Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 2,825 items for :

  • Architecture and Architectonics x
  • All content x
Clear All

Abstract

The main contribution of this paper is to present the efficiency of LabVIEW in simulating and controlling a servo system with conventional methods (PI and PID control), as well as sliding mode control (SMC). The control of an actual system with LabVIEW and NI hardware provides an efficient implementation platform, using both LabVIEW’s graphical programming and the text-based m-file language MathScript RT. Both programming environments and the connection to NI hardware are relatively easy to use, therefore, ideal for education. The graphical “coding” can help novice users to see through their algorithms. However, the mathematical background of sliding mode control is difficult compared to conventional PID control; the SMC implementation for practical uses can be quite simple, as the presented example demonstrates. The first didactic step is a simulation with the Control Design and Simulation, as well as MathScript RT Modules. Then a myRIO Student Embedded Device is used to control a real servo system. LabVIEW code can be compiled to run on computers, (soft) real-time targets, and FPGAs (hard real-time targets), so students can easily and quickly step up to real industrial measurement and control problems without the need to learn new programming environments.

Open access

Abstract

The irregular buildings constitute a large part of urban infrastructure and they are currently adopted in many structures for architectural or esthetic reasons. In contrast, the behavior of these buildings during an earthquake generates a detrimental effect on their regularity in elevation which leads to the total collapse of these structures.

The objective of this work is essentially to model reinforced concrete framed buildings irregular in elevation subjected to seismic loads by the Finite Element Method (FEM). This modeling aims to evaluate several parameters: displacements, inter-storey drifts and rigidities, using two dynamic calculation methods; one modal and the other spectral modal. The latter is widely used by engineers.

For this purpose, a detailed study of the frames which have several setbacks in elevation is carried out to validate the correct functioning of our FEM calculation code in both cases of modal and modal spectral analyses. The performance, accuracy and robustness of the FEM calculation code produced in this study is shown by the good correlation of the obtained results for the treated frames with those obtained using the ETABS software.

Open access

Abstract

The study demonstrated that cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus cornucopiae and Pleurotus djamor on selenium enriched substrate did not significantly affect biological efficiency (%), but total soluble protein content, total phenolic content, flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity (%) were found to be significantly improved in Se enriched fruit bodies as compared to the control. Elemental analysis of the Se biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms through SEM-EDS showed signals characteristic for selenium on surface of P. ostreatus. var. florida and P. djamor confirming that selenium was incorporated into the cell wall of these fruiting bodies. The Se content was found to be 22.34 μg g−1 dw in Se enriched wheat straw and 0.059 μg g−1 dw in respective non-enriched wheat straw. Se contents of Se-enriched fruit bodies were found to be higher compared to non-enriched Pleurotus spp. FT-IR spectra of proteins from Pleurotus spp. indicated an increase in the flexibility, unfolding, hydrophilicity of the proteins upon Se supplementation.

Restricted access

Abstract

A product with increased quality and nutritional value can be developed by enriching noodles with shrimp meat (SM). The formulation of noodle dough was supplemented with SM (10, 20 and 30% w/w). The noodles were freeze-dried due to the susceptibility of added SM to spoilage. Water activity values of all samples were below 0.35. The highest protein (19.37 ± 1.04%), lipid (39.30 ± 1.69%), moisture (6.31 ± 0.42%) and energy (571.14 ± 10.16 kcal/100 g) contents were determined in noodles with 30% shrimp meat content (30S). Carbohydrate value of noodles decreased with the SM fortification level. Cooking quality characteristics of SM added noodles, especially 10S, were better in terms of weight gain, volume increase and cooking loss. The highest L* and b* values, which are expected to be high by the consumers, were reached with 10S and 30S, respectively. The value of a* increased with the addition of SM. Hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness values of the noodles increased with an increase in the level of shrimp content. Addition of SM improved the microstructure of noodles due to enriched protein matrix. Nutritious noodles with high cooking quality and a potential for long shelf life are intended for athletes and individuals with special nutritional needs.

Restricted access

Abstract

Crash tests of vehicles are specified by government programs. This laws are includes only minimum requirements for individual components. Therefore additional consumer protection load cases have been developed by independent private institutes. Finite element method simulations can reduce development periods and the number of cost-intensive real crash tests. The goals of the calculations are that the early detection of component failure, the protection of occupants or pedestrians. The biggest challenge of the future, in the field of vehicle occupant safety is the interaction of the airbags and belt system with dummy by the electric vehicles, which have the concept of autonomous driving function. The aim of the research is to investigate this area using a simulation model.

Open access

Abstract

A quaternary supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement decreases CO2 emission. This paper has investigated the properties of mortars made from different quaternary blends of wood ash, steel slag powder and glass powder with ordinary Portland cement at different replacement levels of 0, 24, 25, and 30% by weight of the binder. The blended mortar mixtures tested for flow, compressive strength and density. The results showed that the flow of mortars is decreased with the combined use of steel slag powder, glass powder, and wood ash compared with control mix. Compressive strength reduced with the combination of steel slag powder, glass powder and wood ash but this reduction effects is acceptable especially at 24% replacement contain super-plasticizer compared with the ecological benefit.

Restricted access

Abstract

Recently, one of the most common needs of people are to be connected to the Internet anytime, anywhere, anyhow. The Internet of Things is a materialized paradigm in which everyday objects are implemented with Internet connectivity, enabling them to collect and interchange information. As energy is expected to be more expensive, the energy supply is often not available for IoT devices, the low power wide area networks attempt to be the solution to this problem. LoRaWAN provides radio coverage over long distances by enhancing the reach of the base stations via adapting transmission rates, transmission power, modulation, duty cycles, etc. This paper aims to decrease the power consumption using machine learning and deep neural network by applying support vector regression and deep neural network algorithms, which can support to extend the battery lifetime.

Open access

Abstract

This article considers factors of number of sidings and the occurrences of transit traffic and presents a comparison of selected railway lines in Poland. Multi-criteria analysis methods were used, like the zero unitarization method and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method. The comparison made it possible to arrange the selected railway lines in the order from the most to the least useful. The obtained results showed also that zero unitarization method is limited only to the analysis of all lines on which transit traffic occurs or all lines without transit traffic. The comparison of all lines is possible using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method.

Restricted access

Abstract

As it is clear, worldwide buildings are the largest consumer of the final energy consumption. In Algeria, it has been reported that 33% of the overall energy consumption was attributed to buildings. This is due to the design and constructional techniques of the residential buildings, which do not address the local climatic condition. To assess this situation, the study is focused on analyzing the existing residential buildings in Algeria, in terms of energy, thermal, daylight, and indoor air quality performance, using a dynamic simulation software. Typical building design in a hot and dry climate was selected. The results revealed that the existing residential buildings do not comply with the energy-efficient design standards. It was concluded that further strategies should be applied in this sector, in terms of building design, materials, and façade configuration.

Open access

Abstract

The urban story of the Ex European city in Biskra presents an inevitable impact on the perceptive images of the Algerian cities. The examination of the building’s condition in the historical center indicates a deteriorated state in most of the structure caused by various degradations. The field study aims to classify the French quarter’s constructions according to multiple criteria, based on the identifications of related conservation statuses. Thus the census data contributes to the regeneration of the checkerboard condition while proceeding with the resolution of the threatening mutations - amplifying the qualities and potentials for a sustainable renewal of this built heritage.

Open access