Watermills in Kosovo have been for centuries a characteristic element of river valley landscapes and have played a very important socio-economic role in the country. Although nowadays some preserved and functioning watermills exist, most of them are abandoned, destroyed, and many with very few remains to trace. This research aims to identify and describe the current state of the watermills in the western part of the Lipjan Municipality, as well as to mark them on a geographic information system map. This study examines the possibility of restoring these mills to their original function or adapting them to a new function. The study sampled one of the identified mills, analyzed its characteristics, and the possibility of restoration and preservation for tourism and cultural heritage purposes.
Authors:Cs. Dobolyi, K. Inotai, I. Bata-Vidács, D. Sárkány, O. Csernus, S. Kocsubé, B. Tóth, A. Szekeres, and J. Kukolya
Aspergillus strains were isolated from Hungarian mills in order to get information on the appearance of sterigmatocystin (ST) producing moulds, whose presence has never been demonstrated in Hungary. Fungal isolates were classified into nine morphotypes, sections Nigri, Nidulantes, Versicolores (two morphotypes), Circumdati, Flavi (two morphotypes), Clavati and Terrei by classical mycological assays. ST producing strains could be classified into section Versicolores. ST production of the isolates was assessed by liquid and solid phase growth experiments and compared to ST producing reference strains: Aspergillus pepii SzMC 22332, Aspergillus versicolor SzMC 22333, Aspergillus griseoaurantiacus SzMC 22334 and Aspergillus nidulans RDIT9.32. Four of our isolates marked as Km11, Km14, Km26 and Km31 showed ST production in liquid medium. ST production on solid phase corn grit substrate was measured after three weeks of incubation, and Km26 isolate proved to be the most prominent with a toxin concentration of 277.1 μg g−1, surpassing all reference strains. The toxin-producing ability of Km26 isolate was also tested in a field experiment, where corn was infected. By the end of the experiment, ST level of 19.56 μg kg−1 was measured in infected corn.
Molecular taxonomic identification of the Km26 strain was performed using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), calmodulin and tubulin sequence analyses. Based on these studies, strain Km26 was identified as Aspergillus creber.
Here we report that an ST-producing A. creber strain has appeared in Hungary, and the Km26 strain is the first known extreme ST-producing mould in this country. As a result of climate change, aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus strains have appeared in Hungary in the last decade. As strain Km26 is the only A. creber isolate in Hungary so far, there is no sign of mass prevalence, and due to the lower temperature optimum of the species compared to A. flavus, its appearance is probably not related to climate change.
Authors:F.S. Mohammed, M. Pehlivan, E. Sevindik, H. Akgul, M. Sevindik, I. Bozgeyik, and O. Yumrutas
In this study, antioxidant, oxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities of Asparagus acutifolius L. and Asparagus officinalis L., known for their nutritional properties, were determined. In this context, methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of plants were obtained. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined using Rel Assay kits. Antimicrobial activities of plant extracts were determined against the test microorganisms using the agar dilution method. Antiproliferative activity was tested on the lung cancer cell line A549. As a result of the studies, it has been determined that the plant species have high antioxidant potential. In addition, it was observed that the antifungal potentials of plant extracts are high. Antiproliferative activity was determined to be at high level in both plant species. As a result, it has been determined that A. acutifolius and A. officinalis have medical potential and can be used as natural agents in pharmacological designs.
Authors:A. Kabas, A. Ersoy, S. Zengin, and M. Golukcu
Tomato is worldwide the most grown vegetable. The primary target of breeding programs is to develop new tomato cultivars that are resistant to pests and diseases, in combination with high quality and yield, well-adaptation and good firmness. Among the different tomato types, cherry and cocktail tomatoes are widely preferred by consumers due to their better taste and appearance. In this study, two female tester lines were crossed with four male lines to obtain new tomato hybrids. The eight F1 hybrids and two commercial hybrids were planted in a randomised complete block design with two replications in a greenhouse in Antalya. The tomatoes of the hybrids and lines were harvested at fully ripened stage to evaluate yield, total soluble solids (TSS), fruit firmness, lycopene content and fruit colour parameters. TSS values of the cultivars and lines ranged from 4.5 to 9.5 °Bx, fruit firmness from 7.94 to 11.85 kg cm−2, lycopene from 52.10 to 55.88 mg kg−1, yield from 554.3 to 1336.7 g/plant. Hybrid AK0020 was found the best for both yield and quality.
