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Abstract

Baricitinib (BRT) is a drug substance with potent anti-inflammatory activity indicated in rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, severe alopecia areata and recently for the treatment of Covid-19. Process impurities of the drug during its formulation are quite known, however studies regarding its degradation products (DPs) under stress conditions are limited. In this study, the drug was subjected to forced degradation under various degradation conditions, including acidic hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative and thermal, to determine its inherent stability. To this purpose, a novel HPLC method was developed for the determination of degradation impurities of BRT. Alkaline hydrolysis test showed a selectivity towards breaking C–C bonds. This resulted to five DPs formed by chain scission reactions occurred at the pyrrolo-pyrimidine group between C6–C10 and C8–C9. Also, the ethylsulfonyl-azetidin-ylidene group was subjected to C–C bond cleavage at C12–C15 and C16–C18. Degradation products were further characterized with the use of liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS).

Open access
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
Marianna I. Zhukovskaya
,
Inna V. Grushevaya
,
Alexander A. Miltsen
,
Oksana G. Selitskaya
,
Anna V. Shchenikova
,
Andrei N. Frolov
, and
Miklós Tóth

Abstract

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), relies on multimodal sensory information to find food, mates, mating and ovipositional grounds. Successful phytosanitary monitoring demands for the bait for the field traps to obtain the most reliable representation of pest abundance. Attraction to light and blend of key components of host plant odor, was tested both in the laboratory and field conditions. Ultraviolet light, which was the most effective in the wind tunnel experiments, was further tested in the field alone and in combination with bisexual lure. Bisexual lure, being attractive in the lab, as well as in the field, did not improve responses to ultraviolet in both experimental designs. All three baits attracted significantly more females than males in the field. Wind tunnel experiments revealed that ultraviolet elicited the shortest response latencies either alone or paired with the odor bait. The lack of synergistic effect between attractive light and odor stimuli is an important issue for pest monitoring. The possible reasons for the observed lack of synergy are the hierarchy of behavioral responses to different stimuli or the intensities of both stimuli are critically important for attractivity of combined stimulus and differ from separately presented ones.

Open access

A drónok szerepe a terrortámadásokban – A fenyegetés új dimenziója

Role of Drones in Terrorist Attacks – The New Dimension of Threat

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
István Sabjanics
and
Illés Horváth

Összefoglalás.

A dróntechnológia alapjainak katonai alkalmazása a II. világháború folyamán terjedt el, és hamarosan a koreai háború (1950–1953) kulcsfontosságú hírszerzési eszközévé vált. A 2000-es évekig az UAV-k (pilóta nélküli légi járművek) gyártásának és forgalmazásának monopóliuma kizárólag a hadiipar kezében volt, de a technológiában rejlő hatalmas lehetőségek gyorsan meghódították a civil szektort, és a gyártás önálló iparággá fejlődött. A piac robbanása alighanem forradalmasította a technológiát. Ennek következtében a drónok mérete csökkent, hatótávolságuk jelentősen megnövekedett. A piac által indikált technológiai fejlődés azonban nem csupán a laikus felhasználókat fogta meg, de az irreguláris, illetőleg a terrorista szervezetekre is komoly hatást gyakorolt. A technológiában rejlő potenciált hamar felismerték, így nemcsak integrálták, de kettős célok érdekében tovább is fejlesztették. 1990-től 2018-ig 14 olyan támadás történt, amelyben az elkövetők házilag, kereskedelmi forgalomban kapható alkatrészek felhasználásával készített UAV-t használtak. Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy megvilágítsa a drónok alkalmazásának lehetőségeit a terrorista csoportok körében, valamint, hogy rámutasson a lehetséges védelmi és biztonsági intézkedésekre.

Summary.

The military application of the fundamentals of drone technology spread during World War II (1939-1945) and soon became a key intelligence tool in the Korean War (1950-1953). Until the 2000s, the monopoly over the production and marketing of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) was held exclusively by the military industry, but the enormous potential of the technology quickly conquered the civilian sector, and manufacturing developed into an industry in its own right. The explosion of the market revolutionised the technology. It significantly reduced their size, increased their power capacity and, although there was also a significant change in rotor size, their power and range increased exponentially. At the same time, advances have also had a very positive impact on control: the ability to follow a person or object without direct pilot intervention, the ability to program an autonomous flight path on the user interface, the ability to return to the pilot in the event of signal loss, the ability to avoid obstacles in complex environments thanks to advanced optical sensors, and the cameras on some models with facial recognition technology. The use of drone technology by irregular organisations or terrorists dates back to the 1990s, and by 2018 there had been 14 terrorist attacks in which the perpetrators had used a homemade UAV using commercially available parts. The aim of this study is to shed light on the motivation of extremist groups and the potential for the use of drones. In addition, take stock of the possible ways of protection.

