The checklist includes tree, shrub, dwarf shrub, woody liana and epiphyte species that occur or have occurred in Hungary except the settlements and other intensively utilised objects. 437 dendrotaxa were included and evaluated in this list. This means 281 species, 22 subspecies, 128 nothospecies and 6 nothosubspecies. Based on the indigenat, 260 native, 92 alien and 9 cryptogenic dendrotaxa live in Hungary, furthermore 54 cultivated dendrotaxa and 22 dendrotaxa with questionable occurrence. Analysing the invasive status of alien species, 19 invasive or being in the early stages of invasion, 12 naturalised and 61 casual dendrotaxa can be distinguished. According to residence time status, the number of archaeophytes is 16 and that of neophytes is 76. Of the 260 native dendrotaxa, 9 were extinct or presumably extinct. 44 dendrotaxa are considered to be proven endemic, and there are 8 subendemic. Of the 134 nothotaxa on the list, 14 are artificial and 120 are of natural origin.
The genus Dracocephalum L. (Lamiaceae) with about 60 to 70 species is a genus in the sub-tribe Nepetinae, tribe Mentheae of Lamiaceae family, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are mostly perennial herbs, and rarely annual. Flora Iranica reports 8 Dracocephalum species and the Flora of Iran reports 10 Dracocephalum species in Iran out of which, 4 species are endemic. We collected 7 Dracocephalum species and studied species delimitation and species relationship by morphometric and anatomic results. The species were efficiently delimited by morphological and anatomical characters. Morphological and anatomical characters revealed closer affinity between D. moldavica and D. subcapitatum and D. thymiflorum were placed with distance from these species.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, M.-H. Jeong, S.-O. Oh, A. S. Kondratiuk, E. Farkas, and J.-S. Hur
Seven genera new to science, i.e.: Helmutiopsis, Huriopsis, Johnsheardia, Klauskalbia, Kudratovia, Kurokawia and Poeltonia of the Physciaceae are proposed for the ‘Rinodina’ atrocinerea, the ‘Rinodina’ xanthophaea, the ‘Rinodina’ cinnamomea, the ‘Heterodermia’ obscurata, the ‘Rinodina’ straussii, the ‘Anaptychia’ isidiata and the ‘Physconia’ grisea groups consequently that all form strongly supported monophyletic branches in a phylogeny analysis based on a combined matrix of nrITS and mtSSU sequences.
Phylogenetic positions of species belonging to the genera Kashiwadia s. l., Leucodermia, Mischoblastia,Oxnerella, Phaeorrhiza s. l., Polyblastidium and Rinodinella s. l. are discussed. Oxnerella afghanica which for the first time recorded as parasitic lichen species from both epiphytic and saxicolous crustose lichens is designated as type species for the genus Oxnerella.
Sequences of the recently described Physcia orientostellaris as well as Huriopsis xanthophaea and additional sequences of Kashiwadia aff. orientalis and Mischoblastia aff. oxydata are submitted to the GenBank.
The positions of Polyblastidium casaterrinum from Costa Rica, ‘Rinodina’ efflorescens from Białowieża, Poland, and ‘Mischoblastia’ confragosula from Cambodia in the Physciaceae are confirmed in a phylogeny analysis based on the nrITS sequences.
The presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen associations is exemplified with earlier incorrect identifications of Heterodermia, Kashiwadia, Kurokawia,Oxnerella and Poeltonia specimens.
Sacred groves are the fairly well-protected system of community-based conservation of tree patches on account of their association with village gods, and repository of many rare and threatened elements of biodiversity. There are, however, few publications on lichens of sacred groves. The lichens have long been regarded as sensitive indicators for monitoring environmental state. The present study reports one hundred and sixteen species of lichens from forty-four genera of nineteen families in four selected sacred groves of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. These lichens represent two different growth forms, i.e. crustose (105 species) and foliose (11 species). Shorea robusta, a dominant tree species in two sacred groves bears the highest lichen diversity with seventy-four species. To better understand the related biodiversity and climate, this work is likely to promote further studies on lichen diversity in other regions of West Bengal.
