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Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic smartphone use (PSU) has gained attention, but its definition remains debated. This study aimed to develop and validate a new scale measuring PSU-the Smartphone Use Problems Identification Questionnaire (SUPIQ).

Methods

Using two separate samples, a university community sample (N = 292) and a general population sample (N = 397), we investigated: (1) the construct validity of the SUPIQ through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses; (2) the convergent validity of the SUPIQ with correlation analyses and the visualized partial correlation network analyses; (3) the psychometric equivalence of the SUPIQ across two samples through multigroup confirmatory factor analyses; (4) the explanatory power of the SUPIQ over the Short Version of Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS-SV) with hierarchical multiple regressions.

Results

The results showed that the SUPIQ included 26 items and 7 factors (i.e., Craving, Coping, Habitual Use, Social Conflicts, Risky Use, Withdrawal, and Tolerance), with good construct and convergent validity. The configural measurement invariance across samples was established. The SUPIQ also explained more variances in mental health problems than the SAS-SV.

Discussion and conclusions

The findings suggest that the SUPIQ shows promise as a tool for assessing PSU. Further research is needed to enhance and refine the SUPIQ as well as to investigate its clinical utility.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Celebrity worship, defined as an excessive admiration towards celebrities, has generated considerable research and public interest. A widely used assessment instrument to measure celebrity worship is the 23-item Celebrity Attitude Scale. However, concerns have been raised regarding the measurement, including the inconsistent factor structure and lack of a cut-off point to identify “celebrity worshipers”. The present study aims to address these concerns by testing the psychometric appropriateness of a short, 7-item version of the CAS (i.e., CAS-7) and estimating the prevalence of individuals with high-level celebrity admiration using a representative sample of Hungarian adults (between 18 and 64 years of age) according to gender, age, geographic location, and size of residence.

Methods

The total sample comprised 2028 respondents, of which 769 valid responses were administered from participants who reported having a favorite celebrity (51.11% men, M age = 36.38 years, SD = 13.36).

Results

Results indicated an excellent model fit for the two-factor and bifactor model of the CAS-7. Based on the suggested cut-off score of 26, the prevalence of high-level celebrity admiration is 4.53% in the Hungarian adult population (18–64 years of age) and 8.51% among young adults (18–34 years of age). Individuals with this high level of admiration towards a favorite celebrity reported more symptoms of problematic Internet use, depression, anxiety, and stress than individuals with general celebrity admiration levels.

Discussion and conclusions

The CAS-7 demonstrated sound psychometric properties, confirming its applicability in research and practice.

Open access

Abstract

Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is a rising eco-conscious substitute for traditional cement-based concrete, bringing the construction industry closer to sustainability. Self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC) enhances the concrete flowability and fills the congested reinforced areas without vibrators in concrete structures such as bridges, tunnels and canals. This study aims to analyze the impact of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (NS) on the rheological and mechanical properties of SCGC to optimize the dosage of NS in SCGC. For this purpose, NS (0–6%) blended in partially distributed binders of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (50:50) with 0.5 alkaline binder ratio, 2% superplasticizers (9 kg m−3) (MasterGlenium SKY 8233) and 12% extra water (54 kg m−3). Sodium silicate solution and sodium hydroxide ratio of 2.5 was used for this study. It is observed that SCGC with 3% NS replacement complied with the guidelines of EFNARC. According to the T50cm slump flow test, V-funnel test, and L-box test results meet the guidelines of up to 4% NS replacement, and 3% NS addition offers excellent mechanical properties in SCGC. This study concluded that the replacement of 3% of NS improved the fresh and hardened properties of SCGC, which can apply to construction.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hui Wang
,
Xiang Li
,
Grace Ka In Lok
,
Chunmei Meng
,
Yaheng Tan
,
Un Man Lee
,
Louisa Sok Man Lei
, and
Natalia Chan

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction (IA) has been identified as a major public health problem that is more prominent in adolescents and young adults. Some researchers have indicated certain advantages of family-based therapy over other treatments in participants with IA, but no conclusive evaluation has been reported. The present meta-analysis aims to review the efficacy of family-based therapy on Internet addiction in adolescents and young adults.

Methods

Relevant articles published from 1996 to February 15th, 2024, were searched from 14 databases, including three Chinese databases. A total of 19,590 articles were identified using a combination of three sets of search terms (Internet addiction, family therapy, and adolescents). Only RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials were included.

Results

18 studies, most of which were conducted in Asian countries, were included in the final data analysis. The overall severity of Internet addiction in the family-based therapy group was significantly lower than that in the control group. However, significant heterogeneity was detected. Subgroup analysis showed a beneficial effect of family-based therapy when compared with non-intervention and when added to another psychological or behavioural therapy in psychiatric patients with co-medication. Few studies have examined secondary outcomes or follow-up effects.

