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Abstract

Purpose

The interaction of orexinergic neurons with the opioidergic system and their effects on morphine analgesia and tolerance have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of the orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor (OX1R and OX2R) agonist and antagonist on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats.

Material and methods

A total of 90 Wistar albino male rats weighing 180–220 g were used in the experiments. To induce morphine tolerance, rats were injected with a single dose of morphine (50 mg kg−1, s.c.) for 3 days. Morphine tolerance was assessed on day 4 in randomly selected rats by analgesia tests. In order to evaluate morphine tolerance situation, orexin-A, SB-334867, orexin-B and TCS OX2 29 were administered together with morphine for 3 days. The analgesic effects of orexin-A (10 μg kg−1), OXR1 antagonist SB-334867 (10 mg kg−1), OXR2 agonist orexin-B (15 μg kg−1), OXR2 antagonist TCS OX2 29 (0.5 mg kg−1) and morphine (5 mg kg−1) were measured at 15 or 30-min intervals by tail-flick and hot-plate antinociceptive tests.

Results

The results suggested that the combination of orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 and orexin-B with morphine significantly increased the analgesic effect compared to morphine-tolerant rats. In addition, administration of orexin-A and -B alone showed significant analgesic effects compared to the saline group. However, co-administration of orexin-A and -B with morphine did not increase the analgesic efficacy of morphine.

Conclusions

The results of this study demonstrated that co-administration of SB-334867 and orexin-B with morphine attenuated morphine tolerance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the details of the interaction between orexin receptors and the opioidergic system.

Restricted access

Abstract

Folk art and applied folk art have been constantly shaped by cultural and political actors, as well as social and economic processes and the local society affected by them. In the context of these changes, the definitions of authentic, original, and genuine were given a new interpretation, which can be examined in different contexts. The question of authenticity in material folk art arose shortly after the birth of the concept of folk art and the “discovery” of folk art, and has accompanied the history of the revival of material folk art. Nevertheless, although discourses on the subject have been ongoing for a long time in the fields of folklore, theoretical works dealing with material folk art have not paid much attention to the issue of authenticity. The study first describes the contexts through which the issue of authenticity was articulated in artifact production inspired by folk art. The changed social conditions during the 20th century have also generated, and are still generating, new legal dilemmas in the field of artifact production at both community and individual levels, such as the extent to which folk art is individual or community-owned (taking into account the narrower and wider community), and the copyright of an authentic folk artist or craftsman or a creator recognized as a folk artisan. The questions lead to the evolution of the definition of authenticity and point out, among other things, the role that the issue of authenticity plays in the process of the heritagization of folk art.

Open access

A Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív (READ) magyar nyelvű adaptációja

Hungarian adaptation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Kitti Kóródi
,
Erzsébet Szél
, and
Éva Szabó

Háttér és célkitűzések

A tanulmány célja a Hjemdal és munkatársai (2006) által kidolgozott Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív hazai adaptációja, amely alkalmas serdülők és fiatal felnőttek személyes és környezeti erőforrásainak mérésére.

Módszer

Magyar középiskolásokból és egyetemistákból (M = 18,85 év, SD = 2,39) álló mintán (Nközépiskolás = 490; Negyetemista = 593) ellenőriztük a kérdőív szerkezetét, belső megbízhatóságát, konstruktív validitását, illetve a reziliencia kapcsolatát demográfiai és pszichológiai jellegű változókkal.

Eredmények

A feltáró és megerősítő faktorelemzés szerint az ötfaktoros struktúra jellemző a kérdőívre, amelyet a célorientáció, a családi összetartás, a szociális kompetencia, a társas támogatottság és a magabiztosság alskálák alkotnak. A reziliencia kérdőíven a nemek között a társas támogatás és a magabiztosság alskálán találtunk különbséget, az életkor tekintetében pedig szintén a társas támogatás alskálán különböztek a 15–18 évesek és a 18–24 évesek pontszámai. Az észlelt társas támogatás pozitív irányú összefüggést mutatott a rezilienciával, a problémaviselkedés megjelenése azonban negatív irányút, ami alátámasztotta a Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív konstruktív validitását.

Következtetések

Az eredmények alapján kialakított 28 tételes kérdőív alkalmasnak bizonyult a serdülők és fiatal felnőtt rezilienciájának felmérésére, illetve azon belül a környezeti és személyes erőforrások elkülönítésére. A Cronbach-alfa-mutatók alapján minden alskála és a teljes skála belső megbízhatósága megfelelő mértékű. A kérdőív emiatt alkalmas lehet további feltáró kutatásokban való alkalmazásra.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors:
Gábor A. Fülöp
,
Álmos Gógl
,
Bálint Lakatos
,
Nóra Sydó
,
Emese Csulak
,
Bianka Mester
,
Szabolcs Tóth
,
Árpád Petrov
,
Vivien Klaudia Nagy
,
Gergo Merkely
, and
Béla Merkely

Abstract

Background

Organization of mass sport events in the COVID-19 era is utterly complicated. Containments measures, required to avoid a virus outbreak, force athletes to compete under circumstances they never experienced before, most likely having a deleterious effect on their performance.

Purpose

We aimed to design a so-called athlete-friendly bubble system for the International Swimming League 2020 event, which is strict enough to avoid a COVID-19 outbreak, but still provides a supportive environment for the athletes.

