Authors:H. Xie, L. Cao, L. Ye, G. Shan, and W. Song
In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.
Authors:Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli
The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.
As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.
This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.
A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.
A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.
Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.
Authors:Abimbola Olumide Adekanmbi, Sandra Usidamen, and Anthony Abiodun Onilude
Infection of the urinary tract ranks as one of the most common infections affecting people worldwide and its treatment is made complicated by the rising incidence of antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to detect extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes and antibiotic resistance profile of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) recovered from patients attending a University Teaching hospital in Nigeria. Uropathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained from the culture collection of Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the University Teaching hospital for a period of four months (October 2019–January, 2020). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the disc diffusion method while phenotypic ESBL production was detected using double disc synergy test (DDST). Detection of β-lactamase genes was done using Real-Time PCR. Forty-nine E. coli isolates were recovered from 120 urine samples, with 24 (49%) being ESBL positive. The resistance to antibiotics in the ESBL producers was: ciprofloxacin (100%), cefotaxime (100%), cefpodoxime (100%), tetracycline (95.7%), ceftazidime (56.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (50%), gentamicin (33.3%), and imipenem (0%). All the ESBL producers carried blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-9, 75% (18/24) carried blaSHV, while blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8 and blaCTX-M-25 groups were detected in 20.8% (5/24) of the isolates. There was co-occurrence of CTX-M, SHV and TEM β-lactamases in 79.2% (19/24) isolates, while five isolates (20.8%) co-harbored blaCTX-M and blaTEM. This study showed a high level of multidrug resistance and ESBL gene carriage in uropathogenic E. coli obtained in this study, suggesting a likely review of therapeutic options in the treatment of UTI to clamp down on the rising cases of antibiotic resistance.
Authors:Máté Magyar, Tibor Glasz, Tekla Kovács, András Bálint Deák, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, and Balázs Futácsi
Gastroparesis, a form of gastrointestinal dysfunction and the increased risk for aspiration pneumonia are well known complications in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In our case report we demonstrate the case of an 83-year-old, bedridden male patient with Parkinson’s disease, who had a slowly progressing stomach dilation, gradually pushing the otherwise normal liver to a highly unusual craniodorsally rotated position.
Authors:Luis Q. Langfeld, Ke Du, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
As antimicrobial resistance poses a globally rising health problem, the identification of alternative antimicrobial agents is urgently required. The short chain fatty acid propionate which is physiologically produced by the gut microbiota constitutes a promising molecule given that it has been widely used as a cosmetics and food preservative due to its antimicrobial effects. This literature survey aims to determine the most recent state of knowledge about the antimicrobial and immune-modulatory properties of propionate. Both in vitro and in vivo studies published between 2011 and 2020 confirmed the ability of propionate to inhibit the growth of several cellular pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative multi-drug resistant bacteria and fungi. In addition, heterogenous immune-modulatory and in particular, anti-inflammatory effects of propionate could be assessed involving a diverse signaling network that needs further comprehension. In conclusion, our literature survey provides evidence that propionate displays a plethora of health-beneficial including antimicrobial and immune-modulatory effects. Future research is required to further unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms and to set the basis for in vivo infection and clinical studies to broaden the path of propionate as a promising adjunct antibiotics-independent option in the combat of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria.
Authors:Supissara Wongsuttawas, Pasakorn Brikshavana, Sumit Durongphongtorn, and Somporn Techangamsuwan
Haemangioma (HA) and haemangiosarcoma (HSA) are among the most common splenic neoplasms in dogs. The survival time in splenic HSA is short, probably due to the lack of proper biological markers allowing early detection. We investigated the serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) concentrations in 9 healthy dogs and 40 dogs with abnormal splenic masses. The Ang-2 concentration differences were further compared in healthy dogs, dogs with splenitis, splenic HA and HSA. The results showed that the Ang-2 level in healthy dogs was significantly lower than in the splenitis and splenic HA cases. Moreover, the Ang-2 level was significantly higher in splenic HA than in splenic HSA. Conversely, no significant differences in Ang-2 level were recorded between healthy and splenic HSA dogs, and between splenitis and splenic neoplasms (HA and HSA). No significant correlations were observed between the Ang-2 level and (i) the clinical stage, (ii) histological growth pattern, and (iii) median survival time of splenic HSA dogs. In conclusion, serum Ang-2 concentration is a potentially useful biological marker for the discrimination of dogs with splenitis and splenic HA, as well as for the differentiation of splenic HA from its malignant form, HSA.
Authors:Federico Cavanna, Carla Pallavicini, Virginia Milano, Juan Cuiule, Rocco Di Tella, Pablo González, and Enzo Tagliazucchi
Background and aims
The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences represent a major challenge to the mental health and well-being of the general population. Building on previous work on the potential long-term benefits of psychedelics, we hypothesized that lifetime use of these drugs could be linked to better mental health indicators in the context of the ongoing pandemic.
Two anonymous online surveys were conducted between April and June 2020, including questions about lifetime experience with psychedelics and other psychoactive drugs, and psychometric scales designed to measure personality traits, anxiety, negative, and positive affect, well-being, and resilience. Principal component analysis was applied to divide the sample into groups of subjects based on their drug use reports.
Five thousand six hundred eighteen participants (29.15 0.12 years, 71.97% female) completed both surveys and met the inclusion criteria, with 32.43% of the sample reporting at least one use of a psychedelic drug. Preliminary analyses showed that certain psychedelics were linked to improved mental health indicators, while other psychoactive drugs exhibited the opposite behavior. Lifetime psychedelic use was linked to increased openness and decreased conscientiousness, and to higher scores of positive affect. The reported number of past psychedelic experiences predicted higher scores of the secondary personality trait beta factor, which has been interpreted as a measure of plasticity. No significant associations between lifetime use of psychedelics and indicators of impaired mental health were observed.
We did not find evidence of an association between lifetime use of psychedelics and poor mental health indicators. Conversely, experience with psychedelic drugs was linked to increased positive affect and to personality traits that favor resilience and stability in the light of the ongoing crisis.
Authors:Neşe İnal, Alper Karagöz, Egemen Turhan, and Gülşen Hazirolan
Robinsoniella peoriensis is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic rod. In our study, we isolated R. peoriensis from an open fracture of the left distal tibia of a three-year-old male patient. Tissue anaerobic culture was positive for R. peoriensis. It was identified with both matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and confirmed via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient responded to ampicillin-sulbactam and amikacin antibiotic therapy. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be performed to guide the choice of treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of R. peoriensis osteomyelitis in a pediatric patient and first report from Turkey.
Crash tests of vehicles are specified by government programs. This laws are includes only minimum requirements for individual components. Therefore additional consumer protection load cases have been developed by independent private institutes. Finite element method simulations can reduce development periods and the number of cost-intensive real crash tests. The goals of the calculations are that the early detection of component failure, the protection of occupants or pedestrians. The biggest challenge of the future, in the field of vehicle occupant safety is the interaction of the airbags and belt system with dummy by the electric vehicles, which have the concept of autonomous driving function. The aim of the research is to investigate this area using a simulation model.