Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the leading pathogen in urinary tract infection. In recent years multidrug-resistant B2-ST131 E. coli clonal group has disseminated worldwide. The ST131 and its subclones H30 and H30-Rx have been identified only in a few studies from Turkey. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of ST131 and its subclones and to analyze their adhesin virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 250 urinary ExPEC isolates were included in the study. Resistance rates of 16 antimicrobial agents were determined by disk-diffusion. Multidrug-resistance and ESBL production were analyzed. Altogether 8 adhesin genes were investigated namely, papAH, fimH, sfa/focDE, focG, afa/draBC, iha, bmaE and gafD. A total of 39 ST131 isolate were determined and 33 (84.6%) were multidrug-resistant. ESBL production was detected in 34 (87.2%) ST131 and 61 (28.9%) of non-ST131 strains. In our study, we found a strong correlation between ST131 strains and fimH, iha, afa/draBC, papAH virulence determinants. Twenty-nine (85.3%) of 34 ST131-O25b-H30 isolates were identified as H30-Rx. All the papAH gene positive isolates were identified within ST131-O25b-H30-Rx lineage. Non-H30-Rx isolates within H30 isolates were identified as pattern 2. Almost 16% of the isolates were identified as ST131 regardless of clinical syndrome and approximately 34% of the multidrug-resistant isolates were H30-Rx subclone. We report H30-Rx as the dominant subclone of ST131 in our study. Imipenem, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin proved to be the most effective agents according to antibiotic resistance patterns of both ST131 and non-ST131 E. coli strains.
The aim of our study was to delineate an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Shigella flexneri and affecting sixteen persons between May and June 2014 in Bilbao, Spain. All patients exhibited symptoms after consuming kebab in the same kebab shop.
The outbreak is described through the clinical cases, the microbiological and molecular genetic diagnosis, and the epidemiologic investigation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for ampicillin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, third and fourth generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, co-trimoxazole, colistin and tigecycline were measured. The S. flexneri strains were screened by PCR for TEM, SHV, CTX-M beta-lactamases and plasmidic AmpCs and aac(6′)-Ib gene. Serotyping, pulsed field gel-electrophoresis, conjugation assay, plasmid sizing by S1 enzyme digestion and Southern blot hybridization were accomplished.
All the S. flexneri isolates proved to be serotype 2 and produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline, colistin, and co-trimoxazole remained active antibiotics. All the strains harboured blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-1 genes. The strains hosted two high-molecular weight plasmids of 100 and 230 kb, respectively. According to the hybridization assay blaCTX-M-15 was located on the plasmid of 230 kb. The identical pulsotype verified the presence of outbreak.
Remarkable, that one of the food handlers has travelled recently to Pakistan, where ESBL-producing Shigella strains had been reported previously. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first outbreak caused by CTX-M-15-expressing S. flexneri in Spain and as well as in Europe.
This paper presents a nearly ten-year-long process of covering the history of social enterprise development in a small village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, Hungary. The paper covers the hermeneutical interpretation of the process, the role and relationship between the community and the social enterprise developer, the process of development work, and how university education complements this process. The case study provides insights into the theory of community planning, the methodology of social-enterprise development and the issue of empowerment.
Seedless barberry is a medicinal shrub and has been cultivated in Iran for more than two centuries. It is perishable with short shelf-life. Irradiation has shown to improve microbial safety and expands durability of raw fruits. Undoubtedly, current food processes undesirably affect bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. Fresh barberry fruit was harvested in Birjand city by methods including “cutting branches” and “collecting fallen fruit under shrubs”, which locally are known as “puffy barberry” and “jewel barberry”, respectively. Some of the fresh barberries were treated by osmotic solution and then they have been dried. Untreated dried fruit was processed by freezing. Osmotic and frozen treatments were packed in polyamide film. Some of the dried jewel/puffy barberries packed in polyamide film were irradiated at doses of 0, 3, 5, and 10 kGy. All samples were stored at 4 and 25 °C for 6 months. Effects of barberry types (puffy/jewel), processes, storage time and temperature on chemical, microbial, and pest characteristics of dried barberry fruit were evaluated. Puffy barberry gamma irradiated with 5 kGy after 6 months of storage at 4 °C showed acceptable properties. Irradiation and storage at 4 °C were reported as optimal processing and storage conditions for barberry fruit.
