Authors:Andor Doszpoly, Ákos Hornyák and Krisztián Bányai
The complete genomic sequence along with phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus (AdV), isolated from a dead captive pygmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) from a Hungarian zoo is reported. Earlier, based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a PCR-amplified fragment from the DNA polymerase gene, the pygmy marmoset AdV (PMAdV) has been reported to cluster closest to certain chiropteran AdVs. In the following years similar AdVs were discovered in additional mammalian hosts, including a skunk (Mephitis mephitis), African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) and grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). After the full genome analysis of the skunk adenovirus (SkAdV-1), a novel species Skunk mastadenovirus A (SkAdV-A) has been established. The AdVs, originating from the African pygmy hedgehogs, have been found to belong to virus species SkAdV-A. Partial gene sequences from the porcupine AdVs have also implied their very close genetic relatedness to SkAdV-A. The complete genomic sequence of PMAdV, examined in this study, was found to share 99.83% nucleotide identity with SkAdV-1, thus unequivocally represents a genomic variant of SkAdV-1. The observation that viruses classifiable as SkAdV-A are able to infect and cause diseases in several, distantly related mammals seems to deserve further studies to elucidate the infection biology of this intriguing AdV.
Authors:Adrienn Tóth, Csaba Németh, Ildikó Zeke, Annamária Barkói, Karina Hidas and László Friedrich
Minimal processing technologies, like High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP), heat treatments at low temperatures have an increasing role in food industry. Eggs are considered as functional foods, but for high retention of biological active compounds adequate minimal processing technologies are needed during preservation procedure. In our study, liquid egg yolk (LEY) was examined to meet consumer's expectations.
Combinations of pasteurization (57–63 °C, 5–7 min) and HHP (350–400 MPa, 5 min) were used to provide microbiological stability of LEY. After these treatments samples were examined for mesophyll aerobes and Enterobacteriaceae cell counts (using Nutrient agar an incubation of 30 °C, 48 h) and viscosity attributes (Anton Paar MCR 92).
Our results show that microbiological stability is significantly influenced by the different parameters of heat treatments and HHP. Heat treatment effected at least 3 orders of magnitude decrease in cell count. Viscosity attributes point out that higher pressure of HHP have a stronger effect on viscosity than the temperature of pasteurization.
The results point out a great opportunity for industrial use of minimal processing technologies for LEY. Microbiological safety is strongly influenced by the order of treatments, but viscosity may be independent from the order of the treatments.
Authors:Boglárka Vincze, Márta Varga, Orsolya Kutasi, Petra Zenke, Ottó Szenci, Ferenc Baska, Alan Bartels, Sándor Spisák, Sándor Cseh and Norbert Solymosi
Equine grass sickness (also known as dysautonomia) is a life-threatening polyneuropathic disease affecting horses with approx. 80% mortality. Since its first description over a century ago, several factors, such as the phenotype, intestinal microbiome, environment, management and climate, have been supposed to be associated with the increased risk of dysautonomia. In this retrospective study, we examined the possible involvement of genetic factors. Medical and pedigree datasets regarding 1,233 horses with 49 affected animals born during a 23-year period were used in the analysis. Among the descendants of some stallions, the proportion of animals diagnosed with dysautonomia was unexpectedly high. Among males, the odds of dysautonomia were found to be higher, albeit not significantly, than among females. Significant familial clustering (genealogical index of familiality, P = 0.001) was observed among the affected animals. Further subgroups were identified with significant (P < 0.001) aggregation among close relatives using kinship-based methods. Our analysis, along with the slightly higher disease frequency in males, suggests that dysautonomia may have a genetic causal factor with an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. This is the first study providing ancestry data and suggesting a heritable component in the likely multifactorial aetiology of the disease.
Authors:Fabiano José Ferreira de Sant’Ana, Juliana dos Santos Batista, Guilherme Reis Blume, Luciana Sonne and Claudio Severo Lombardo de Barros
The clinical and pathological findings of a case of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) from the northern region of Brazil are reported. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included apathy, prostration, dyspnoea, and loss of appetite. Treatment with penicillin was attempted, but the animal died within five days of the onset of clinical signs. Microscopically, there was acute inflammation in the liver, spleen, and lungs associated with necrosis and a few cysts and extracytoplasmic tachyzoites, with a morphology compatible with Toxoplasma gondii. Tissue sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry that confirmed T. gondii as the aetiological agent. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in B. variegatus.
Authors:Emna Ayari, Csaba Németh, Karina Ilona Hidas, Adrienn Tóth, Dávid Láng and László Friedrich
Starting from mechanical revolution, each day new methods and new equipment have emerged. Today, the Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT) is one of the important technologies that permits to the industry to reduce processing time while maintaining the same quality of the products. Egg and egg products are known as heat-sensitive products, so the UHT enables us to preserve their qualities after a heat treatment.
Our aim is to study the effect of UHT treatment (approximately 67 °C for 190 s) on the Liquid Egg Yolk (LEY). For twenty-one days, the color and the apparent viscosity were measured every seven days, we also studied the damage of protein using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry).
Comparing the two graphs of DSC, the denaturation of protein is distinct. The endothermic peak decreased. This could be seen also on the rheological curves. The apparent viscosity is diminished from 231 mPa.s on the 1st day of storage to 224 mPa.s on 21st day. However, the treated LEY could be stored for longer period than the raw LEY.
