Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 83,487 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Nicholas Spiers
,
Beatriz Caiuby Labate
,
Anna O. Ermakova
,
Patrick Farrell
,
Osiris Sinuhé González Romero
,
Ibrahim Gabriell
, and
Nidia Olvera
Open access
Physiology International
Authors:
Lucia-Maria Ciovicescu
,
Simona Valeria Clichici
,
Ramona-Ariana Simedrea
,
Felix Ciovicescu
,
Simona Corina Lupan
,
Lavinia Ioana Sabău
,
Alina Mihaela Toader
, and
Teodora Mocan

Abstract

Liver cirrhosis is the consequence of chronicisation and of the evolution of untreated liver diseases. The complexity of the disease and the complications it can cause have been and are still intensively researched, aiming to discover new therapies or improve existing ones for the effective management of liver cirrhosis. Currently, the treatment used is directed against the cause that caused the disease, if it is known; in advanced cases, liver transplantation is the only valid therapeutic option. Hepatoprotectors that are currently on the market are numerous, having as common properties the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, stabilizing properties of the hepatocytic membrane; A few examples: the ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa, the extract from the plant called Sophora flavescens, the extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, silymarin (extracted from Sylibum marianum), the extract of Ganoderma lucidum, etc. Liver cirrhosis is accompanied by generalized hypovitaminosis, so supplementing the diet with hydro- and liposoluble vitamins is mandatory. Protein-caloric malnutrition can be prevented by a hyperprotein diet, especially beneficial being the supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, which are also applicable in the prophylaxis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Nanoparticles are a state-of-the-art therapeutic option, proving increased bioavailability, for example polydopamine nanoparticles loaded with l-arginine have been tested as therapy in liver cirrhosis. Among the innovative treatment directions in liver cirrhosis are hybrid products (e.g. hybrid polymer nanoparticles loaded with caffeic acid), cell cultures and artificial or bioartificial liver support.

Restricted access
Physiology International
Authors:
Natalia F. Sardi
,
Priscila Natume
,
Thainá Watanabe
,
Ana Carolina Pescador
,
Karla E. Torres-Chavez
,
Glaucia Tobaldini
, and
Luana Fischer

Abstract

Poor sleep increases pain, at least in part, by disrupting endogenous pain modulation. However, the efficacy of endogenous analgesia in sleep-deprived subjects has never been tested. To assess this issue, we chose three different ways of triggering endogenous analgesia: (1) acupuncture, (2) acute stress, and (3) noxious stimulation, and compared their ability to decrease the pronociceptive effect induced by REM-SD (Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation) with that to decrease inflammatory hyperalgesia in the classical carrageenan model. First, we tested the ability of REM-SD to worsen carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia: A low dose of carrageenan (30 µg) in sleep-deprived Wistar rats resulted in a potentiated hyperalgesic effect that was more intense and longer-lasting than that induced by a higher standard dose of carrageenan (100 µg) or by REM-SD alone. Then, we found that (1) acupuncture, performed at ST36, completely reversed the pronociceptive effect induced by REM-SD or by carrageenan; (2) immobilization stress completely reversed the pronociceptive effect of REM-SD, while transiently inhibited carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia; (3) noxious stimulation of the forepaw by capsaicin also reversed the pronociceptive effect of REM-SD and persistently increased the nociceptive threshold above the baseline in carrageenan-treated animals. Therefore, acupuncture, stress, or noxious stimulation reversed the pronociceptive effect of REM-SD, while each intervention affected carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia differently. This study has shown that while sleep loss may disrupt endogenous pain modulation mechanisms, it does not prevent the activation of these mechanisms to induce analgesia in sleep-deprived individuals.

Restricted access

Abstract

Plant-based proteins are being rapidly explored in the food industry to produce healthy and nutritious foods. Herein, the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) ratio to oat germ powder (OGP) (0:0, 3.7: 6.3, 5:5, 0:10, 10:0, and 6.3:3.7%) were studied on the physicochemical, colour, rheological, microbial, antioxidant, and sensory properties of wheyless cheese. The results showed that by increasing SPI and OGP levels, ash, white index value, elastic modulus, and complex viscosity decreased, while pH, fat in dry matter, Chroma, and total colour (ΔE) increased. Also, syneresis was only observed in the control sample and was not observed in other samples. Control sample together with sample containing 10% of OGP showed the highest microbial count (i.e., mesophilic bacteria and yeasts-moulds), while samples containing 10% of SPI showed the lowest microbial count. Furthermore, the growth of both coliform and psychrophilic bacteria in all samples was negligible. Based on the results of sensory evaluation, with increasing SPI and OGP, the sensory evaluation score of samples decreased but they were within the acceptable range. According to the results obtained in this study, the combinations of 5% SPI and 5% OGP or 3.7% SPI and 6.3% OGP are recommended to be used in wheyless cheese production.

