Authors:Taesik Yun, Yoonhoi Koo, Sanggu Kim, Hakhyun Kim, Soochong Kim, Ji-Houn Kang, Mhan-Pyo Yang and Byeong-Teck Kang
A 10-year-old, spayed female Shih Tzu dog presented with a history of progressive erythema and multiple crusts developing 85 days previously. The dog had been diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) 55 days prior to presentation and was treated with oral trilostane (2.86 mg/kg, once daily) that was discontinued due to a poor response. In addition to generalised alopecia, erythematous plaques and crusts were noted on the trunk, head and footpads. Lesional impression smears revealed numerous acantholytic cells and non-degenerated neutrophils. Histopathological findings demonstrated subcorneal pustules with acantholytic cells and intact neutrophils. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed pemphigus foliaceus (PF) with concurrent HAC. We wished to avoid glucocorticoids and, therefore, prescribed oral, once-daily azathioprine (2 mg/kg), modified cyclosporine (7 mg/kg) and ketoconazole (5 mg/kg). By day 71 post-treatment, the erythematous crusts had almost disappeared and the alopecia had improved considerably. However, by the subsequent follow-up examination on day 99, the clinical signs had reappeared due to the tapering of cyclosporine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing concurrent PF and HAC in a dog. Combination therapy with azathioprine, modified cyclosporine and ketoconazole was effective, and should be considered for dogs diagnosed with concurrent autoimmune diseases and HAC.
Over a 4-year study period from 2015 to 2018, altogether 183 isolates of bacterial meningitis were collected from 12 hospitals covering the entire Moroccan territory. Neisseria meningitidis represented 58.5%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 35.5%, and Haemophilus influenzae type b 6%. H. influenzae type b mainly affected 5-year-olds and unvaccinated adults. N. meningitidis serogroup B represented 90.7% followed by serogroup W135 with 6.5%. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin G (DSPG) for all isolates accounted for 15.7%, with 11.6% being resistant to penicillin G (PG) and 4.1% decreased susceptibility. Cumulative results of all strains showed 2.7% decreased susceptibility to amoxicillin and 3.3% resistant, 2.2% of isolates were resistant to third-generation cephalosporin and 2.2% were decreased susceptible, 5.5% were resistant to chloramphenicol and 2.7% were resistant to rifampin. The frequency of DSPG observed in our study is more common in S. pneumoniae than in N. meningitidis (P < 0.05). These isolates have been found to be highly susceptible to antibiotics used for treatment and prophylaxis chemotherapy and the observed resistance remains rare. The impact of introduction of conjugate vaccines against H. influenzae type b and S. pneumoniae (PCVs) is an advantage in reducing meningitis cases due to these two species.
Mammary tumours are among the most common tumours in dogs and are of interest due to their similarities to human breast tumours. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are considered important in cell growth and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in benign and malignant canine mammary tumours. In this study, 10 benign and 10 malignant mammary tumours from the archives of the Department of Pathology were used, and five normal breast tissues were used as controls. It was observed that the expression of IGF-I and IGF-II was low to absent in benign tumours and increased in malignant tumours. The expression of IGF-II was higher than that of IGF-I. This study showed that IGF-I and IGF-II can be used as criteria for malignancy in canine mammary tumours. The results also indicate that IGF-I and IGF-II may be used as early diagnostic markers, and their inhibition may be used for the treatment of canine and human mammary tumours in the future.
