Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 84,021 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Piotr Cybulski
,
Katrin Strutzberg-Minder
,
Edyta Michalik
,
Radosław Kondratiuk
, and
Artur Jabłoński

Abstract

Nowadays, the three strongly beta-haemolytic spirochaetes, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira suanatina and Brachyspira hampsonii are thought to be causative agents of swine dysentery, an economically devastating disease of grow-finish pigs characterised by severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrhoea. B. hyodysenteriae has been reported in most leading swine-producing regions. B. suanatina and B. hampsonii have been successfully recovered from faecal samples collected in a few countries only. The present study was performed in March 2023 on faecal samples originating from nine Polish finisher farms with 6,000 to 18,000 animals in a location. Samples were obtained from 40 diarrhoeic finishers. Nucleic acid extracted from the samples was analysed using multiplex PCR for Brachyspira spp. From a total of nine sample populations examined in our study, the genetic material of B. hampsonii was identified in two. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular detection of B. hampsonii on pig farms outside North America, Belgium and Germany. Our research highlights the need for increased focus directed on laboratory testing strategies, the lack of which may perplex swine practitioners and severely hinder a definite diagnosis.

Restricted access

This study assesses the elemental composition of Egyptian glauconite sediments, focusing on potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and macronutrients. The primary aim is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing these sediments as a natural source of potassium for agricultural purposes, besides conventional chemical fertilizers like potassium sulfate. To quantify elemental content, chemical analysis was employed across five distinct grain size fractions after grinding glauconite rock. The assessment included potassium, calcium, sodium, and PTE concentrations, utilizing potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium acetate lactate (AL Solution) as single extractants, and the BCR extraction protocol, in addition to measuring the pseudo-total content of these elements. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) facilitated a comparative analysis of elemental concentrations. Results indicate PTE concentrations within European Union regulations, with an absence of cadmium. Glauconite samples contain approximately 3–3.3% potassium by weight, alongside significant amounts of essential macronutrients (calcium, magnesium) and micronutrients (copper, nickel, zinc) crucial for agriculture. BCR sequential extraction protocol results closely align with or slightly surpass pseudo-total content results. Notably, the AL Solution demonstrates high efficiency compared to KCl or acetic acid in the first step of the BCR method. BCR sequential protocol provides valuable insights into various elemental forms and potential mobility. Overall, this study reveals that glauconite has the potential to serve as a promising alternative potassium fertilizer without causing adverse environmental impacts.

Open access

Abstract

This study investigated the sero-epidemiology of bluetongue in ruminants in North-Western Pakistan. A total of 3,173 serum samples were collected from small (n = 1,651) and large (n = 1,522) ruminants being reared by farmers in 14 districts. Antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected using competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence of BTV antibodies was 65%. A significant association (P < 0.05) between the prevalence of BTV antibodies and the risk factors including sex, species, age, area, husbandry practices and breed was shown by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, the seroprevalence was 6.5 (95% CL = 3.7–11.4), 5.9 (95% CL = 3.8–9.4) and 2.4 (95% CL = 1.5–3.7) times higher in buffaloes, cattle and goats than sheep, respectively. The seroprevalence was 1.4 (95% CL = 1.1–1.7) times higher in local breeds than in cross/exotic breeds. The seroprevalence was 1.6 (95% CL = 1.1 to 2.3) times higher in sedentary animals than in nomadic animals. The seroprevalence was significantly associated with age. Further work is required to determine the BTV serotypes prevalent in the study area for effective control of the disease.

Restricted access

Abstract

This research developed an analytical framework for industry-oriented leading cyclical indicators (CII), focusing on monitoring and forecasting economic cycles within the European Union (EU). Various methodologies for constructing these indicators were examined through an exhaustive sector analysis. A salient conclusion drawn is the non-feasibility of a one-size-fits-all composite leading indicator for all EU members. It underscores the imperative to tailor these indicators in congruence with the unique industrial characteristics of each country. The study provides empirical evidence that countries like Denmark, Germany, Austria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland and Sweden can benefit from high-caliber composite leading indicators tailored to their economies. Our analysis suggests that GDP is a more robust metric than the Industrial Production Index for predicting economic cycles for the EU countries.

Restricted access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Dominik Gulyás
,
Gábor Kovács
,
István Jankovics
,
Máté Hidvégi
,
Béla Dénes
,
Lilla Kálfalvy-Molnár
,
Rebeka Nagypál
, and
Márta Lőrincz

Abstract

The interplay of regulatory T cells (Tregs) within the tumour microenvironment presents a significant challenge in anticancer immunotherapy. This study investigates the potential of Treg blockade to enhance the efficiency of effector T cells. Two distinct treatment cocktails were examined: 3p-hpRNA (5′ triphosphate hairpin RNA) combined with unmethylated CpG oligonucleotide (CpG); CpG in combination with OX40 receptor-specific monoclonal antibody (anti-OX40). Treatment efficacy was assessed using a murine model of kidney adenocarcinoma.

