The study seeks to explore how blockchain technology enables the creation of new ideas for ventures and to examine the activities of founders and entrepreneurial teams in shaping those ideas. We adopted several theoretical frameworks – external enablers theory, dynamic capabilities (DCs), and dynamic managerial capabilities (DMCs) – to explain the interaction of the actor-independent and actor-dependent factors in the process of new firm formation. We analysed four Hungarian blockchain start-ups that operate across financial services, cryptocurrency trading, crypto asset management, energy, information technology, and identity industries and create high value-added and cross-industrial offerings for Hungarian and foreign markets. Using qualitative study research results, the study develops the model of external enablers, founders' and firm capabilities and new venture creation. We identify three interconnected external enablers – namely, market volatility associated with the growing popularity of cryptocurrencies and the underlying blockchain technology, the properties of blockchain, and the ideology behind the technology – and discuss the role of entrepreneurs' DMCs and sensing and seizing activities in discovering and shaping these enablers into profitable business ideas.
The study shows what management students could learn from technology startups from an organizational learning (learning organization) perspective; and whether or on what level this entrepreneurial mindset is built into management education. First, the organizational learning patterns and adaptive entrepreneurial skillset of startups are identified, based on a review of the recent literature focusing on knowledge-intensive technology startups' organizational learning patterns. Then, qualitative interviews and document analysis are applied to find out whether or on what level the improvement of these skills for developing an adaptive and successful startup are present as ‘learning organizations’ are integrated in top Central-European higher management education curricula. Based on the literature review, the theoretical framework is introduced, consisting of five pillars of ‘start-up learning’: ambidextrous entrepreneurial learning, business model development, failure and experiential learning, benchmarking and learning from others, and agile product development. The empirical research looks for these pillars in management MSc programs of a top Central-European business school. The most important findings reveal that the analyzed management education programs strongly prepare students with benchmarking skills. However, the study also showed that the culture and experience of failure and the capability of learning from failure are missing from these education programs.
This paper focuses on questions of entrepreneurial education's (1) perceived usefulness, (2) effect on developing entrepreneurial competence and (3) potential to increase entrepreneurial intention. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of entrepreneurship education on the development of students' entrepreneurial competences and career plans in the Republic of Moldova. In order to explore this subject, a survey was conducted among young citizens, mainly university students and students of vocational secondary schools, who have studied entrepreneurship-related subjects. The questionnaires were completed by 289 students from 20 educational institutions in the Republic of Moldova. The statistical analysis of their answers allowed conclusions to be drawn about the positive relationship between entrepreneurship education, the development of entrepreneurial competences and the students' entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurial studies are perceived to be useful by students not only in the context of starting a new business, but also for a career as an employee, and even in various social and political situations. Some gender-specific differences were also revealed concerning perceptions of competence development and their usefulness which can be important inputs for further development of entrepreneurship education.
The degree of digitalization and potential of growth in this sector are the new criteria that split the countries into various groups. The aim of this research is to find an easier and faster method of assessing the level of digitalization for countries, over different periods, having a sample 10 countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The research compares and groups these countries, determining the impact of four additional variables on their digitalization level. There were combined multiple analyses including comparative, cluster and panel analysis. As a result, we defined a new standardized indicator, named Digi-Index, which can be adapted for various time ranges, countries or study groups. Academic researchers or business practitioners can use the Digi-Index, the clusters and their characteristics to build development plans for the digital sector, based on each country's conditions, potential and influence factors.
This study examines the role of Magyar Suzuki in the Hungarian automotive industry. It is the oldest foreign vehicle manufacturer and a symbol of modernisation in the post-communist era in Hungary. Due to EU's local content rule, Magyar Suzuki, in comparison with its counterparts in the region, has established a locally embedded supply chain network. Magyar Suzuki has facilitated process and product upgrading of the local suppliers in Hungary. Nevertheless, functional upgrading is relatively limited due to automotive multinational corporations' recognition of Hungary as a low-cost production location, a low level of R&D operation, and a small domestic market.
In a context of rapid technological change, digital manufacturing technologies bear the promise of enabling significant improvement in operational efficiency. However, evidence indicates that investing in smart digital solutions, per se, does not guarantee performance improvement. Smart factory projects may be derailed, failing to realise the expected operational benefits. This study addresses the gap between academic propositions regarding the unequivocally positive impact of digitalisation and the actual evidence.
