In this study, two different ethanol-based RP-HPLC methods for assay and quantification of rivaroxaban related substances in tablets were developed, based on green analytical chemistry (GAC) principles, using the design of experiments approach. The chromatographic separation was performed on X-Bridge C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size), using isocratic elution with ethanol : water (35:65, % v/v) for the assay and gradient elution with ethanol/water mobile phase, for related substances, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The gradient method was optimized for the separation of three specified impurities (impurity G, impurity H, and impurity 14) and the selectivity was further confirmed using forced degradation studies. Both methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. The robustness of the methods was confirmed with the Central Composite Face Design of Experiments. Analytical Eco-scale approach and AGREE metrics confirmed that both methods are in accordance with the GAC principles. The proposed ethanol-based RP-HPLC methods were applied for assay and determination of related substances in rivaroxaban 10 mg tablets obtained from three different manufacturers available on the Macedonian market.
In recent years response surface analysis has been increasingly used to optimise membrane separation. It has many advantages, such as reducing the number of experiments to be performed, which requires lower energy consumption and significantly less laboratory work. For more accurate data analysis and forecasting, mathematical models are used that analyse the relevance of the factors examined and the interaction effects between the factors. In this research, two experimental designs that use response surface methodology are presented, namely, the central composite design and the Box–Behnken design. After the general characterisation of the experimental designs, their application in membrane technology is presented.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is grown worldwide in open fields and greenhouses in a range of climate conditions. Hedgerows are a type of agroforestry systems that monitors ecological and influence microclimate conditions. An experiment was conducted at the Soroksár experimental field of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences in 2022 to investigate the influence of hedgerow technology on tomato plant leaves, N, P, K, chlorophyll, and carotene mineral levels from different distances, Exposed sides W1-3m, W2-9m and W3-15m and Protected sides NP1-3m, NP2-9m and NP3-15m, meters from the hedgerow trees.
The results investigate potassium and carotene, as well as chlorophyll b levels, are less differed among the protected and exposed side of the hedgerows trees, while the others were impacted to a certain extent; nitrogen and chlorophyll content was generally higher on the exposed side regardless of variety, while in the case of phosphorus adverse effects were observed. Distance from the hedge showed similar patterns for all traits. The results will help to better understand the impact of alternate technologies on tomato production in open-field conditions.
The peaceful settlement of disputes is one of the principles enumerated in the Charter of the United Nations, and the Security Council is entrusted with significant powers to achieve this goal. In today's world, accusations of human rights violations have become one of the primary challenges among nations in terms of upholding sovereignty. In accordance with the United Nations Charter, the Security Council may be called upon by the parties to a dispute, the General Assembly, or the Secretary-General, or it can act ex officio to seek a peaceful resolution or adjust a situation through peaceful means. If the Security Council determines that the situation or dispute in question may constitute a threat to international peace and security, it may invoke its powers under Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent of the Security Council's competence and the powers it possesses when carrying out its conciliatory role in cases involving human rights violations by a Member State and conflicts that may arise regarding the interpretation and application of the United Nations Charter.
Article 6(2) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child places an obligation on countries to ensure the survival and development of the child. The right underlines the importance of ensuring that children's rights to health, an adequate standard of living, access to basic services and education are respected in all circumstances. In addition, it requires effective national and international implementation.
These provisions are included in section 4 of the Child's Right Act to ensure optimum protection for children in Nigeria. Nonetheless, children's rights have been drastically affected by the Boko-Haram insurgency. This has resulted in death, abduction, displacement of, and violence against children. Moreover, the prevalence of malnutrition, food scarcity, diseases, and lack of access to water, sanitation, health care, and education remains a challenge.
Accordingly, this paper seeks to examine the efficacy of the laws and policies in place to protect children's right to survival and development in Nigeria. It argues that despite the existing legal and policy framework for protecting children's rights, there has been little focus on the best interest standard in the attainment of the rights of the child. The paper recommends a child-centric approach to adequately provide protection for children in conflict-plagued zones in Nigeria.