Open access

A nagy nyelvi modellek felsőoktatásra, valamint kis- és középvállalkozásokra gyakorolt hatásának értékelése adatvédelmi szempontból

Assessing the impact of large language models on higher education and SMEs from a data protection perspective

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
István Sabjanics

Összefoglalás.

Ez a tanulmány a mesterséges intelligencia és a nagy nyelvi modellek, különösen a ChatGPT hatásait vizsgálja a felsőoktatási környezetben, valamint a kis- és középvállalkozások tekintetében. A generatív mesterséges intelligencia felsőoktatási környezetben oktatási és kutatási szempontból egyaránt jelentős hatást gyakorolt, amely előirányozta az oktatás, különösen az oktatási és tanulási módszerek újragondolását. Fokozottabb és egyéni igényekhez igazított tanulási élményeket képes biztosítani a mesterséges intelligencia. A ChatGPT-hez hasonló nagy nyelvi modellek fejlődésének mértéke és gyors elterjedése forradalmasította a kommunikációt és az információfeldolgozást, lehetőséget teremtve az interaktívabb oktatási platformok bevezetésére. Ezzel párhuzamosan az üzleti szektor, különösen a kis- és középvállalkozások paradigmaváltáson mentek keresztül működésük hatékonyságának növelését és az ügyfélkapcsolati megoldásokat érintő innováció terén, amelynek alapja a mesterséges intelligencia alkalmazása. Ez a tanulmány azt vizsgálja, hogy ezek a szervezetek milyen módon használják a nagy nyelvi modelleket alkalmazó eszközöket a folyamataik racionalizálására, az ügyfélkapcsolatok javítására és a döntéshozatali képességek bővítésére. A tanulmány kitér a nagy nyelvi modellek felsőoktatási környezetben, valamint a kis- és középvállalkozások által történő biztonságos és jogszerű alkalmazását érintő etikai megfontolásokra és az esetlegesen felmerülő kockázatokra.

Summary.

This study investigates the impact of artificial intelligence and large language models, in particular ChatGPT, in higher education and small and medium-sized enterprises. Generative AI in higher education settings has had a significant impact from both an educational and a research perspective, which has foreseen a rethinking of education, in particular teaching and learning methods. AI can provide enhanced and personalised learning experiences. The scale and rapid spread of the development of large language models such as ChatGPT has revolutionised communication and information processing, opening the way for the introduction of more interactive educational platforms. At the same time, the business sector, in particular SMEs, has undergone a paradigm shift in terms of operational efficiency and innovation in customer relationship solutions based on the use of artificial intelligence. This paper examines how these organisations are using tools that apply high-level language models to streamline their processes, improve customer relationships and enhance decision-making capabilities. The study also addresses the ethical considerations and potential risks associated with the safe and legal use of large language models in higher education and by SMEs.

First, the study focuses on assessing the privacy risks and opportunities of using large language models in higher education, specifically and separately on teaching and research. In conclusion the study suggest, that large language models have the potential to bring positive changes in higher education, especially in the form of personalised or small group sessions in virtual classrooms, in parallel with classroom or hybrid teaching, applications that support individual preparation and learning and better presentation of the curriculum. It is essential, however, that taking over the administrative tasks of trainers does not justify, or even justify, human supervision of AI. It is the responsibility of higher education institutions to establish ethical rules for the use of AI, especially large language models, balancing technological and pedagogical aspects, which can perhaps best be summarised as development and not substitution. Various large language models can help, but they cannot replace the unique qualities that human teachers can bring to the learning experience. In conclusion regarding SMEs, the emergence and pace of development of large language models has such a significant impact on the competitiveness of a business that their introduction and the associated technological changeover of a business in a very short time will be almost a matter of course. Guidelines and recommendations from international organisations and various market surveillance and data protection authorities are useful to help SMEs to effectively increase their competitiveness while remaining fully compliant with the regulatory environment.

Open access

Abstract

The abscopal effect, a rare phenomenon in cancer treatment, involves tumor regression in a distant location from the targeted therapy. This case focuses on a 74-year-old woman with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Despite prior treatments, she experienced pulmonary nodule progression and hemoptysis. Bland particle embolization was performed on the right bronchial artery branches supplying lung metastases, leading to significant reductions in size, number, and metabolic activity of the right-sided nodules and decreased metabolic activity of the untreated left-sided nodules, without additional cancer-related treatments. The abscopal effect has been observed with various interventional oncologic procedures, indicating a potential role in stimulating the immune response and altering the tumor microenvironment. Further investigation is needed to understand bland embolization's immunomodulatory effects and implications for triggering the abscopal effect.