It draws on data obtained from 18 interviews with technology providers, managers and front-line workers at 12 Hungarian manufacturing companies. We use the concepts of resource complementarity, task–technology misfit, and technology acceptance as a theoretical lens to categorise the seemingly idiosyncratic and context-specific operational problems.
We find that digital technology implementation produces inferior-to-expectations outcomes unless companies invest in and upgrade their complementary intangible resources. Four distinct, albeit strongly interrelated types of complementarities are identified: managerial, organisational, skill-related and technical complementarities. Managerial capabilities to adjust the organisational structure, improve workflows and develop a strategy to address technical problems are found to be paramount to eliminate task-technology misfit and enhance technology acceptance.
The transitory shock of the financial crisis of 2008 pushed most economies to permanently lower-level growth paths than those prevalent before the crisis, which can be considered as a manifestation of hysteresis. It is well known that some fixed adjustment costs lead to hysteresis in aggregate output. This paper investigates within an agent-based model, whether the fixed costs of price adjustment (menu costs) lead to the same result. Hysteresis emerges in some simple variants of the model independently of firms being assumed boundedly or perfectly rational, but these model variants fit to the empirical data poorly. The model's empirical performance can be improved by assuming that firms are hit by idiosyncratic productivity shocks, but these shocks eliminate hysteresis generated by menu costs. However, hysteresis survives even in their presence, if it is generated by demand-supply interactions, i.e., positive feedbacks from the output gap to potential output. Our conclusion is that if one would like menu costs to serve as an at least as relevant explanation for the hysteretic dynamics of aggregate output as demand-supply interactions, one has to find an alternative assumption to replace idiosyncratic productivity shocks as a mechanism to assure good empirical fit for the model.
The present study aims to investigate the impact of tourism on the economic growth of the South Asian region. By employing panel data of six South Asian economies spanning from 1998 to 2017, our empirical investigation relies upon the panel cointegration and Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) techniques. Consistent with the “Tourism Led Growth Hypothesis”, the results prove a significant positive and long-run association between tourism and economic growth. The novelty of our study is the presentation of two models which confirm that tourism is an independent accelerator of economic growth, and it performs the same role even in the presence of standard income determinants. These findings are robust when we apply alternate statistical techniques, such as, dynamic ordinary least square method and Granger Causality Test. It implies that the South Asian economies should focus on the development of the tourism sector with permanent development in public infrastructures, like public transport, airports, road system and telecommunication to surge their economic growth.
This paper looks at the adoption of e-government technologies from a citizen-centric, value-based point-of-view. We analyse e-government technology adoption and value creation on a large, representative Hungarian sample, using the data of the Good State Public Administration Opinion Survey. The paper examines the near total spectrum of the Hungarian government-to-citizen administration service areas: 11 e-government services, with a special focus on personal income tax administration and the use of government issued documents. The technology acceptance model and an e-government-specific adaptation of the DeLone – McLean information system (IS) success model are used as the theoretic base. Factor analysis, traditional association metrics and statistical tests are used for the analysis. Results confirm the relevance of the technology adoption factors suggested by the mainstream IS literature, while citizen-level value creation – in the form of cost or time saved, satisfaction level raised – was less demonstrable. Increasing citizens' internet trust or improving facilitating infrastructural conditions, as well as a significant value proposition in terms of time savings and ease of use would help increasing e-government service adoption levels and value creation potential.
The Varieties of Capitalism (VoC) literature has recently manifested a dynamic development. Among others, the member states of the European Union (EU) have been studied extensively from this viewpoint, and main capitalism models have been identified. Yet, the global financial and economic crisis and its aftermath in Europe have impacted the member states' economies, typically in asymmetric ways and, in 2020, a highly diverse EU faced the COVID-19 induced economic crisis.
Our study investigates the EU member states from a perspective different from the existing research on VoC in Europe: our starting point is the macroeconomic decomposition of GDP. Our findings draw up a categorisation somewhat different from the previous results: while the core of the EU is rather consistent and homogenous, clusters of the periphery do not fully coincide with geography and earlier typisations; there are also single outliers and ‘New tigers of Europe’ emerging. Nevertheless, the core-periphery divide still stands overall.