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Abstract

Based on the current literature, the link between Achilles tendon moment arm length and running economy is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the connection between Achilles tendon moment arm and running economy and the influence of Achilles tendon moment arm on the function of the plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit during running.

Ten male competitive marathon runners volunteered for this study. The participants ran on a treadmill at two running speeds: 3 and 3.5 m s−1. During running the oxygen consumption, lower leg kinematics, electrical activity of plantar flexor muscles, and fascicle behavior of the lateral gastrocnemius were measured simultaneously. On the second occasion, an MRI scan of the right leg was taken and used to estimate the Achilles tendon moment arm length.

There was a negative correlation between running economy and the body height normalized moment arm length at both selected speeds (r = −0.68, P = 0.014 and r = −0.70, P = 0.01). In addition, Achilles tendon moment arm length correlated with the amplitude of the ankle flexion at both speeds (r = −0.59, P = 0.03 and r = −0.60, P = 0.03) and with the electrical activity of the medial gastrocnemius muscle at 3 m s−1 speed (r = −0.62, P = 0.02). Our finding supports the concept that a longer moment arm could be beneficial for distance runners.

Open access

Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Transformation of Tools and Conservation of Architecture •

Some Researches on the Use of Digital Systems for the Intervention on the Historical Buildings

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli

The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.

As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.

This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.

A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.

A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.

Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.

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Abstract

Triclabendazole is one of the main drugs used to treat liver fluke in livestock. A rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine ovine plasma levels of triclabendazole sulfoxide.

A Gemini NX-C18 column was used to achieve analytical separation, with gradient elution of a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitril and 0.1% formic acid in water at flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. MRM with positive ESI ionization was used for the detection of triclabendazole sulfoxide (m/z 360.10 from m/z 376.97). Fenbendazole was used as internal standard. Plasma protein precipitation with acetonitrile was used for sample processing.

The method was validated with regards to selectivity, linearity (r > 0.9939), within run and between run precision (CV < 8.9%) and accuracy (bias < 8.9%) over the concentration range 1–100 µg/mL plasma.

The method developed is simple, selective and can be applied in bioequivalence and bioavailability studies.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Violetta M. Yurakhno, Vladimir N. Voronin, Sergey G. Sokolov, Julia M. Malysh, Alexandr P. Kalmykov, and Yuri S. Tokarev

Abstract

Loma acerinae is a xenoma-forming fish microsporidium described from common ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua (Perciformes: Percidae) and also found in Ponto-Caspian gobies (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae). This casts doubt on the strict host specificity of this parasite. The largest subunit RNA polymerase II (rpb1) was used as a genetic marker of the parasite isolated from six host species of Perciformes (G. cernua from the Baltic Sea), Atheriniformes (Atherina boyeri from the Azov Sea) and Gobiiformes (Neogobius spp. and Zosterisessor ophiocephalus from the Black Sea and Ponticola kessleri from the Caspian Sea basin). Two major rpb1 haplogroups were found with 98.5% identity between the groups. Notably, Haplogroup I was associated with Neogobius spp. samples (n = 6) only, whereas Haplogroup II included the samples from other host species (n = 7). These findings confirm the broad distribution and host range of L. acerinae, but also indicate that certain patterns of host-driven intraspecific polymorphism may exist. Furthermore, the study revealed low similarity between the ribosomal RNA gene sequences of L. acerinae and the type species, Loma morhua (as well as other species of the genus). This suggests loose genetic association within the genus, and may raise the need for the taxonomic revision of L. acerinae.

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Henrik Børsting Jacobsen, Audun Stubhaug, Bjørn Holmøy, Tor Morten Kvam, and Silje Endresen Reme

Abstract

Background

Psilocybin is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent for a wide range of psychiatric conditions, and clinical trials on psilocybin-assisted treatment are forthcoming in Scandinavian countries. However, little is known about attitudes towards this psychedelic compound among the general public in Nordic countries. This might represent a confound, and reduce the validity of research findings or the overall feasibility of conducting high-quality clinical trials.

Aims

The main objective of this study is to address the knowledge gap surrounding use and attitudes towards psilocybin in Norway.

Methods

We asked a representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 1,078) if they have ever tried psilocybin and if they would be willing to do so as part of medical treatment. These questions were part of a larger online survey on a variety personal preferences and attitudes, and the survey was not presented as a study on psilocybin.

Results

Of the 1,078 respondents, 8% reported previous psilocybin use and 51% were willing to try psilocybin in medical treatment.

Conclusions

Psilocybin use is more common in Norway than the authors hypothesized, and the general public is relatively open to using psilocybin in a medical context. The latter is interpreted as promising with regards to the feasibility of conducting rigorous clinical trials on potential effects and side effects of psilocybin-assisted treatment in Norway.

Open access

Abstract

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) plays a pivotal role in antiviral capacity in several species. However, to date, investigations of the IFITM3 protein in cattle have been rare. According to recent studies, interspecific differences in the IFITM3 protein result in several unique features of the IFITM3 protein relative to primates and birds. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the bovine IFITM3 protein based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences to find its distinct features. We found that the bovine IFITM3 gene showed a significantly different length and homology relative to other species, including primates, rodents and birds. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the bovine IFITM3 gene and IFITM3 protein showed closer evolutionary distance with primates than with rodents. However, cattle showed an independent clade among primates, rodents and birds. Multiple sequence alignment of the IFITM3 protein indicated that the bovine IFITM3 protein contains 36 bovine-specific amino acids. Notably, the bovine IFITM3 protein was predicted to prefer inside-to-outside topology of intramembrane domain 1 (IMD1) and inside-to-outside topology of transmembrane domain 2 by TMpred and three membrane embedding domains according to the SOSUI system.

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Abstract

A simple, rapid, efficient and reproducible method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for simultaneous determination of prodrug of voriconazole (POV) and voriconazole in beagle plasma has been established and validated. Omeprazole was utilized as the sole internal standard. Analytes and internal standards were extracted through protein precipitation and separated on a Venusil XBP C18 chromatography column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase was methanol and 20 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Chromatographic separation was achieved by using an isocratic elution procedure that used 65% methanol and a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The ultraviolet (UV) detection wavelength was 256 nm and the total running time was 15 min. This method showed good linear ranges of 100–75,000 ng/mL for voriconazole prodrug and 200–100,000 ng/mL for voriconazole respectively. The precision and accuracy were acceptable. Analytes in plasma samples are stable under different temperatures and storage conditions. The developed HPLC method has been successfully applied to the studies of toxicokinetics of POV after intravenous drip in beagle and provided important information for the further development and application.

Open access

We study the effect on sections of a soluble-by-finite group G of finite rank of an almost fixed-point-free automorphism φ of G of finite order. We also elucidate the structure of G if φ has order 4 and if G is also (torsion-free)-by-finite. The latter extends recent work of Xu, Zhou and Liu.

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