Open access

Abstract

Several researchers have highlighted the need to strengthen school-based career education in Hungary. After reviewing the international literature on similar programs, this study reports on the impact of an innovative, multi-method career education course. It aimed to support Hungarian high school (ISCED 344) students in grades 10–11 in making decisions on further education and career choices, and in dealing with related uncertainties and difficulties, mainly through developing career management competence. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group of 92 students showed significantly better results on half of the 20 career orientation variables assessed six months after the end of the intervention of 12 three-quarter-hour sessions, with low effect sizes compared to the pre-intervention assessment, and the 96-student control group. In addition to a self-developed questionnaire, the CDDQ Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire; and the CFI Career Factors Inventory were used. The effectiveness of the intervention was independent of factors such as gender, age, academic performance, and parental education. The study concludes with the suggestion that an enhanced version of the course could be an officially recommended supplementary career education program in Hungarian high schools.

Open access

Abstract

This paper explores the theme of the homecoming (nostos) by examining the homecomings of the Scythians in Book Four of The Histories of Herodotus from two different approaches, the philological and historical. As Herodotus makes clear, for Scythians, such as the famous traveler Anacharsis and the Scythian king Scyles, returning home could be deadly. From the philological approach, which emphasizes the literary nature of the Scythian logos, this pattern of thematic repetitions of denied homecomings serves to emphasize the hostile nature of Scythia for outsiders and thus to increase the tension surrounding the outcome of the larger narrative of Book Four, which describes the disastrous military campaign of the Persian king Darius I in Scythia. However, from the historical approach, which regards the account of Herodotus as a historical source that provides valuable testimony when combined with other sources of evidence, it becomes clear that these stories of impossible homecomings also reflect the conditions at the Greek frontier of the Scythian world and for Scythians like Anacharsis and Scyles who adopted foreign customs, especially Greek religious practices, namely that in this region marked by competition and conflict, including religious conflict, adopting foreign customs meant it was not possible to return home again.

Restricted access

Abstract

The purpose of this essay is to compare the story of Er in Plato's Republic's tenth book with the concept of antarābhava in the Vedic World and the ancient schools of Buddhism. First, the story of Er, a warrior who was believed to have died in battle and returned to life shortly before his body was burnt on the pyre, will be told. Er describes the vision he had before returning to life: he saw the actions and fate of the disembodied souls in the state and stage before their reincarnation. Next, the Indian doctrine of antarābhava, the intermediate state between death and rebirth, according to the Vedic religion and ancient schools of Buddhism, will be discussed. Finally, we will say a few concluding words to make a historical-religious comparison between the two in order to better understand both these doctrines and visions of the afterlife.

Restricted access

Abstract

Drama in Education (DiE) has been a well-known teaching technique for an active learning approach for students. It utilizes different forms of conventions to enhance a student's learning experience in the classroom, offering alternatives instead of the traditional teaching approaches. Drama can encourage students to learn and think critically and improve public speaking, communication, and confidence. The article portrays the use of drama activities in STEAM education by depicting the benefits and challenges. This study uses a qualitative approach to collect data, including relevant literature, descriptions of drama activities, and observation. The findings display that drama in STEAM education can improve and stimulate students' learning and knowledge in a particular subject. This study aimed to view 19 higher education students' perspectives of drama activities in STEAM. Two activities were completed during this pilot study and observations were made throughout the process. Furthermore, drama in STEAM stimulated the students, were more enthusiastic about exploring, examining and learning, socializing with their groupmates, and the confidence to perform.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Impaired inhibitory control accompanied by enhanced craving is hallmark of addiction. This study investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on response inhibition and craving in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We examined the brain changes after tDCS and their correlation with clinical variables.

Methods

Twenty-four males with IGD were allocated randomly to an active or sham tDCS group, and data from 22 participants were included for analysis. Participants self-administered bilateral tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for 10 sessions. Stop-signal tasks were conducted to measure response inhibition and participants were asked about their cravings for Internet gaming at baseline and post-tDCS. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at pre- and post-tDCS, and group differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes from the bilateral DLPFC and nucleus accumbens were examined. We explored the relationship between changes in the rsFC and behavioral variables in the active tDCS group.

Results

A significant group-by-time interaction was observed in response inhibition. After tDCS, only the active group showed a decrease in the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). Although craving decreased, there were no significant group-by-time interactions or group main effects. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) showed group differences in post- versus pre-tDCS rsFC from the right DLPFC. The rsFC between the ACC and left middle frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with the SSRT.

Discussion and conclusion

Our study provides preliminary evidence that bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC improves inhibitory control and could serve as a therapeutic approach for IGD.

Open access