In this paper, centralizing (semi-centralizing) and commuting (semi-commuting) derivations of semirings are characterized. The action of these derivations on Lie ideals is also discussed and as a consequence, some significant results are proved. In addition, Posner’s commutativity theorem is generalized for Lie ideals of semirings and this result is also extended to the case of centralizing (semi-centralizing) derivations of prime semirings. Further, we observe that if there exists a skew-commuting (skew-centralizing) derivation D of S, then D = 0. It is also proved that for any two derivations d1 and d2 of a prime semiring S with char S ≠ 2 and xd1xd2 = 0, for all x ∈ S implies either d1 = 0 or d2 = 0.
We study a combinatorial notion where given a set S of lattice points one takes the set of all sums of p distinct points in S, and we ask the question: ‘if S is the set of lattice points of a convex lattice polytope, is the resulting set also the set of lattice points of a convex lattice polytope?’ We obtain a positive result in dimension 2 and a negative result in higher dimensions. We apply this to the corner cut polyhedron.
A leaf of a tree is a vertex of degree one and a branch vertex of a tree is a vertex of degree at least three. In this paper, we show a degree condition for a claw-free graph to have spanning trees with at most five branch vertices and leaves in total. Moreover, the degree sum condition is best possible.
We prove that the number of unit distances among n planar points is at most 1.94 • n4/3, improving on the previous best bound of 8 n4/3. We also give better upper and lower bounds for several small values of n. We also prove some variants of the crossing lemma and improve some constant factors.
Two hexagons in the space are said to intersect heavily if their intersection consists of at least one common vertex as well as an interior point. We show that the number of hexagons on n points in 3-space without heavy intersections is o(n2), under the assumption that the hexagons are ‘fat’.
Let X be a smooth projective K3 surface over the complex numbers and let C be an ample curve on X. In this paper we will study the semistability of the Lazarsfeld-Mukai bundle EC,A associated to a line bundle A on C such that |A| is a pencil on C and computes the Clifford index of C. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for EC,A to be semistable.
We prove criteria for a graph to be the Reeb graph of a function of a given class on a closed manifold: Morse–Bott, round, and in general smooth functions whose critical set consists of a finite number of submanifolds. The criteria are given in terms of whether the graph admits an orientation, which we call S-good orientation, with certain conditions on the degree of sources and sinks, similar to the known notion of good orientation in the context of Morse functions. We also study when such a function is the height function associated with an immersion of the manifold. The condition for a graph to admit an S-good orientation can be expressed in terms of the leaf blocks of the graph.
For each Montesinos knot K, we propose an efficient method to explicitly determine the irreducible SL(2, )-character variety, and show that it can be decomposed as χ0(K)⊔χ1(K)⊔χ2(K)⊔χ'(K), where χ0(K) consists of trace-free characters χ1(K) consists of characters of “unions” of representations of rational knots (or rational link, which appears at most once), χ2(K) is an algebraic curve, and χ'(K) consists of finitely many points when K satisfies a generic condition.