Authors:Zhao Namula, Yoko Sato, Manita Wittayarat, Quynh Anh Le, Nhien Thi Nguyen, Qingyi Lin, Maki Hirata, Fuminori Tanihara and Takeshige Otoi
This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing the maturation medium with the antioxidant curcumin on the in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilisation and development of porcine oocytes. Curcumin supplementation was performed at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 µM. At concentrations of 5–20 µM, curcumin had significant positive effects (P < 0.05) on maturation and fertilisation rates compared to the non-treated group. Of the groups cultured with 5–20 µM curcumin, the number of oocytes with DNA-fragmented nuclei after IVM was significantly lower than in groups matured without curcumin. Moreover, curcumin supplementation at 10 µM also gave a significantly higher rate of blastocyst formation compared with oocytes matured without curcumin. Increasing the curcumin concentration to 40 µM yielded negative effects on fertilisation and embryonic development compared with the groups treated with lower concentrations of curcumin. Supplementation with 10 µM curcumin had beneficial effects on the oocyte maturation rate and DNA fragmentation index compared to the non-treated group both in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that curcumin supplementation at a suitable concentration (10 µM) is potentially useful for porcine oocyte culture systems, in terms of protecting oocytes from various forms of oxidative stress.
Authors:Eva Schmal-Filius, Nora Nedorost, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang and Herbert Weissenböck
The causative role of some infectious agents found in cases of feline pneumonia is under debate, because they are also part of the physiological microbiota of the respiratory tract of healthy animals. In this retrospective study, archived formalin-fixed and paraffin-wax-embedded lung samples of 69 severe and lethal cases of pneumonia in cats were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of nine selected infectious agents: Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma felis, M. gateae, Chlamydia felis, feline herpesvirus type 1, feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The intention was to elucidate their immediate involvement in pneumonia formation. Due to the cross-reactivity of the applied antibodies, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for both targeted Mycoplasma species was applied additionally. In the 42 cases (60.9%) positive for at least one pathogen, several agents were present in a high proportion of the samples (P. multocida – 34.8%, B. bronchiseptica – 29.0%), while others were present in a moderate (feline herpesvirus type 1 – 18.8%, M. gateae – 13.0%, M. felis – 10.1%) or low percentage (T. gondii – 1.4%). All samples were negative for C. felis, feline coronavirus and canine distemper virus. Mixed infections of up to four pathogens were more frequent than single infections. Mycoplasma preferably colonised lung tissue damaged by other pathogens because they never occurred as single infections. Pasteurella multocida, B. bronchiseptica, M. felis, feline herpesvirus type 1 and T. gondii showed abundant replication within lung lesions, thus suggesting a prominent role in pneumonia formation.
Authors:ZS. Molnár, L. Varga, G. Gyenes, Á. Lehotsky, E. Gradvohl, Á.J. Lukács, R.A. Füzi, A. Gézsi, A. Falus and H.J. Feith
Proper handwashing helps prevent the spread of communicable diseases. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare children's knowledge and skills in hand hygiene before and after school interventions in order to evaluate the effectiveness of our peer education programme.
In our longitudinal study, short- and long-term changes in the knowledge, hand-washing skills and health behaviour of 224 lower, upper and secondary school students were assessed. Our measurements were performed with a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire and the Semmelweis Scanner.
As a result of the intervention, the proportion of correct answers increased significantly both in the short term and in the long run compared to the input measurements, but age differences did not disappear for most variables. There is a difference in the process of learning theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Areas not used for handwashing in the paediatric population are different from those described for adults in the literature. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the right and left hands.
There was a significant positive change in both theory and practice of handwashing. In education, emphasis should also be put on long-term retention of theoretical knowledge in age-specific health promotion programmes within the paediatric population.
Authors:L. Havelda, Z. Bencz and M. Veresné Bálint
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of probiotic products in Hungary, to explore consumers' knowledge of probiotics, and to gain information about the main characteristics of current usage.
Materials and Methods
The research used a self-developed explorative questionnaire to obtain the necessary information. The data collected was further analysed with IBM SPSS 25.0 and Microsoft Office Excel.
Nearly three-quarters of respondents (73.9%) have used probiotics in their life. Those who have already used these products, mostly heard about them from doctors (62.8%) and friends/relatives (40.5%), while among non-users the main sources of information were web pages (46.8%) and commercials (45.2%).
We found several differences between users and non-users in terms of probiotics awareness. Consequently, healthcare providers may play an important role in the process of careful product choice and proper usage.