Authors:Attila Takács, Csaba Szabóky, and Balázs Tóth
The bionomics and distribution of Scythris sinensis () were studied in Hungary from 2004 to 2018. The host plant was found to be Chenopodium album L. The larva feeds on the leaves in a loose web. The length of the larval stage varies from 12 to 15 days, that of the pupal stage from 7 to 10 days of the summer generation. The species is generally bivoltine in Hungary, but in the southern, warmer areas a third partial generation may occur. Adults of the second and third generations have characteristic yellow patches on the forewing. The species overwinters as pupa in a white cocoon near the host plant. The immature stages and the adult are illustrated and a map of the Hungarian records is given with two Figures.
An annotated checklist of 211 species belonging to 13 families of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccoidea) of Egypt including their common names, host plants and additional remarks is provided based on literature records and collections made by the senior author in Egypt. Four species are new to the fauna of Egypt, namely Adiscodiaspis ericicola (Marchal), Dynaspidiotus ephedrarum (Lindinger), Rhizaspidiotus adiscus Gómez-Menor Ortega (Diaspididae), and Dactylopius confusus (Cockerell) (Dactylopiidae). An illustrated key to the families of scale insects of Egypt is provided.
Authors:Jenő Kontschán, Géza Ripka, and Balázs Kiss
In the framework of a survey of arthropods in rest stops of Hungarian highways, 19 species of jumping plant lice were collected. Three species belong to the family Aphalaridae, one to Calophyidae, two to Liviidae, nine to Psyllidae and four to Triozidae. Two species (Livilla variegata and Trioza neglecta) are alien, non-indigenous species; the others are native to Hungary. The most abundant species were Calophya rhois, Cacopsylla melanoneura and Trioza neglecta. The specimens of C. melanoneura were found in 20, T. neglecta in 10 and C. rhois in 6 localities out of the 31 rest stops surveyed.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is consistently one of the most important barley diseases worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 16 isolates of four Fusarium species under controlled conditions and their genetic variability using 22 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Pathogenic variation was characterized based on disease development rates and disease index on two Syrian barley landraces with varying resistance to FHB, Arabi Aswad (AS) and Arabi Abiad (AB). Significant differences in intra- and inter-Fusarium species pathogenicity and in susceptibility between the above-mentioned cultivars were highlighted. Overall, the two barley landraces showed moderately susceptible to moderately resistance levels to fungal infection and FHB spread within the head. Quantitative traits showed significant correlation with previous data generated in vitro and under field conditions, suggesting that growth chamber indices can predict fungal pathogenicity and quantitative disease resistance generated under various experimental conditions. Based on PCR amplification with seven different primers, the isolates showed genetic variation. Dendrogram generated by cluster analysis based on RAPD markers data showed two main groups, suggesting that a possible clonal origin could exist in the four Fusarium species. RAPD fingerprints are not useful to distinguish the 16 Fusarium isolates with different levels of pathogenicity.
Authors:Géza Ripka, Enikő Kiss, Jenő Kontschán, and Árpád Szabó
Three eriophyoid species are recorded for the first time in Hungary, viz. Paraepitrimerus erigeronsis Xue et Hong collected from Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. (Asteraceae), Phyllocoptes parvulus (Nalepa) from Potentilla reptans L. (Rosaceae) and Aceria salicina (Nalepa) from Salix alba L. (Salicaceae). In addition, supplementary description of the vagrant phyllocoptine mite, Paraepitrimerus erigeronsis, and the deuterogynous and leaf margin rolling Aculus craspedobius (Nalepa) from Salix integra Thunb. (Salicaceae) is provided.
As therapy-refractory giardiasis is an emerging health issue, this review aimed at summarizing mechanisms of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in Giardia duodenalis and strategies to overcome this problem.
A narrative review on antimicrobial resistance in G. duodenalis was based upon a selective literature research.
Failed therapeutic success has been observed for all standard therapies of giardiasis comprising nitroimidazoles like metronidazole or tinidazole as first line substances but also benznidazoles like albendazole and mebendazole, the nitrofuran furazolidone, the thiazolide nitazoxanide, and the aminoglycoside paromomycin. Multicausality of the resistance phenotypes has been described, with differentiated gene expression due to epigenetic and post-translational modifications playing a considerable bigger role than mutational base exchanges in the parasite DNA. Standardized resistance testing algorithms are not available and clinical evidence for salvage therapies is scarce in spite of research efforts targeting new giardicidal drugs.
In case of therapeutic failure of first line nitroimidazoles, salvage strategies including various options for combination therapy exist in spite of limited evidence and lacking routine diagnostic-compatible assays for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in G. duodenalis. Sufficiently powered clinical and diagnostic studies are needed to overcome both the lacking evidence regarding salvage therapy and the diagnostic neglect of antimicrobial resistance.
Authors:Sándor Keszthelyi, Petra Grünvald, and Ferenc Pál-Fám
The insecticidal efficacy of the experimental bioinoculants (Natur Nova, Natur Agro Hungary Ltd., Hungary) containing Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv). Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae Metschnikoff against stored product pests modelled by granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius L. was evaluated on wheat in laboratory tests. In order to comparability, two applications were also set up: one purely ash-treated grain treatment against wireworms and a soil-injected one. Our results confirmed that some biopesticides can exert unexpected effect on non-target arthropods. However, the examined biopesticides were as empirically effected against the target arthropods regarding wireworms. Nevertheless, the application exempt from ash of the examined bioinoculants Natur Nova containing B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were not suitable for the elimination of the stored product pests modelled by S. granarius. In contrast, the putative plant protection effect of these biopesticides was observed in the course of applying the agents in the recommended environment and pest species as well as when applying them with ash carrier.