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Abstract

Today, the role of humans is changing rapidly in both industrial production activities and services. Mediocre, easy-to-learn activities can be performed more efficiently by machines; mediocre knowledge is being devalued while the importance of high-level skills is increasing. As a result, in all sectors of the economy, and especially in engineering, new approaches to expert training are needed; people must learn to hand over certain decision-making roles and to control the processes supported by AI rather than compete with it. STEM education has a responsibility to achieve these goals and must develop appropriate tools for engineering education. This paper presents a complex didactic methodology for competency-based education in engineering bachelor programs. An important element is the mathematical competency map, which shows the importance and place of mathematical and algorithmic (coding) knowledge in engineering topics. Another element is the systematic testing of mathematical knowledge in non-mathematical contexts in engineering courses. We provide an overview of our achievements in applying the developed toolset and improving the efficiency of mathematics teaching in engineering bachelor programs.

Open access

Abstract

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and aseptic loosening (AL) are common complications of total joint arthroplasty. An accumulation of evidence indicates the presence of microbial communities on prosthetic implants, but the overall microbial profile is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the differences in the microbial composition of prosthetic implants obtained from PJI and AL patients using the 16S rRNA sequencing method. Patients who underwent revision hip, knee, or shoulder arthroplasty caused by PJI (n = 20) or AL (n = 10) were enrolled in the study. 16S rRNA sequencing targeting the V3–V4 region was performed on the microbial specimens collected from synovial fluid, periprosthetic deep-tissue, and biofilm during the revision surgery. The sequenced raw data were analysed for microbial composition and ecological and differential abundance analyses using bioinformatics tools. The AL group had relatively balanced and higher diversity, with Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Veillonella being prominent. In the PJI group, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were predominant, especially in deep-tissue samples and biofilm samples, respectively. The differential abundance analysis identified 15 and 2 distinctive taxa in the AL and PJI groups, respectively. Our findings provided preliminary insights supporting the existence of periprosthetic microbiota in orthopedic implants and explaining the differences in microbial composition between the AL and PJI groups.

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A bi-cyclic 4-polytope in ℝ4 was introduced by Z. Smilansky as the convex hull of evenly spaced points on a generalized trigonometric moment curve in ℝ4. We present combinatorial geometric conditions that yield the face lattices of a class of such 4-polytopes.

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Epstein–Barr-vírus által indukált hemolízis diffúz nagy B-sejtes limfómában

Epstein-Barr-Virus Induced Hemolysis in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

Hematológia–Transzfuziológia
Authors:
Réka Németh
,
Réka Ráhel Bicskó
,
Árpád Illés
, and
Lajos Gergely

A diffúz nagy B-sejtes limfóma a világ egyik leggyakoribb limfoid malignitása. Önmagában, illetve a kezelésének köszönhetően jelentős immunszuppresszív állapot alakulhat ki, amely esetekben számos alkalommal találkozhatunk ritka szövődményekkel, így például vírusok által létrehozott hemolízissel is. A 68 éves férfi betegünk kezdeti betegsége kiterjedt, Ann Arbor IV. stádiumú volt, de a kombinált kemoterápiának köszönhetően a kezelés végén komplett metabolikus remisszió igazolódott. Ezután nyolc hónappal igazolódott nála a Coombs-pozitív meleg típusú hemolitikus anémia, amelynek során a legkisebb hemoglobin érték 47 g L 1-nek adódott, és a hemolízis számos egyéb laborparamétere is mérhető volt. Az eltérések etiológiájaként PCR-vizsgálattal sikerült megerősíteni az Epstein–Barr-vírus fertőzést. A kezdeti szteroidterápia mellett a betegnek folyamatos transzfúzióigénye volt, így egy alkalommal 10 g intravénás immunglobulin készítményt kapott, majd a pozitív szerológiai eredmény birtokában egy alkalommal 100 mg anti-CD20 hatású rituximabot alkalmaztunk. A kombinált terápia hatására – amelynek hatásosságáról számos irodalmi adat áll rendelkezésünkre – a beteg hemoglobinértéke stabilizálódott, transzfúzióigénye megszűnt, a később elvégzett kontroll EBV PCR-vizsgálat pedig negatív eredményt mutatott. Bár a bemutatott eset ritka, mégis számos közleményt találunk főként immunszupprimált egyénekben kialakult hemolitikus eseményekre, amelyek a fent említett kombinált terápia hatására sikeresen meggyógyultak.

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Főszerkesztői előszó

Editor-in-Chief's greetings

Hematológia–Transzfuziológia
Authors:
Árpád Illés
and
Csaba Bödör
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Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies
Authors:
Renátó Vági
,
István Üveges
,
Andrea Megyeri
,
Anna Fülöp
,
János Pál Vadász
,
Dániel Nagy
, and
Gergely Márk Csányi

Abstract

Access to justice is a significant area of legal research, especially for Socio-Legal studies. The main research topics of this area are economic or class differences, gender inequalities, or national and ethnic differences in access to justice. However, there is a less discussed aspect of access to justice: the differences between access to legal information and the differences in user groups in terms of comprehending and processing legal information. This is an important topic because there are significant differences among people's abilities to process and understand legal texts, depending on whether we are dealing with a lawyer who is an expert in the given field, a non-expert lawyer, or a citizen with a low or zero (legal) educational level. The paper argues that unsupervised machine learning solutions can help even out these differences. It presents different unsupervised solutions, mainly clustering and topic modelling, which can help to increase access to legal information. Then we present a case study in which we examine these unsupervised tools in the processing of resolutions of the Central Bank in Hungary and anonymized court decisions. The paper argues that these tools can reveal the hidden contextual regularities in unstructured legal texts, facilitating the search for legal texts even for non-legal-experts.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Mahmood Alhafadhi
,
Masar Alsigar
,
Oudah Zahraa A.
,
Zoltán Bézi
,
Alden abd alal Sahm
, and
P. Ravinder Reddy

Abstract

Using finite element methods, residual stresses were estimated in pipe welds. Experiments were also conducted to verify the numerical results. An alternative to a three-dimensional model was used to simplify the numerical calculation for residual stresses investigation. Model predictions were validated by measuring residual stresses using X-ray diffraction. As compared to measured residual stress distributions, the computational approaches developed in this study can accurately predict welding residual stress distributions. The focused welding parameters have a significant impact on residual stresses even when all the other parameters are the same.

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Abstract

When e-commerce appeared in the 1990s it brought with it disputes related to its operation. E-commerce is risky as the contracting parties do not even know each other, not to mention the fact that disputes have additional legal difficulties concerning jurisdiction and applicable law. However, e-commerce websites have worked out online dispute resolution (ODR) systems in order to maintain the trust of their users, employing an efficient and impartial method if problems arise from deals made on their website. These internal ODR systems are considered successful as they are faster, cheaper and more appropriate than asking for remedy from the courts.

As online marketplaces resolve tens of millions of disputes a year, their influence cannot be avoided. The traditional court system fails to protect consumer rights in high-volume and low-value international transactions in practice. This circumstance raises the question of whether internal dispute resolution systems of private e-commerce sites could develop in such a way that fulfils the minimum procedural fairness requirements for dispute resolution and that is acceptable according to substantial laws. Is justice served in online disputes? Who is responsible for making just decisions, and to what extent can ODR procedures be expected to meet the principles of traditional civil proceedings?

Open access