Cyclodextrins are widely used in various fields including food industry. In this review, their role in high carbohydrate-containing, starchy foods are reviewed and discussed. Both the effects as functional ingredients affecting the structural properties of starch and as active ingredients slowing down starch digestion and, as a consequence, decreasing the glycaemic index of starchy foods are overviewed without considering the traditional applications as carriers and stabilisers of aroma and flavour, essential oils, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and other bioactive components to enrich foods, even if they are carbohydrate foods. The effect on starch metabolism is explained by the structural transformations caused by cyclodextrins on starch amylose and amylopectin. Several examples are shown how the technological and sensorial properties of bread, rice products, pasta, and other starchy foods are modified by cyclodextrin supplementation, and how the digestibility is changed resulting in reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic effects.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the important vegetables in the world due to large production area and consumer interest. Biotic and abiotic stresses have negative effect on tomato production. Utilisation of rootstocks conferring resistance to biotic stresses can be considered as the most effective and environment friendly solution in tomato production to overcome this problem. Although wild tomato species is a good rootstock candidate due to its resistance to multiple plant diseases, effects of wild tomato species as rootstock on mineral nutrient composition and fruit quality are not clear. In the present study, effects of interspecific hybrids derived from two wild tomato species (Solanum habrochaites and Solanum penellii) as rootstock on tomato fruit mineral nutrient composition (phosphor (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu)) and fruit quality traits (soluble solids content (SSC), pH, percent titratable acidity (TA), and lycopene content) were evaluated. In the study, Amaron, Armstrong, and Arazi commercial rootstocks were used as control and AK0004 F1 (candidate tomato hybrid) was used as a source of scion. As result, only lycopene content was affected by different rootstocks. S. penellii was found to be with more potential for lycopene content. For mineral nutrient composition, all hybrids and controls had similar contents of potassium, phosphor, calcium, and magnesium. Manganese and copper contents decreased in all plants. S. habrochaites had more potential regarding nitrogen, iron, and zinc contens than S. penellii. This is the first study to evaluate two interspecific hybrids derived from S. habrochaites and S. penellii, and the results might be useful to understand effects of rootstocks derived from wild tomato species on mineral nutrient content and fruit quality.
Location specific services are widely used in outdoor environment and their indoor counterpart is gaining more popularity as well. There is no standardized technology exists for indoor localization, usually smart phone is used as a localization platform and the field strength of an existing radio frequency infrastructure is used as the location specific information. Smart devices are also equipped with several sensors capable of capturing the motion data of the device. Detecting the walking step, turn, stairs motion type can refine the indoor position using digital indoor map as a reference. The real-time recognition of the motion type is possible with a precisely constructed and trained convolutional neural network and therefore it can improve the stability of the localization.
Brigittaplatz located in the 20th district of Vienna, which is a mixed culture residential community with various issues. This paper attempts to uncover the existing problems, weaknesses, potential opportunities of the site and explore a set of local interventions to accomplish site regeneration through architectural and landscape measures. Study utilizes two axes to improve and reconnect the public service, green corridor as well as the interactive relationship. All the proposed interventions are not merely public facility renewal but a new functional and social design, which is trying to reactivate the various relationships in the site that can enhance the quality of life and carry over the impact to larger scales. Authors seek a holistic approach to regenerate Brigittaplatz.
Authors:Máté Hidvégi, Gergely Mezei, and Sándor Bácsi
Multi-layer metamodeling is a metamodeling method that provides great flexibility for domain prototyping, while it also ensures rigid validation of domain rules. Visualization of multi-layer models would be essential in order to promote this new modeling technique in industrial setups; however, the traditional way of representing model entities is not sufficient here. Dynamic Multi-Layer Algebra is a multi-layer metamodeling approach that addressed the challenges of multi-layer modeling, but uses a text-based language to create models. This paper presents Dynamo, a visual notation for Dynamic Multi-Layer Algebra, which is also applicable to other multi-layer metamodeling approaches. The paper elaborates the graphical syntax and the design decisions.
This paper studies the two widely used material models for predicting the dynamic behavior of soils, the Ramberg-Osgood and Hadrin-Drnevich models. Resonant column and torsional simple shear test results on dry sand were used to calibrate and evaluate the model built in the finite element software Midas GTS NX. Both material models are already implemented by the software. This study estimates the ability and efficiency of both soil models coupled with the Masing criteria to predict the behavior of soil when subjected to irregular loading patterns, (e.g., earthquakes), and measure the two most important dynamic properties, the dynamic shear modulus, and the damping ratio.
Authors:Zuzana Sabová, Zuzana Németová, Tatiana Kaletová, and Silvia Kohnová
The objective of the study is an assessment of a Ratka small water reservoir in Slovakia by using two main aspects, i.e., the hydrotechnical, geotechnical and environmental aspects.
An evaluation of the actual state of a small water reservoir was solved in a complex way. Based on the field measurements, the quality of surface water was controlled in order to check if the surface water quality indicators meet the requirements of government regulations. In addition to the terrain measurements, laboratory measurements were performed. The results assess the actual state of the small water reservoir in details, including an assessment of the water quality with proposed measures for improving the condition of the water reservoir.
Authors:Khawaja Adeel Tariq, Muhammad Sohaib, and Mirza Awais Baig
This research work is related to the study of effects on properties of concrete having rice husk ash as cementitious supplementary materials. Total four mixes of concrete were done with varying percentages of rice husk as 6%, 12% and 18%. The tensile, flexural and compressive strengths that contain rice husk ash were determined by testing cubes, cylinders and beams. There was a replacement of 6%, 12% and 18% of rice husk ash in all mixes except the control mix. The concrete's flexural strength with rice husk ash increases at the beginning and at the later age (i.e., 28 days) similar to control mix; however, variation in compressive and splitting tensile strength is negligible. The optimum results are achieved with 6% replacement of cement with rice husk ash. Therefore, it was inferred that rice husk ash could be used as partial replacement of cement in concrete to produce economic concrete.
Authors:Flóra Hajdu, Gabriella Lászlo, and Rajmund Kuti
In recent years, in order to increase the energy efficiency of older buildings in Hungary, several tenders have supported the modernization of the thermal insulation. Various thermal insulation materials have been installed on walls, on slab and on floor. Unfortunately there are cases where thermal insulation materials are not installed in accordance with the construction permit or the manufacturer’s instructions, which poses a serious danger in case of a fire. During the research the effects of heat on the behavior of Expanded PolyStyrene, a thermal insulation material often used in Hungary is examined. Laboratory tests and computer simulations were carried out, which are presented in detail in this paper. The aim of the research is to contribute to increase the fire safety of buildings.
With the rapid economic development, the original layout structure and spatial functions of the city have been affected. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate the potential and vitality of space through social interaction based on the analysis of activity behavior and traffic travel. Through communication in the existing leftover space, a living community with the purpose of spatial emotional connection is established or reconstructed. The social habits of residents have also undergone many adjustments and reorganizations. In this way, the degree of connection between people and space is deepened, to guide the public to actively participate in the adjustment of the characteristics of leftover space and space optimization, broaden the application boundary of space.