how time spent gaming relates to variables representing psychological distress (PD), such as satisfaction with life, symptoms of depression, and perceived stress.

Methods

Data were collected using surveys with a large sample of highly engaged gamers (N = 14,740; Mage = 24.14 years, SDage = 7.0, 89.3% males).

Results

We observed a positive, close to linear association between time spent gaming and GD symptoms. Groups at risk of GD played for about 42 h (SD = 19) on average, according to the American Psychiatric Association and World Health Organization frameworks. Furthermore, we identified four profiles representing varying levels of PD. Gamers reporting very high levels of PD (4.2% of the sample) played for 33 h per week on average. Remarkably, a substantial percentage of the sample (41.9%) showed no PD despite playing for 26 h per week.

Conclusion

The association between gaming time and PD is complex as even prolonged time spent gaming can be unproblematic for many gamers.

Open access

Abstract

In this paper I focus my attention on the debate between three renowned Germanists of the interwar period: Elemér Moór, Elemér Schwartz and Walter Steinhauser. Their discussion of the population history of Burgenland can serve as a case study of knowledge production. This was a discourse in which the relationship between science and politics or the boundary between scholarship and dilettantism were often tested. Relying on both published material (their books and papers) and unpublished sources (correspondence, commission reports) I analyse the different standpoints of the three scholars and show the development of their rivalry. At the end of my paper, I will draw some lessons concerning the history of historical writing.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Online communities provide insights into psychedelic consumption, assisting in identification of trends, informing both harm reduction provisions and clinical research. This study extracts forum data on psychedelic substances, dosages, and administration routes, categorising and analysing self-reported consumption to inform care services and guide clinical work with psychedelics.

Methods

Posts (n = 660) from online psychedelic forums (The Shroomery and DMT Nexus) on 'trip sitting' were analysed. Using a Delphi-style expert panel review facilitated by LE, we created drug weight and intensity charts (threshold, light, common, strong and heavy dosages) for psychedelics discussed in these posts. The psychedelic substance, dosage intensity and route of administration [ROA] (smoked/vaporised, oral, injected, insufflated and undisclosed) frequencies and exploring correlations with perceived need for assistance from a psychedelic carer were mapped and correlated with perceived need for psychedelic care.

Results

Psychedelics appearing in our data were 5-MeO-DMT, ayahuasca, changa, LSA, LSD and psilocybin. There was greater commonality between clinical studies and 'common' doses determined through the Delphi method, for more extensively researched substances like LSD and psilocybin. Many posts indicated opinions that psychedelic care was unnecessary or optional for consumers, particularly for LSD and LSA. 5-MeO-DMT was strongly associated with a perceived need for care. A correlation was identified between greater psychedelic purity, dosage intensity, and a perceived need for care. Oral administration, the most common ROA, showed lower dosage intensity.

Conclusion

More research is needed to understand factors influencing psychedelic care practices. Educational information, emphasizing risk management strategies, should be provided to psychedelic consumers, emphasising psychedelic products and administration methods more likely to be dosed at a strong or heavy intensity.

Open access

Abstract

Reliable and detailed knowledge regarding the relationship between otolith size and the size of fish is important for fisheries management and for ecological studies on predicting fish size and on predator–prey interactions. Therefore, these relationships are estimated for three sprat (genus Clupeonella) species, including C. caspia, C. engrauliformis and C. grimmi from the Caspian Sea. The relative size and mass of the otoliths corrected for body size and mass were also estimated for the three sprat species. After biometry of collected specimens, the Sagittal otoliths were extracted from the cranium of collected specimens and photographed. Photos were used to estimate length and width of otoliths. The results revealed significant relationships between otolith length and width vs. fish length and otolith mass vs. body mass in all three species (r 2 > 0.5). The higher coefficient of determination (r 2 ) for relationships between total length (fish) – Otolith length and width was concluded in comparison with relationships between fish mass and otolith mass in the studied sprat species. Otoliths of C. grimmi showed the highest relative length and were significantly (P < 0.05) heavier than sagittal otoliths of two other sprat species. There is no previous report on size–mass relationships between fish and otolith measurements among the three studied sprat species. These estimated equations can be used in back-calculation studies, especially for these three sprats as the dominant prey for piscivorous predators such as Caspian seals and sturgeons, in their habitats.

Open access

„Wer um alles in der Welt ist Pom-Pom?”

Platzhalter und recycelte Erinnerung im öffentlichen Raum

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Ferenc Szolar

Abstract

The article deals with the stories of Pom-Pom, which appeared in Hungary from the beginning of the 1980s, initially in the media network of picture books and animated films. Since the 2010s, the characters have increasingly appeared in the public space of Budapest: first in the context of thematic playgrounds, then in the form of mini-sculptures, and finally street art murals. In terms of time, these events coincide on the one hand with the so-called critical threshold, that transition between communicative and cultural memory, and on the other hand they set in at a point in time initiated by the operational end as well as the incipient building decay of the renowned Pannónia film studios. The examples chosen solely according to the criterion of visibility in public space prove to be representations planned, supported and tolerated by the public authorities.

Restricted access