Authors:K. Berisha, H. Bytyçi, Zs. Mednyánszky, E. Kiss, and L. Simon-Sarkadi
To our knowledge, there is a lack of information on the nutrient composition of Busha cattle milk with special regard to its amino acid and biogenic amine contents. The Busha cattle breed is known to be highly resistant to various diseases and well-adapted to the extensive breeding conditions of the Balkan Peninsula. Busha cow milk contains an average of 13.47% dry matter, 4.34% fat, 3.72 % protein, and 4.32% lactose. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05) in the amino acid compositions of the milk of different Busha cattle strains of Kosovo. Glutamic acid, proline, leucine, aspartic acid, lysine, and valine represented 68% of the total amino acid content. Essential amino acids, branched-chain and sulphur-containing amino acids were found in substantial amounts in the milk samples. Among the biogenic amines, however, spermine (0.16 mg kg−1) and cadaverine (0.09 mg kg−1) were present in low concentrations. Due to these excellent qualities of the Busha cow milk, preservation of this cattle breed is of great importance. Developing sustainable and secured breeding and feeding programs for this endangered cattle breed of the Balkan Peninsula should also be a high priority.
Authors:Laith Sh. Rasheed, Laith Mohammed Ridha Mahmmod, Sara Alaa Abed Alameer, and Abdulrasool Thamer Abdulrasool
In this research, the long-term potential cracking of normal concrete internally cured with clay brick waste as a sustainable approach was investigated. 10% and 15% volume of sand was substituted with corresponding quantity of pre-saturated clay brick waste to enhance the hydration of cement and improve properties of concrete. Four beams internally cured were compared with two control beams. The use of clay brick waste can improve the compressive and splitting tensile strength and also a significant reduction in cracks were observed. Depending on the recorded results, it is demonstrated that the exemplary percentages of clay brick waste to natural fine aggregate was found to be 15%, which developed greatest compressive and splitting tensile strength, and reduce the crack by means of flexural test.
Improvement of nutritive profile of pork sausages was performed by fat reduction and partial substitution of backfat with soybean oil (SBO). The control sausage was made from pork backfat. For the studied samples, SBO in native and pre-emulsified forms was used for partial substitution of backfat at 25% (by wt of backfat) to produce sausages with various fat contents (30, 20, and 10%). Discontinuity of protein matrix could be observed with increasing fat content, especially for addition of pork backfat. Improvement on product stability could be achieved using SBO, especially pre-emulsified form, to partially replace animal fat. Better dispersibility of the SBO droplets through the meat matrix compared to backfat globules was suggested by the greater continuity in the microstructure of the sausages with SBO. For the sausages supplemented with pre-emulsified SBO, the non-meat protein used as emulsifier could further strengthen the protein network, thereby resulting in enhanced product stability and retained textural attributes of the sausages. The fish protein isolate presently employed as emulsifier to prepare SBO emulsion could be promisingly used to produce more nutritive sausages by providing adequate stability.
Authors:B. Salamon, F. Zakariás, B. Csehi, G. Kiskó, and I. Dalmadi
The effect of high pressure processing (300 and 600 MPa) combined with mild heat treatment (55 and 75 °C) on the colour parameters, anthocyanin content, and sensory characteristics of strawberry puree were examined after the treatments and 2 weeks of cold storage at 2 and 15 °C. As on an industrial scale the simultaneous implementation of these treatments remains a challenge, the HHP and heat treatments were carried out consecutively in different sequences. The colour parameters and the anthocyanin content did not change significantly due to the treatments, but decreased during cold storage, at 15 °C storage the changes were more intensive than at 2 °C. Regarding the sensory test results, the different sequence of the 600 MPa-75 °C combined treatments is not detectable even after 2 weeks of storage at 15 °C, but in case of 300 MPa-55 °C, the enzyme inactivation is probably not sufficient enough as differences between the samples were detected.
Grafting is an effective tool in intensive vegetable growing systems that provides standard quality and yield. In the present study, the effect of two rootstocks (‘Capsifort F1’ and ‘Snooker F1’) on two commercial varieties (‘SV9702 F1’ and ‘Karpex F1’) grown on two media (soil and coconut fibre) was evaluated. During our 2-year study, those instrumental attributes, which have a dominant effect on the chosen chemical components of fruit quality (total soluble solids and titratable acidity) were investigated. Sensory tests were also implemented in order to identify any changes due to the applied technological combinations. Sensory profile analysis was used to identify the descriptive attributes and their perceived intensities. Panellists worked in individual booths with standard lighting, test results were recorded with the Profisens software. In general, it can be concluded that the major instrumental and sensory parameters did not deteriorate as a result of grafting and the application of coconut fibre medium. Some attributes were identified, where the grafted plants on coconut fibre medium showed higher values, namely flesh thickness and shape. Based on our results, grafting and the application of coconut medium is a feasible technological development for growers and agri-business companies.