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Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the study was a comparative evaluation of in-house real-time PCR and commercial real-time PCR (Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD), ampliCube/Mikrogen) targeting enteropathogenic bacteria from stool in preparation of Regulation (EU) 2017/746 on in vitro diagnostic medical devices.

Methods

Both 241 stool samples from patients and 100 samples from German laboratory control schemes (“Ringversuche”) were used to comparatively assess in-house real-time PCR, the FTD bacterial gastroenteritis kit, and the ampliCube gastrointestinal bacterial panels 1&2 either with the in-house PCRs as gold standard and as a test comparison without gold standard applying latent class analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, intra- and inter-assay variation and Cohen’s kappa were assessed.

Results

In comparison with the gold standard, sensitivity was 75–100% for strongly positive samples, 20–100% for weakly positive samples, and specificity ranged from 96 to 100%. Latent class analysis suggested that sensitivity ranges from 81.2 to 100% and specificity from 58.5 to 100%. Cohen’s kappa varied between moderate and nearly perfect agreement, intra- and inter-assay variation was 1–3 to 1–4 Ct values.

Conclusion

Acceptable agreement and performance characteristics suggested replaceability of the in-house PCR assays by the commercial approaches.

Open access

Abstract

This study intends to examine the soil behaviour in the case of finite thickness, represented by the hard layer under a soft layer of soil. A further aim is to define load-bearing capacity parameters (n and k). The experimental work is carried out under laboratory conditions by using hydraulic bevameter to apply the load. A circular plate with a diameter of 100 mm is used to push down the load over the targeted area with a penetration rate of about 9 cm/min for sinkage plates. The study was conducted in a soil bin (length of 200 cm, width of 100 cm and variable thickness) using a sandy loam soil. First, the study has been done with loose soil with a thickness of 11 cm, which maintained with 10% moisture content and initial density of 1.190 g/cm3. After that, a two thickness of 6 and 18 cm with 8% moisture content and initial soil density of 1.375 g/cm3 were tested to explain the effect of thickness. In each test, the bevameter plate was loaded at multiple locations, the result showed the soil was near uniform. The result suggests that it is not easy to obtain one equation for the load bearing capacity because the layer near to the surface behaves like soil with infinite thickness and the deeper layer like soil with finite thickness.

Open access

Abstract

This research was carried out in the framework of a larger qualitative study within the Hungarian community in Israel. The original aim was to identify and describe the appearance of the Hungarian language in the Israeli linguistic landscape. However, in the meantime, it became very clear that the existence and characteristics of the Hungarian community and the language they use is strongly connected to food and its position in the ancestral heritage. From that point, we aimed to show what it means to be Hungarian in Israel when it comes to cuisine and food as well as how culinary traditions relate to education and heritage transfer. Semi-structured interviews, biographical narrative interviews and participant observation as research methods shaped the complete picture we received. As the results show, few new initiations are slowly entering the canon of Hungarian-Israeli culinary traditions, but mostly it stands on its traditional feet. Wider communication, increased civic and youth awareness and reinforced gastronomic culture could promote new concepts and interest of younger people being interest in learning their culture and language of origin, and the related traditions.

Open access

Abstract

This paper examines the drivers and the size of the shadow economies of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. It also investigates the tax losses associated with these shadow economic activities in all three countries. The Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model is applied and uses time series data covering the period 1990–2019. The key findings show that the sizes of the shadow economies of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland are 10.44, 11.18 and 20.47% respectively. The results also show that the average size of the shadow economies between 1990–2019 was 14.92% in the Czech Republic, 18.72% in Hungary and 22.85% in Poland. The Czech Republic loses 3.13% of tax revenue from goods and services and 2.83% from incomes and profits as a result of the shadow economy, while Hungary loses 5.05% of tax revenue from goods and services and 1.68% from incomes and profits. Poland loses 5.25% of tax revenue from goods and services and 4.34% from incomes and profits.

Open access

This article offers an overview of the birth and the publication output of Across Languages and Cultures: A Multidisciplinary Journal for Translation and Interpreting Studies spanning the period between 2000 and the present day. It presents the circumstances and the aims of its creation and, based on the results of a thorough bibliometric analysis, it reveals how the journal has evolved into a Q1 international journal of Translation Studies through publishing individual as well as collaborative research conducted internationally. The analyses present the activity of the journal dominantly (but not exclusively) in figures, relating to the number and the lengths of the articles it publishes, its authorship, the countries where its authors work and its citations. The second part of the study reveals the main focuses, themes and languages of inquiry as reflected by the most frequently used words and expressions in the titles, abstracts and the lists of keywords of the articles. The paper ends by demonstrating the ways in which the journal has contributed to furthering and shaping translation research in Hungary, Europe and worldwide.

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Abstract

Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) present an important therapeutic problem, as there are limited number of effective therapeutic alternatives available. In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to characterize carbapenemase-production and other resistance-determinants (AmpC and ESBL-production, efflux pump-overexpression) in 50 isolates (Klebsiella spp. n = 35, Escherichia coli n = 12 and Enterobacter cloacae complex n = 3) collected at the Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center (University of Szeged) between 2014 and 2017. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of meropenem, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tigecycline, amikacin, moxifloxacin, colistin and fosfomycin were also determined. 24% of isolates were AmpC-producers, while 30% carried bla CTX-M ESBL-genes. Carbapenemase-genes were detected in 18 (36%) of the tested isolates: in 2 isolates bla NDM, in 6 isolates bla OXA-48-like and in 12 isolates, bla VIM was detected by PCR. The species-distribution for isolates positive for carbapenemase-genes was the following: Klebsiella pneumoniae n = 11, Klebsiella oxytoca n = 1, E. coli n = 5, E. cloacae complex n = 1. Efflux pump-overexpression based on the PAβN-screening agar was shown in n = 3 of the tested strains. In nine isolates (18%), carbapenemase and ESBL-genes were detected simultaneously. Highest levels of resistance were noted for fosfomycin (74%) and moxifloxacin (70%), while all isolates were susceptible to colistin. Among applied phenotypic tests in this study the modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) proved to be the most accurate one compared to that of PCR results.

Open access