Renca cells (renal cortical cells with adenocarcinoma) were subcutaneously engrafted in 30 BALB/c mice, then animals were allocated into three treatment groups: Group 1: CpG+anti-OX40, Group 2: CpG+3p-hpRNA, Group 3: untreated control. Treatment efficacy was evaluated based on tumour growth, the occurrence of metastases and overall survival.

On day 28 post-implantation, experiments had to be terminated due to tumour progression. Although comparisons of survival times and primary tumour sizes thus became inconsequential, histological examinations provided valuable insights. We observed distinct variations in primary tumour characteristics among the different groups: Groups 1 and 2 displayed demarcations, while Group 3 exhibited diffuse tumours with necrosis. Lung metastases were evident in 70% of untreated mice, whereas none were observed in either of the treated groups.

Our findings instil confidence in the potential efficacy of the treatments, thereby laying a solid foundation for future investigations.

Open access

Abstract

This study examines the complexity in the Eastern European economies, with a focus on the role of foreign direct investment (FDI). Despite transitioning to market economies, these countries remain economically fragile and dependent. Their lower technological complexity and reliance on foreign capacity make them vulnerable. However, some countries like Austria and Poland demonstrate successful integration of production and innovation. The analysis shows FDI has a limited impact on developing complex knowledge but contributes positively to economic complexity. Results also indicate that in the long-term, economic and technological complexity does not lead to accelerated total factor productivity growth, contrary to complexity literature. Combining labour with innovation, safeguarding local industries, and prioritizing education and research are more effective approaches. The study clearly shows how Hungary is stuck in an “assembler trap.” It also finds that the gap between economic and technological complexity negatively affects liberal democracies.

Open access
Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
José Antonio Clemente-Almendros
,
Florin Teodor Boldeanu
,
Cristina Drumea
, and
Samer Ajour El Zein

Abstract

This paper investigates the use of redundancy procedures (RPs) by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. The novelty of this study is that it goes beyond the direct influence of the determinants of RPs on RP use, and analyses how the interactions among them moderate the direct effect. In contexts of rising uncertainty, businesses need to adapt their operations and fixed costs, including staffing. While teleworking is an alternative to RPs, our results show that it was not enough to deal with the negative impact of a worsening crisis. Moreover, when the survival of the business is at stake, the use of RPs increases further when the company is simultaneously affected by changes in demand and liquidity issues. We argue that our results reveal the need for flexible tools along with the policies that take into account the fact that businesses' reactions are contingent on their exposure to risk.

Full access

Abstract

The dividend puzzle for private corporations has a long-lasting history. Six theories provide explanations to this puzzle. However, the dividend puzzle has not yet been discussed as an economic problem for state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The article addresses this issue based mainly on the experience of the Bulgarian SOEs.

In the paper all well-known six theoretical concepts of the dividend puzzle are presented and their strengths and weaknesses are analysed. Furthermore, the specific features of SOEs are brought out and the dividend puzzle for them is formulated. Presenting the experience of the dividend policy of SOEs, a confrontation with the theories is made. It is proved that only the theory of dividend payment preference is relevant to SOEs.

Restricted access

Ellátásbiztonság az energiaátmenet időszakában

Security of supply in times of energy transition

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Ágnes Csermely
,
Péter Kaderják
,
Balázs Lengyel
,
Anna Mészégető
, and
Pálma Szolnoki

Összefoglalás.

A zöld energetikai átállás folyamatát leggyakrabban klímavédelmi szempontok alapján elemzik. Ebben a cikkben az energiabiztonságra gyakorolt hatását vizsgáljuk a megújuló energiahordozók térnyerésének. A mérleg pozitív serpenyőjében szerepel az energiafüggetlenséghez való hozzájárulás, a széles körben elérhető technológia és a fosszilis energiahordozókhoz képest kiszámítható árazás. A folyamat ugyanakkor számos kihívással is együtt jár, melyek közül kiemeljük a szezonális tárolás lehetőségének korlátosságát, az ellátásbiztonsághoz szükséges nem időjárásfüggő tartalékkapacitások fenntartásának nehézségeit, a hálózatüzemeltetéssel kapcsolatos problémákat, a digitalizációval együtt növekvő kiberbiztonsági kockázatokat és a kritikus alapanyagok koncentrációjából fakadó kihívásokat. E kihívásokra költséghatékony megoldásokat kell kialakítani, így a zöldenergia térnyerése komplex, a szakpolitika koordinációját igénylő, több évtizeden áthúzódó folyamat lesz.

Summary.

The green energy transition process is most often analysed from a climate protection perspective. In this article, we look at the impact of rising renewable generation on the security of energy supply. On the positive side there is renewables’ contribution to energy independence, their widespread availability, and their predictable pricing compared to fossil fuels. However, the process of increasing the share of renewables also carries several challenges, including the limitations of seasonal storage, the difficulties of maintaining non-weather-dependent reserve capacity for security of supply, grid management issues, the growing cyber security risks associated with digitalisation and the concentration of the availability of critical minerals. Cost-effective solutions to these challenges need to be developed, making the take-up of green energy a complex process that requires policy coordination over the next several decades.

Open access

Előszó

Foreword

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Marcell Gáspár
and
Attila Aszódi
Open access