In the scope of this research, we aim to give an overview of the currently existing solutions for machine translation and we assess their performance on the English-Hungarian language pair. Hungarian is considered to be a challenging language for machine translation because it has a highly different grammatical structure and word ordering compared to English. We probed various machine translation systems from both academic and industrial applications. One key highlight of our work is that our models (Marian NMT, BART) performed significantly better than the solutions offered by most of the market-leader multinational companies. Finally, we fine-tuned different pre-finetuned models (mT5, mBART, M2M100) for English-Hungarian translation, which achieved state-of-the-art results in our test corpora.
This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effects of different protein coatings on maintaining the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. 308 brown table eggs from ISA Brown hens were used for four treatments: uncoated eggs, coated with rice protein concentrate – RPC, soy protein concentrate – SPC, and whey protein concentrate – WPC. Eggs started with Haugh Units (HU) of 82.01 and reduced in proportions of 28.75% (control), 12.82% (RPC), 12.90% (SPC), and 10.54% (WPC) on the last day of storage. Coated eggs showed smaller reductions (P < 0.0001) in this response. Protein coatings can effectively maintain the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. However, the WPC coating maintained the highest egg rate and the best yolk index for eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C.
Ancient classical culture usually links gambling (plays with knucklebones, dice, pawns) with divination and love's matters. It is noteworthy, to examine playing by knucklebones (Greek astragaloi). The connection between astragals, games and the erotic sphere clearly appears in Eros-Ganymede episode in the 3rd Book of Apollonius' Argonautica. A fragment of Callimachus also deals with knucklebones. Many Greek lyric and epigrammatic poets echo this topic. In sum, Apollonius allows us to discover a usual imagery: Eros as a player with knucklebones shows that Love masters the human life. It is thus an evident symbol of fate.
Kutatásunk témája az NCH Magyarország Kft. által forgalmazott baktériumos hígtrágyakezelési rendszer összehasonlító ökotoxikológiai vizsgálata. A kísérletet egy szarvasmarha borjúnevelő telepen végeztük 0–6 hónapos korcsoportú szekcióban. A tabletta formában rendelkezésünkre álló baktérium törzseket egy tartályban felszaporítottuk és hetente adagoltuk az aknában összegyűlő hígtrágyához. A kezelés célja volt, hogy a baktériumok elősegítsék a trágya homogenizációját, a szagcsökkentést és a szerves szennyeződések lebontását. Az ökotoxikológiai vizsgálatokat a trágyakezelés előtt, alatt és után, három mintavételi időben végeztük el.
A kutatásunk eredményeként elmondhatjuk, hogy a hígtrágyakezelés során a beltartalmi értékek jelentősen növekedtek, főként a nitrogénformák, a biológiai oxigénigény és a szárazanyagtartalom. Az ösztrogén hatás megléte számottevő maradt a kezelés végére is. A fitotoxicitási vizsgálat alapján mindegyik növény, szár- és gyökérnövekedésére pozitív hatással volt a trágyakezelés. A talajtoxicitási teszt eredménye bizonyította, hogy magasabb hígítás mellett veszti el a kezeletlen hígtrágya az érzékeny baktériumok élettevékenységére is kiterjedő gátló hatását. A békalencse vizsgálat során összességében elmondható, hogy 150× hígítás fölött megszűnik a hígtrágya gátló hatása mindhárom alkalommal vett minta esetében. Az alga növekedésgátlására a hígtrágya stagnáló-gátló tendenciát mutatott a kezelés alatt.
Eredményeink alapján arra a következtetésre jutottunk, hogy a vizsgált hígtrágyakezelési módszer a homogenitás, szagtalanítás és a szerves anyagok bontása során eredményes volt. Azonban javasolt magasabb hígítási arányban vagy magas talajvíztartalom mellett kijuttatni a földekre. A hormonhatású anyagok eltávolítására vonatkozólag további vizsgálatok szükségesek, melyek alapján majd javaslatokat lehet kidolgozni a gazdák számára.
One of the most important NLP tasks for the industry today is to produce an extract from longer text documents. This task is one of the hottest topics for the researchers and they have created some solutions for English. There are two types of the text summarization called extractive and abstractive. The goal of the first task is to find the relevant sentences from the text, while the second one should generate the extraction based on the original text. In this research I have built the first solutions for Hungarian text summarization systems both for extractive and abstractive subtasks. Different kinds of neural transformer-based methods were used and evaluated. I present in this publication the first Hungarian abstractive summarization tool based on mBART and mT5 models, which gained state-of-the-art results.