Crash tests of vehicles are specified by government programs. This laws are includes only minimum requirements for individual components. Therefore additional consumer protection load cases have been developed by independent private institutes. Finite element method simulations can reduce development periods and the number of cost-intensive real crash tests. The goals of the calculations are that the early detection of component failure, the protection of occupants or pedestrians. The biggest challenge of the future, in the field of vehicle occupant safety is the interaction of the airbags and belt system with dummy by the electric vehicles, which have the concept of autonomous driving function. The aim of the research is to investigate this area using a simulation model.
Authors:Eethar Thanon Dawood and Marwa Saadi Mhmood
A quaternary supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement decreases CO2 emission. This paper has investigated the properties of mortars made from different quaternary blends of wood ash, steel slag powder and glass powder with ordinary Portland cement at different replacement levels of 0, 24, 25, and 30% by weight of the binder. The blended mortar mixtures tested for flow, compressive strength and density. The results showed that the flow of mortars is decreased with the combined use of steel slag powder, glass powder, and wood ash compared with control mix. Compressive strength reduced with the combination of steel slag powder, glass powder and wood ash but this reduction effects is acceptable especially at 24% replacement contain super-plasticizer compared with the ecological benefit.
Authors:Husam Rajab, Mussa Ebrahim, and Tibor Cinkler
Recently, one of the most common needs of people are to be connected to the Internet anytime, anywhere, anyhow. The Internet of Things is a materialized paradigm in which everyday objects are implemented with Internet connectivity, enabling them to collect and interchange information. As energy is expected to be more expensive, the energy supply is often not available for IoT devices, the low power wide area networks attempt to be the solution to this problem. LoRaWAN provides radio coverage over long distances by enhancing the reach of the base stations via adapting transmission rates, transmission power, modulation, duty cycles, etc. This paper aims to decrease the power consumption using machine learning and deep neural network by applying support vector regression and deep neural network algorithms, which can support to extend the battery lifetime.
This article considers factors of number of sidings and the occurrences of transit traffic and presents a comparison of selected railway lines in Poland. Multi-criteria analysis methods were used, like the zero unitarization method and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method. The comparison made it possible to arrange the selected railway lines in the order from the most to the least useful. The obtained results showed also that zero unitarization method is limited only to the analysis of all lines on which transit traffic occurs or all lines without transit traffic. The comparison of all lines is possible using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method.
Authors:Messaouda Rais, Adel Boumerzoug, and Balint Baranyai
As it is clear, worldwide buildings are the largest consumer of the final energy consumption. In Algeria, it has been reported that 33% of the overall energy consumption was attributed to buildings. This is due to the design and constructional techniques of the residential buildings, which do not address the local climatic condition. To assess this situation, the study is focused on analyzing the existing residential buildings in Algeria, in terms of energy, thermal, daylight, and indoor air quality performance, using a dynamic simulation software. Typical building design in a hot and dry climate was selected. The results revealed that the existing residential buildings do not comply with the energy-efficient design standards. It was concluded that further strategies should be applied in this sector, in terms of building design, materials, and façade configuration.
The urban story of the Ex European city in Biskra presents an inevitable impact on the perceptive images of the Algerian cities. The examination of the building’s condition in the historical center indicates a deteriorated state in most of the structure caused by various degradations. The field study aims to classify the French quarter’s constructions according to multiple criteria, based on the identifications of related conservation statuses. Thus the census data contributes to the regeneration of the checkerboard condition while proceeding with the resolution of the threatening mutations - amplifying the qualities and potentials for a sustainable renewal of this built heritage.
Authors:Shaymaa Alsamia, Dhorgham S. Ibrahim, and Hazim N. Ghafil
The most crucial function in drilling wells is the rate of penetration, which is modeled by many researchers, and the best one is Young-Bourgyen model, which is used in this study. Eight factors affecting rate of penetration have been studied and approved in developing a mathematical equation that shows the combined effects of these variables on rate of penetration optimization. This paper presents an efficient way to find the optimum values for parameters of the Young-Bourgyen model using metaheuristic algorithms. An actual drilling data was used from Khangiran field to calculate the difference between the actual penetration rate and the predicted one by different optimization algorithms. Particle swarm optimization, dynamic differential annealing optimization, artificial bee colony, gray wolf optimization, Harris hawk's optimization, flower pollination algorithm, firefly algorithm, whale optimization algorithm, and sine cosine algorithm are used to find best possible solution.
Authors:Mohammad Reza Ganjali Bonjar, Bálint Baranyai, Kristóf Roland Horváth, and István Kistelegdi
The aim of this paper is to present a solution for optimizing the operation of the Szentágothai Research Center. This building has several different functions at a high degree, so it can represent most of the difficulties in achieving an ideal level of operation energy consumption while assuring an adequate comfort level.
As a first stage of a generic office building optimization research, a monitored reference building of common type was chosen. Various active operation optimization experiments were carried out. The successive reduction of operation intensity and schedules resulted in 63.3% operation energy savings. The results provide considerable potential in generic office design applications.
The energy performance of residential buildings depends on a large number of interrelated factors. The present paper outlines an approach to developing a building thermal simulation model through real-time data and sensitivity analyses. To this end, three existing multi-family apartment buildings in Pristina, Kosovo, were selected. Initially, thermal simulation models were created using multiple data sources. Model outputs were further evaluated via comparison with available and measured data. Consequently, the most influential input parameters were identified and adjusted to calibrate the models. The resulting calibrated models can be deployed to investigate the potential of alternative retrofit measures.
In this paper, to improve the durability of concrete, fly ash has been used as a percentage of cement and copper slag rather than a percentage of sand. Using a resistance test and water permeability test, four series of concrete specimens containing fly ash and copper slag, each containing 49 concrete mixing designs, were evaluated. After obtaining the results, eight samples with the highest electrical resistance were selected and the specimens were again tested in different environmental conditions. The results show that the environmental conditions of sulfate and carbonate have the least and most impact on reducing durability and there is a power relationship, with good precision, between the water penetration of the test specimens and the electrical resistance of the test specimens.