Background and aims
The Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) effect is a phenomenon that Pavlovian conditioned cues that could influence one's instrumental behavior. In several substance and behavioral addictions, such as tobacco use disorder and gambling disorder, addiction-related cues could promote independently trained instrumental drug-seeking/drug-taking behaviors, indicating a specific PIT effect. However, it is unclear whether Internet gaming disorder (IGD) would show a similar change in PIT effects as other addictions. The study aimed to explore the specific PIT effects in IGD.
We administrated a PIT task to individuals with IGD (n = 40) and matched health controls (HCs, n = 50), and compared the magnitude of specific PIT effects between the two groups. The severity of the IGD symptoms was assessed by the Chinese version 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS) and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT).
We found that: (1) related to the HCs group, the IGD group showed enhanced specific PITgame effects, where gaming-related cues lead to an increased choice rate of gaming-related responses; (2) in the IGD group, the magnitude of specific PITgame effects were positively correlated with IAT scores (rho = 0.39, p = 0.014).
Discussion and Conclusions
Individuals with IGD showed enhanced specific PIT effects related to HCs, which were associated with the severity of addictive symptoms. Our results highlighted the incentive salience of gaming-related cues in IGD.
Around the western world various activist groups confront controversial monuments and other mnemonic infrastructures of historical culture representing contested histories and equally contested visions of the future. This article presents an original model for analyzing controversial issues of commemoration in the context of history education. Relying on the theory of historical consciousness, it first presents monuments as a distinctive type of mnemonic infrastructures of historical culture. It then delineates a conceptual model for making sense of various “types” or ways of engaging with these infrastructures: preservational, analytical, hypercritical, and reflexive. These ways of engaging are then analyzed in reference to four competencies of historical consciousness in relation to Jörn Rüsen’s recognized typology (inquiry, historical thinking, orientation, and narrative). The article explains how this new model can be transposed to the context of education so as to help students analyze past and current memorial controversies and ultimately develop more complex ways of engaging with mnemonic infrastructure in society.
Control of OHS risks in the mining industry has been attracting increasing attention in recent years. Because of their great diversity in a complex system, hazards can be difficult to identify and classify, especially when system components interact. Risk cannot be managed successfully without comprehensive investigation of all its aspects. A coherent and integrated classification for identifying and categorizing all hazards is currently lacking in mining. We propose an integrated system classification of OHS hazards in mining based on our review of 44 studies retrieved using PRISMA. Considering Canadian and international standards, regulations and conventions, new hazard categories are proposed and hazard prevention is discussed from 12 perspectives: physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, accident and psychosocial risks, as well as policy, legislation, management, design, geography, and uncertainty, with reference to each of the four phases of a typical mine life cycle, the hazards were shown in a portrait. This paper provides suitable categories based on rational data for creating a portrait in order to OHS hazards prevention in life cycle activity in mine.
A Magyar Sebész Társaság Fiatal Sebészek Szekciójának IX. Kongresszusa
Balatonalmádi 2023.04.14. – 04.16 Előadás-összefoglalók
In the present study, six different edible coatings were evaluated to assess their microbicidal efficiency on pre-treated disinfected fresh cut guava. Among all coatings viz. alginate, pectin, carboxy methylcellulose, carrageenan, and starch, chitosan showed significant microbial growth inhibition and preservation of physico-chemical characteristics of fresh cut guava. Further, optimisation of coating parameters i.e. concentration (% w/v) and dipping time (min) was performed using Response Surface Methodology. It revealed that the fresh-cut guava dipped in 1% (w/v) chitosan for 3 min had desirability level of 91% and extension of its shelf life up to 9 days, as compared to 5 days shelf life of uncoated fresh-cut guava, maintaining all its physico-chemical parameters and microbial growth under the permissible level. Validation of optimised conditions was conducted at 5.0 kg scale that resulted in firmness of 1.90 (kg), 2.6 g/100 g sugars content, 8.0 °Brix total soluble solids content, 3.4 pH, 4.1 log CFU g−1 total plate count, 3.1 log CFU g−1 yeast and moulds count, and 3.1 log CFU g−1 total coliforms count on fresh-cut guava at 9th day of refrigeration storage. Shelf life analysis revealed that chitosan coated fresh cut guava can stay fresh till 10th day under refrigeration with maintaining all its nutritive, microbiological, and sensory properties in the acceptable range.