The telicity behavior of degree achievements has been a puzzling problem to many linguists. The most successful and currently standard theory (Kennedy & Levin 2008) treats them as degree expressions lexicalizing different types of scales, which in turn influence the resulting evaluative or non-evaluative interpretation. While it may account for English, this theory does not hold up cross-linguistically. We challenge the scalar theory with new Slavic data and show that verbal prefixes influence the (non-)evaluative interpretation of degree achievements more than their underlying scales do. This proposal is formalised as an addition of two type shifters, morphosyntactically realised as prefixes, which, in result, have an evaluative/non-evaluative effect on the given degree achievement.
Authors:Yu. V. Gapon, S. Y. Kondratyuk, and S. V. Gapon
Results of bryoindication mapping based on calculation of an index of atmospheric purity (IAP) of towns of the Left Bank Ukraine, i.e. the smallest Romny (Sumy oblast) and Myrhorod (Poltava oblast) towns, small Pryluky (Chernihiv oblast) and Lubny (Poltava oblast) towns as well as medium size Poltava town (Poltava oblast), are provided. It is found that isotoxic bryoindication zones of moderately polluted air are predominate and often forming entire areas in the centre / industrial / densely built-up areas of Poltava, Lubny and Pryluky towns while isotoxic zones with slightly polluted or unpolluted air are predominant or more widely distributed in smaller towns Romny and Myrhorod. Correlation of data on species diversity, community composition of bryophytes as well as data of the IAP zoning of the territory of all towns mentioned as well as natural conditions of their territory and anthropogenic pressure is discussed.
This is the second manuscript about a series of papers dedicated to study the flora of Los Farallones de Cali, an Andean natural region in Colombia. The general purpose is to make an inventory of plants, algae and fungi by studying different locations in Los Farallones. This paper deals with aroids (Araceae family), from a low montane forest at Pico de Águila (Valle Department, Colombia). Data about altitudinal and geographical distribution in Colombia of aroids found are presented here, along with some drawings for facilitating field identification.
The paper aims at providing an overview of hate crimes through an interdisciplinary lens based not only on theories but also empirical research results. The paper first deals with the central components of hate crimes: prejudice and aggression. Not only the classical social-psychological theories of these phenomena are discussed but also some newer ones. As hate crimes do not occur in a vacuum, the next chapter of the paper deals with the social, political, cultural context and factors that facilitate or impede the occurrence of hate crimes. Community disorganization, urban ecology, racial balance, residential stability, economic conditions, and the role of the media and the internet are discussed in detail. The last chapter of the paper deals with the perpetrators of hate crimes, let them be lonely ones or members of organized hate groups. The paper demonstrates that the investigation of hate crimes can only occur in an interdisciplinary setting that can simultaneously take into account legal, social, cultural, and political factors.
The genus Diplasiolejeunea is added to the liverwort flora of India from the Kerala part of the Western Ghats reporting two species: Diplasiolejeunea cavifolia Steph. and D. cobrensis Gottsche ex Steph. The genus is known from tropical Asia with eight species. Among them Diplasiolejeunea cavifolia is widespread, but still the genus was not yet recorded from India.
Authors:S. Mosaferi, H. Hasanabadi, M. Keshavarzi, and M. Eskandari
(Solanaceae) comprises cultivated and wild plants with 1400 species in the world and 14 species in Iran. Solanum is a taxonomically complex genus due to morphological similarities, phenotypic plasticity and hybridisation. Limited studies were done on anatomical features of this important genus. In this project, 10 native and exotic species of Solanum in Iran belonging to two subgenera were examined anatomically. Leaf mesophyll and midrib and indumentum were analysed using light microscope. Hand-made cross section method and Toluidine blue as colouring agent were used. Characters as length and width of main vascular bundle, thickness of collenchyma, trichome density, thickness of parenchyma strand, thickness of lamina and length and shape of midrib were diagnostic features among species studied. In UPGMA tree and PCA ordination, species of two subgenera were separated from each other. Results of this study confirmed the taxonomic importance of anatomical characters in Solanum species studied.