Restricted access

Abstract

Gambling disorder is a severe mental health and behavioural problem with harmful consequences, including financial, relationship and mental health problems. The present paper initiates discussion on the use of psychedelics combined with psychotherapeutic support as a potential treatment option for people living with a gambling disorder. Recent studies have shown promising results using psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) to treat anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and various substance use disorders. Considering the similarities in the underlying psychosocial and neurobiological mechanisms of gambling disorder and other addictive disorders, the authors suggest that psychedelic-assisted therapy could be effective in treating gambling disorder. The paper also underscores the need for further research into the viability and effectiveness of psychedelic-assisted therapy for gambling disorder.

Open access

Abstract

This study investigates the potential of utilising oleosomes extracted from hazelnuts in the formulation of liquid margarines. Aqueous extraction methods were employed to isolate oleosomes from hazelnuts, revealing approximately 83.07% fat and 2.48% protein content in hazelnut oleosomes. The stability of oleosomes at various pH levels (3–10) was examined, showing stability at pH 7 but instability at extreme pH values. Evaluation at pH 7 indicated small particle size (D3,2 ≈ 3.58 μm) and a ζ-potential of approximately −33.8 mV for isolated oleosomes. Subsequently, double emulsions were formulated by substituting traditional oil with varying oleosome concentrations (0–30%) in liquid margarine. Rheological and oxidative analyses of these margarines demonstrated decreased elastic and viscous moduli, hardness, and spreadability, alongside enhanced oxidative stability with increasing oleosome concentration. These findings suggest hazelnut-derived oleosomes offer significant stability advantages over conventional liquid margarine, presenting a promising avenue for functionally enhanced food products in the food industry.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Verner N. Orish
,
Sylvester Y. Lokpo
,
Precious K. Kwadzokpui
,
Rufai Safianu
,
Aleksandra Marinkovic
,
Stephanie Prakash
,
Chuku Okorie
,
Ricardo Izurieta
,
Rajashree Pandit
, and
Adekunle Sanyaolu

Abstract

Background

Although, several studies have reported abnormal Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) values and anaemia associated with malaria infections with a focus on Plasmodium falciparum among patients with complicated and uncomplicated malaria, none has looked at the association with asymptomatic malaria. This study aimed to assess this association.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study using 3 mL of blood samples from 549 children aged 5–17 years attending 5 schools selected in the Volta Region. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to the children to obtain demographic data. Blood samples were collected to estimate the children's full blood count (FBC) and malaria status. Data obtained were analysed using STATA 15 software. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results

Most of the children in this study (49.9%) had normal MCV (81.3–91.3 fL) with an overall malaria prevalence of 55.6 % (95% CI: 51.3–59.8) and anaemia prevalence of 48.6% (95% CI 44.4–52.9). Most anaemic children had normal MCV (81.3–91.3 fL) (49.8, 95% CI 43.7–56.0). The predicted probability of malaria was highly likely among children with normal MCV (81.3–91.3 fL) but with high variability and uncertainty among those with low MCV (<81.3 fL) and high MCV (>91.3 fL).

Conclusion

This study shows a reduced predicted probability of malaria among children with low and high MCV, playing a protective function against malaria. Further studies are required to elucidate the interaction.

Open access

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of the impact of blanching and Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Cantonese bacon using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). The study aims to investigate how different processing techniques influence the composition of volatile compounds in meat products, thereby contributing to the understanding of flavour release patterns.

The experiment involved dividing pork belly into six groups: conventional (C), heat treatment (H, 50 °C, 15 s), high-temperature treatment (S, 80 °C, 5 s), conventional treatment with GBE (CG, 0.5% GBE), heat composite treatment with GBE (HG, 50 °C, 15 s, 0.5% GBE), and high-temperature heat composite treatment with GBE (SG, 80 °C, 15 s, 0.5% GBE). The researchers identified a total of 36 compounds in the GC-IMS spectrum. The results showed that the ethanol content decreased in the H group samples after blanching treatment, while it increased in the S group samples. The CG, H, HG, and SG groups exhibited more significant changes compared to the C group. The H group had the highest number of VOCs among all the groups. Additionally, the flavour of the H, CG, and HG group products was notably enhanced.

In conclusion, GC-IMS allows for real-time visual analysis of VOCs, and both blanching treatment and the addition of GBE significantly affect the composition of VOCs in the samples.

Restricted access