This paper examines the education of the Hungarian aristocracy in the period from 1790 to 1848. Since the progressive-minded members of this social class, which was highly qualified by European standards, played a significant role in promoting culture and education, especially since the Reform Era, I wanted to find out what educational characteristics underpinned their education. I explored the question of what trends prevailed in the different directions of home education and how the political, social and intellectual challenges and changes in the first half of the 19th century affected private education. In the course of the research, I applied the traditional method of educational history, source and document analysis and the analytical (deductive) research strategy. After studying the Hungarian, German and English literature on the subject, I examined and evaluated the primary sources available in Hungary - diaries, memoirs, journal articles, autobiographical writings, records of foreign travellers, archival and manuscript sources. In addition to asserting their primary power interests and their role as patrons, a small but crucial group of aristocrats took an active role in raising the level of national culture and education. They championed the cause of education, founded educational institutions and thus became mediators of culture for other strata of society. Their education, enlightened thinking and European erudition undoubtedly contributed to their recognition of this role and task and their commitment to it.
Cardiovascular involvement has been described in acute and recovered COVID-19 patients. Here, we present a case of symptomatic pericarditis with persistent symptoms for at least six months after the acute infection and report 66 published cases of pericarditis in discharged COVID patients. Patient mean age ± SD was 49.7 ± 13.3 years, ranging from 15 to 75 years and 57.6% were female. A proportion of 89.4% patients reported at least one comorbidity, with autoimmune and allergic disorders, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, as the most frequent. Only 8.3% of patients experienced severe symptoms of acute COVID-19. The time between acute COVID and pericarditis symptoms varied from 14 to 255 days. Chest pain (90.9%), tachycardia (60.0%) and dyspnoea (38.2%) were the most frequent symptoms in post-acute pericarditis. A proportion of 45.5% and 87% of patients had an abnormal electrocardiogram and abnormal transthoracic ultrasound, respectively. Colchicine combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) were prescribed to 39/54 (72%) patients. Of them, 12 were switched to corticosteroid therapy due to non-response to the first-line treatment. Only 6 patients had persisting symptoms and were considered as non-respondent to therapy.
Our report highlights that pericarditis should be suspected in COVID-19 patients with persistent chest pain and dyspnoea when pulmonary function is normal. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and colchicine is usually effective but corticosteroids are sometimes required.
This paper aims to recognize the effect of material waste on cost increase in Palestinian construction projects. The study used questionnaire survey to achieve its objectives. The target population of the study are constructors and consultants involved in construction projects. The study also predicts the effect of cost overrun on material waste in some construction activities, namely: ceramic and brick works. The collected data were analyzed using statistical analyses. The study has established that among the various factors that affect cost overrun, experience in the line of work, conflicts among project participants, payments delay, and political situation are the key factors. While the analysis revealed that the main material waste factors are: poor site management, using untrained labors, rework due to workers' mistakes, selecting the lowest bidder contractor/subcontractor, and frequent change orders. Data from 55 building projects constructed in the West Bank between 2015 and 2020 were collected to test the relation between material waste and cost increase. Two mathematical models were developed: Model (l) links cost increase and waste in ceramic works. It indicates that if waste increases by 1%, the cost will increase by 1.07%. Model (2) links between cost increase and material waste in brick works. It tells that if waste increases by 1%, cost will increase by 1.25%. R square of value >0.7, for both models, indicates a strong linear relation between cost increase and material waste. This is the first study that predicts the effect of material waste on cost increase in Palestinian construction sector. The study encourages different parties related to construction projects to manage factors of cost overrun and material waste to enhance the sector of construction.