New technologies based on digitalization, automation, and artificial intelligence have fundamentally transformed our lives and society as a whole, in just a few decades. These technologies support human well-being and prosperity by enhancing progress and innovation, however, they also have the potential to negatively impact human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. Discrimination, the violation of privacy, increasing surveillance, the weakening of personal autonomy, disinformation and electoral interference are but a few of the many concerns. This paper examines the specific human rights implications of AI-driven systems through the lens of the most important international instruments adopted by the UN and regional human rights mechanisms. The paper shows how AI can affect the exercise of all human rights, not only a most obvious few. In line with major international organizations, the author calls on decision-makers to take a precautionary approach by adopting AI regulations that are consistent with the standards of fundamental human rights, and that balance the realization of the opportunities with the potential risks which AI presents.
Polyphenols from agro-industrial waste particularly of fruit origin are a reliable source of antioxidants and antimicrobials that can be used as natural food additives. Organic solvents play an important role in extracting the polyphenols, however, inefficiency in exerting bioactivity and interference with the organoleptic properties are among the reasons that hinder their use as food additives. These problems can be alleviated by purification. In this study, the effect of resin types and elution solvent for purification of the apple pomace extracts on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidants were investigated. Crude ethanolic extracts were purified using amberlite resins (XAD7HP and FPX66) in a glass column (25 × 310 mm). The sorption flow rate was 2 Bed volume (BV) per hour, rinse 2 BV per hour, and desorption was 2 BV per hour. Final wash and regeneration were each done by 2 BV per hour. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were quantified spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays respectively. Polyphenol recovery was 50% in XAD7HP (Lowest) using ethanol and 69% in FPX66 (Highest) using acetone. For the case of FRAP recovery, 76% (Lowest) was observed in FPX66 using ethanol while 93% (Highest) was observed in XAD7HP using acetone. Conclusively, FPX66 is the ideal resin for the purification of apple pomace extracts for enhancing antioxidant activity compared to XAD7HP. Further, acetone seems to be a good desorption solvent compared to ethanol.
It is an obvious statement that children are disproportionately affected by changes in their environment, due to their incomplete maturity, evolving capacities, vulnerabilities derived from their age and special developmental needs. Changes in temperature, air and water quality, and access to proper nutrition are likely to have more severe and long-term impacts on children's health, development and well-being, since they basically determine the enjoyment of the right of the child to a healthy environment. The impacts of climate change clearly undermine the effective enjoyment of the rights enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter: UN CRC) and its Optional Protocols, including the rights to life, survival and development (art. 6), to family relations and the right not to be separated from one's parents against one's will (arts. 9–10), the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24), an adequate standard of living (art. 27), education (art. 28), freedom from any form of violence or exploitation (arts. 19, 32 and 34–36), the right to recreation and play (art. 31) and the enjoyment of one's culture (art. 30). The climate crisis has been declared as child rights crisis, although children bear the least responsibility for it.
The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child has clearly identified climate change as one of the biggest threats to children's health and has urged States Parties to put children's health concerns at the centre of their climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. Despite data and research explicitly linking environmental harm to child rights violations, increasing knowledge of environmental crises and existing numerous international agreements, the common understanding of the clear relationship between children's rights and the environment is still questionable and obscure. In this paper we have gathered the binding international documents which clearly show the close link between children's rights and climate change, and we also analyze the measures taken by the relevant treaty-monitoring body within the field of children's rights. The main outcome of this paper is to give an introduction and an extended overview of the relevant international norms adopted by the environmental ‘crossroads’ of children's rights.
This study investigates the effect of 2% lactic acid and 2% ascorbic acid mixture on the quality parameters of red deer meat and beef. After treatment samples were stored at 4 ± 1 °C. The following meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, color, and microbiological count on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. The results showed that at the end of the experiment, the pH of the treated samples was slightly higher than the non-treated samples, indicating that the lactic acid and ascorbic acid mixture had a mild acidifying effect on the meat. The color of the treated and non-treated samples did not show any significant difference. However, the microbiological count in the treated samples was lower than the non-treated samples. These findings suggest that an acid mixture could be used as a natural preservative to enhance the microbial safety of red deer meat and beef.