Methods

To avoid the feeling of imprisonment, athletes were permitted to spend a certain amount of time in the parks surrounding the hotels. Such alleviations were possible to apply with strict adherence to the hygienic and social distancing protocols and regular COVID-19 testing. Evaluation of every COVID-19 positive case was key, and if prolonged PCR positivity or false positive PCR result was identified, the unnecessary quarantine was planned to be lifted. Return to play protocol (RTP) was planned, in case of a COVID-19 infection of an athlete inside the bubble. To test, if the athlete-friendly system provided a supportive environment, we evaluated athlete performance.

Results

11,480 PCR tests were performed for 1,421 individuals. 63 COVID-19 positive cases were detected, of which 5 turned out to be clinically insignificant, either because of prolonged PCR positivity or because of a false positive result. 93.1% of the positive cases were detected in the local crew, while no athlete got infected inside the bubble, as the two infected athletes were tested positive upon arrival. RTP was provided for two athletes. 85% of the athletes showed improvement during the bubble and 8 world records were broken.

Conclusion

The applied protocol proved to be effective, as no athlete got infected inside the bubble, moreover, the athlete-friendly system supported the athletes to improve their performance.

Open access

Abstract

Many of the drafts and notes of Ernő Szücs Tárkány are in manuscript, and they can offer valuable clues for European legal ethnography. One of them is a manuscript by Tárkány Szücs, both in Hungarian and English, in the Archives of the Institute of Ethnology of the Research Centre for the Humanities, dated 1982 and titled Administering Justice — without State Courts, which has been awaiting publication for forty years. This study is an important milestone, as it demonstrates, based on a broad international perspective, that even in a field that was monopolized by the state very early on, such as administering justice, legal customs have survived to a great extent; and that legal ethnographic approaches make it possible to arrive at valid conclusions of practical importance through an expert comparison of legal phenomena that are distinct in time and space but have common characteristics. The English-language version of the study is being published verbatim (first publication).

Restricted access

Abstract

In this paper, advanced DC-Link (DCL) based reversing voltage type Multilevel Inverter (MLI) topologies by compensating the difficulties in the conventional MLIs are reviewed. These topologies consist of less switching components and driver circuits when compared with conventional MLIs predominantly in higher levels. Consequently, installation area, total cost and hardware difficulties are reduced by increasing the voltage levels. The unipolar based Pulse Width Modulation Schemes (PWMS) will improve DCL inverters performance. This paper presents unipolar Multi-Reference (MR) based sine and space vector PWMS with single triangular carrier wave for generating required levels in output voltage. Comparison between UMR sine and space vector PWMS for DCL inverter topologies is presented in terms of Fundamental Output Voltage (FOV) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The research tries to establish the survey analysis for single-phase 7-level DCL based reversing voltage type MLI topologies with UMR based sine and space vector PWMs. Finally, to confirm the feasibility of proposed DCL-MLIs in terms of FOV and THD the simulation results are incorporated. Further, the prototype model is developed for single-phase 7-level DCL inverter with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based UMR sine and space vector PWMS to authenticate simulation results. The efficiency of the proposed cascaded MLI achieves the value of 99.003%.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

The hallucinogenic drug psilocybin is being widely tested in humans for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Psilocybin and other psychedelics are proposed to work through serotonin 2a (5-HT2a) receptors, which are tightly linked to immune function. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a single dose of psilocybin on a panel of cytokines, chemokines, and peptides in the short term (24 h) and long term (seven days) in female rats.

Methods

Female rats were given a dose of psilocybin (20 mg kg−1, i.p.} or a dose of synthetic interstitial fluid. At 24 h, the control group and one group of rats were anesthetized, and blood was withdrawn by intracardiac puncture. In a third group of rats, blood was withdrawn after seven days. Serum was analyzed by a separate lab (Eve Laboratories, Calgary, Canada) for 27 immunomodulators.

Results

Serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, IP-10, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, and leptin were significantly increased compared to controls after 24 h and were increased further after 7 days. Most of the other assays showed this same pattern of increase, although not statistically significant.

Conclusions

Psilocybin induces the release of multiple immune factors, consistent with a generalized activation of the immune system, which can persist for at least seven days after a single dose. These findings may relate to the mechanism of action. The implications of these findings require additional research to determine how these finding relate to the clinical effects of psilocybin.

Open access

Abstract

In 1967, Ernő Tárkány Szücs published his article summarizing the results and tasks of European legal ethnography in the columns of Ethnologica Europeana in Paris (under the title Results and Task of Legal Ethnology in Europe). With this, he revived an important tradition of Hungarian legal ethnography: Károly Tagányi published his summary of international research history in German in 1922 (Lebende Rechtsgewohnheiten und ihre Sammlung in Ungarn. Ungarische Bibliothek. Für das Ungarische Institut an der Universität Berlin. Erste Reihe. Vereinigung wissenschaftlicher Verleger. Berlin und Leipzig). At the time of the publication of Ernő Tárkány Szücs's article, he was working as a ministerial official, but in Hungarian academic life he took a backseat. At the same time, however, he was in constant contact with several European representatives of legal folklore. As soon as he had the opportunity, Tárkány Szücs opened up to international scholarship, and became not only an active participant but also a prime mover of the international discourse on legal folk custom research. His recognition was indicated by the fact that throughout Europe, not only his studies published in various world languages but also his papers exclusively in Hungarian were often cited. Although the science policy in his country was not able to integrate the specifically interdisciplinary scientific research of Ernő Tárkány Szücs, or only haltingly, his international recognition was unquestionable all along.

Open access