Authors:György Zoltán Radnóczi, Zoltán Herceg and Tamás Rafael Kiss
Very accurate measurement of distances in the order of several µm is demonstrated on a single crystal Si sample by counting the lattice fringes on stitched high resolution TEM/STEM images. Stitching of TEM images commonly relies on correspondence points found in the image, however, the nearly perfect periodic nature of a lattice image renders such a procedure very unreliable. To overcome this difficulty artificial correspondence points are created on the sample using the electron beam. An accuracy better than 1% can be reached while measuring distances in the order of 1 µm. A detailed description of the process is provided, and its usability for accurately measuring large distances is discussed in detail.
Authors:Yun-Hsuan Chang, Kun-Chia Chang, Wen-Li Hou, Chung-Ying Lin and Mark D. Griffiths
Background and aims
Patients with schizophrenia are known to use potentially addictive psychoactive substances as self-medication and to ease psychological distress. Other potentially addictive behaviors such as online gaming are also used to self-medicate and ease psychological distress. However, the role of online gaming and problematic gaming (in the form of internet gaming disorder [IGD]) has not previously been investigated for patients with schizophrenia facing distress.
One hundred and four participants diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited and completed a number of psychometric scales including the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSPS), Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9), Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S), and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21).
The results showed significant negative associations between PSPS, IGDS-SF9, and DASS-21, and significant positive correlations between the IGDS-SF-9, SSS-S and DASS-21. Moreover, IGD did not mediate the association between self-stigma and depression. However, IGD significantly mediated the association between self-stigma and anxiety, and the association between self-stigma and stress. In addition, (i) age and self-stigma were significant predictors for IGD; (ii) social function and self-stigma were significant predictors for depression; (iii) social function, self-stigma, and IGD were significant predictors for anxiety; and (iv) self-stigma and IGD were significant predictors for stress.
The findings suggest that online gaming may be a coping strategy for individuals with schizophrenia with psychological stress and self-stigma and that for some of these individuals, their gaming may be problematic.
Authors:Mohamed Hamed, El-Sayed El-Shafaey, Eman Abo Elfadl and Ahmed Abdellatif
This study was designed to evaluate and compare the optimal sites for intra-articular (IA) injection into the digits of buffalo by discrimination of the injection criteria. Forty-eight cadaveric hind digits of adult buffalos and nine live ones were assigned for three trial investigations. In the first division, eighteen sound cadaveric limbs were used to describe the anatomical features of the hind digit. In the second division, thirty cadaveric limbs (ten for each approach) were injected with an equal volume of iopamidol through relevant joint pouches to compare the dorsal, lateral and plantar IA approaches for each joint. The former technique was applied to nine live, healthy adult buffaloes to evaluate the accuracy of IA injection of the hind digit in vivo. Injection criteria were assessed, scored and statistically compared among the three approaches. The summation of injection criteria scores showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the dorsal and lateral approaches for IA injection of the fetlock, pastern and coffin joints in the buffalo digit compared to the plantar one. However, median and range of injection criteria scores between the dorsal and lateral approaches were slightly less significant. In conclusion, the present study established a reference for IA injection of the buffalo digit that could aid the diagnosis and treatment of digit-related lameness.
The importance of preparation for citizenship has been recognized for millennia, while education for democracy has been central to pedagogical thinking in Europe and in Hungary for more than a quarter of a century (Crick Report, European Year of Citizenship through Education, EU key competences, modified version of the NCC). Educating a citizenry that is capable of thinking independently, is equipped with critical skills and can deliberate about matters appears in these documents as a definitive goal. The concept of civic competence or citizenship competence indicates a combination of such knowledge, skills, abilities and values that make the individual capable of effectively participating in an everyday life that is based on democratic values as well as in civic society (Hoskins and Crick, 2008, cited by Kinyó, Az állampolgári kompetencia egyes összetevőinek és a közösségi tevékenységformák jellemzőinek vizsgálata 7. és 11. évfolyamos tanulók körében[PhD dissertation: Individual Components of the Competence of Citizenship and an Examination of the Characteristics of Forms of Community Activities Among Students in the 7th to 11th Grades], 2012). The various models of preparation in schools assume that civic knowledge has identifiable elements that can be taught (e.g. texts of legal documents, constitutional principles, the structure of the state); at the same time, civic "knowledge" comprises rather the adoption of attitudes and the practice of certain skills. This study, supported by research data based on survey questions, seeks to discover the degree of prevalence of education for democracy and citizenship in everyday practice, as well as the kinds of problems those affected see in this area and what recommendations they have to address these difficulties.
Authors:Bence Gergő Barsy, Gyula Győri and Péter Tamás Szemes
Our research team has developed a system and methodology for measuring psycho-physiological parameters, which can be used to determine the level of fatigue and fitness of the person being measured. This article describes the electroencephalography (EEG) part of this system. This article covers the technical and mathematical background of EEG measurement, the selection and implementation of the measurement tool in the development environment, and the development of the measurement and processing algorithm. The result is a system that can detect, digitize, and process the digitized signal from the brain, and save the processed signal in an XML database.