Authors:Krisztina Károly, Bea Winkler and Péter Kiszl
This article offers an overview of the birth and the publication output of Across Languages and Cultures: A Multidisciplinary Journal for Translation and Interpreting Studies spanning the period between 2000 and the present day. It presents the circumstances and the aims of its creation and, based on the results of a thorough bibliometric analysis, it reveals how the journal has evolved into a Q1 international journal of Translation Studies through publishing individual as well as collaborative research conducted internationally. The analyses present the activity of the journal dominantly (but not exclusively) in ﬁgures, relating to the number and the lengths of the articles it publishes, its authorship, the countries where its authors work and its citations. The second part of the study reveals the main focuses, themes and languages of inquiry as reﬂected by the most frequently used words and expressions in the titles, abstracts and the lists of keywords of the articles. The paper ends by demonstrating the ways in which the journal has contributed to furthering and shaping translation research in Hungary, Europe and worldwide.
Authors:Márió Gajdács, Marianna Ábrók, Andrea Lázár, Laura Jánvári, Ákos Tóth, Gabriella Terhes and Katalin Burián
Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) present an important therapeutic problem, as there are limited number of effective therapeutic alternatives available. In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to characterize carbapenemase-production and other resistance-determinants (AmpC and ESBL-production, efflux pump-overexpression) in 50 isolates (Klebsiella spp. n = 35, Escherichia coli n = 12 and Enterobacter cloacae complex n = 3) collected at the Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center (University of Szeged) between 2014 and 2017. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of meropenem, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tigecycline, amikacin, moxifloxacin, colistin and fosfomycin were also determined. 24% of isolates were AmpC-producers, while 30% carried blaCTX-M ESBL-genes. Carbapenemase-genes were detected in 18 (36%) of the tested isolates: in 2 isolates blaNDM, in 6 isolates blaOXA-48-like and in 12 isolates, blaVIM was detected by PCR. The species-distribution for isolates positive for carbapenemase-genes was the following: Klebsiella pneumoniae n = 11, Klebsiella oxytoca n = 1, E. coli n = 5, E. cloacae complex n = 1. Efflux pump-overexpression based on the PAβN-screening agar was shown in n = 3 of the tested strains. In nine isolates (18%), carbapenemase and ESBL-genes were detected simultaneously. Highest levels of resistance were noted for fosfomycin (74%) and moxifloxacin (70%), while all isolates were susceptible to colistin. Among applied phenotypic tests in this study the modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) proved to be the most accurate one compared to that of PCR results.
This study seeks to ﬁnd a correlation between silent pauses (SPs) in source text and the ﬂuent delivery in target text during these pauses in simultaneous interpreting from Chinese to English. Experiments have been carried out to home in on SPs by speakers to examine exactly what is going on while silences last. Two speech styles of formal speech and spontaneous speech are then taken into consideration to see whether stylistic difference yields different results in the SP–ﬂuency correlation. Two indicators are identiﬁed as the factors pointing to the dual effect of SPs: the rate of ﬂuent interpreting during SPs (Indicator One), and the rate of SP-included sentences being successfully interpreted (Indicator Two). Both the concurrent and the continuing effects are proved tenable by looking at the relations between the two indicators and different SP positions and durations. Results indicate that the possibility of both indicators is signiﬁcantly higher during speakers’ pauses at grammatical junctures; Indicator One is more pronounced during pauses of medium length while Indicator Two is more pronounced during pauses of longer length. A negative correlation between SP duration and Indicator One is found while a positive correlation between SP duration and Indicator Two is conﬁrmed. Furthermore, this study concludes that speech style does make a difference in the correlation between SP positions and the two indicators: formal speech interpreting shows clearly better regularity than spontaneous speech interpreting.
This paper is concerned with the following question: to what extent does neural machine translation (NMT) – a relatively new approach to machine translation (MT), which can draw on richer contextual information than previous MT architectures – perform explicitation shifts in translation and how are these shifts realised in linguistic terms? In order to answer this question, the paper attempts to identify instances of explicitation in the machine-translated version of a research report on carbon dioxide capture and storage. The machine-translated text was created using the publicly available generic NMT system DeepL. The human translation of the research report was analysed in a prior research project for instances of explicitation and implicitation (Krüger 2015). After a brief quantitative di scussion of the frequency and distribution of explicitation shifts identiﬁed in the DeepL output as compared to the shifts identiﬁed in the human translation of the research report, the paper analyses in detail several examples in which DeepL performed explicitation shifts of various kinds. The quantitative and qualitative analyses are intended to yield a tentative picture of the capacity of state-of-the art neural machine translation systems to perform explicitation shifts in translation. As explicitation is understood in this article as an indicator of translational text–context interaction, the explicitation performance of NMT can – to some extent – be taken to be indicative of the “contextual awareness” of this new MT architecture.
Some studies suggested an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anemia, however, the link between weight loss and the infection in childhood remains non-established. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared H. pylori positivity rates of Bulgarian children without or with anemia (47 children in each group) or weight loss (45 children in each group) and both conditions (17 children in each group). H. pylori infection was associated with the presence of anemia (in 76.6% of the anemic vs. 21.3% of the non-anemic patients, P < 0.0001) and weight loss (in 82.2% of the patients vs. 17.8% of the control children, P < 0.0001). All 17 patients with both conditions were H. pylori positive. Relative risk of anemia, weight loss and both conditions was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.0–6.4), 4.6 (95% CI, 2.4–8.8) and 5.7 (95% CI, 2.0–15.8), respectively, in the children with H. pylori infection. In conclusion, H. pylori infection was significantly associated with iron-deficiency anemia or/and weight loss in Bulgarian pediatric patients. Therefore, diagnostics and treatment of the infection as well as a proper control of the eradication success can be beneficial and thus, can be recommended for children with those conditions.
This article illustrates an intermodal study on simultaneous interpreting and translation from Italian into English based primarily on the European Parliament Interpreting Corpus (EPIC) and ofﬁcial translations from the European Parliament. In line with Gideon Toury’s posited law of interference, the hypothesis that drives the present study is that interpreters and translators working into English from Italian may underrepresent the ’s-genitive as a result of the syntactic asymmetry between English (which alternates between ’s and of) and Italian (which only has one type of prepositional phrase consisting of di + noun). The results of this study indicate that ’s-genitives occur with lower frequency in interpreted English than in non-mediated English, thus revealing a particular form of syntactic interference. The same tendency, however, is not found in translations from Italian into English. This difference is explained by recourse to Englund Dimitrova’s (2005) ﬁndings on translation expertise and to the literal translation hypothesis (Chesterman 2011) and by suggesting that simultaneous interpreting tends to adhere to the source-language syntax more closely than translation, thus displaying similarities with translation drafts. The results also point to the theoretical and methodological limitations of the théorie du sens developed by the Paris School of Interpreters and Translators.