Discussion and Conclusions

Family-based therapy is most effective in reducing the severity of Internet addiction when combined with other therapies, especially medication treatments in psychiatric patients. It might also be helpful to relieve depression and enhance family functions, which needs further evidence. More studies following up on the post-intervention effects are recommended in the future.

Open access

“Few of the many returned home”

The Sicilian Expedition and the Genesis of the Ionian War

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Joshua Nudell

Abstract

Histories of the Sicilian Expedition usually focus on Athens, and with good reason: Athens supplied the largest number of ships, all the leaders were Athenians, and Thucydides' account is constructed as an Athenian tragedy that largely subsumes the allies into the crowd of soldiers. Moreover, it was in the aftermath of the disaster that the Aegean poleis slipped through the Athenian grasp. Scholars have offered explanations for the outbreak of the Ionian War that range from anti-Athenian sentiment stemming from wartime measures like the Standards Decree that primed the Athenians to reject Athenian hegemony to a change in Persian policy to an ephemeral mood. When they invoke Sicily, it is to follow Diodorus Siculus in arguing that the failure created contempt for Athenian hegemony (τὴν ἡγεμονίαν αὐτῶν καταφρονηθῆναι, 13. 34. 1). Another cause of the Ionian War, however, has received too little attention: the Ionians who fought in Sicily. In this paper I re-evaluate the Sicilian Expedition from the perspective of the non-Athenians, and particularly the Ionians. These contributions have traditionally been underestimated because Thucydides implies that they had fallen out of practice with warfare and were thus complicit in their own subjugation. Nevertheless, Thucydides' history is littered with accounts of Ionian soldiers fighting far from home, up to and including in the Sicilian Expedition (Thuc. 7. 20. 2; 7. 57. 3). Re-evaluating the evidence for Ionian contributions to the Athenian war effort in turn complicates straightforward assessments of the popularity of the empire and opens the possibility that it was not only Athenian weakness but also the costs borne by the allies that led the Ionians to put in motion the events that led to revolt.

Restricted access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Xuefeng Ma
,
Min Wang
,
Weiran Zhou
,
Zhaojie Zhang
,
Haosen Ni
,
Anhang Jiang
,
Yanbin Zheng
,
Xiaoxia Du
,
Marc N. Potenza
, and
Guang-Heng Dong

Abstract

Background

Although internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been included in the DSM-5 for approximately 10 years, debate remains regarding its existence and classification.

Methods

The current research incorporated three approaches. First, implicit association tests were used to examine for potential dissociation between wanting and liking in IGD. Second, brain features in wanting and liking circuits were tested and compared with tobacco use disorder (TUD) when performing a cue-craving task to explore the neural features of wanting and liking. Third, dopaminergic systems were investigated in IGD and TUD using neuromelanin-sensitive MRI.

Results

The implicit association test results supported a wanting-liking dissociation in IGD participants. Functional MRI data suggested neural correlates underlying wanting-liking dissociation in IGD and TUD participants, with positive correlations suggesting greater dissociation with increasing addiction severity. Neuromelanin results suggest dopaminergic differences in IGD and TUD relative to healthy control participants.

Conclusions

A wanting-liking dissociation in IGD participants suggests gaming motivations in IGD relating to incentive sensitization rather than hedonic responses. The neuromelanin-sensitive MRI results suggest dopaminergic involvement in IGD and TUD. The findings suggest similar brain-behaviour mechanisms for IGD and TUD based on an incentive-sensitization model for addiction, having implications for potential therapeutic strategies and policy-based interventions.

Open access

Abstract

Today, the role of humans is changing rapidly in both industrial production activities and services. Mediocre, easy-to-learn activities can be performed more efficiently by machines; mediocre knowledge is being devalued while the importance of high-level skills is increasing. As a result, in all sectors of the economy, and especially in engineering, new approaches to expert training are needed; people must learn to hand over certain decision-making roles and to control the processes supported by AI rather than compete with it. STEM education has a responsibility to achieve these goals and must develop appropriate tools for engineering education. This paper presents a complex didactic methodology for competency-based education in engineering bachelor programs. An important element is the mathematical competency map, which shows the importance and place of mathematical and algorithmic (coding) knowledge in engineering topics. Another element is the systematic testing of mathematical knowledge in non-mathematical contexts in engineering courses. We provide an overview of our achievements in applying the developed toolset and improving the efficiency of mathematics teaching in engineering bachelor programs.

Open access

Abstract

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and aseptic loosening (AL) are common complications of total joint arthroplasty. An accumulation of evidence indicates the presence of microbial communities on prosthetic implants, but the overall microbial profile is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the differences in the microbial composition of prosthetic implants obtained from PJI and AL patients using the 16S rRNA sequencing method. Patients who underwent revision hip, knee, or shoulder arthroplasty caused by PJI (n = 20) or AL (n = 10) were enrolled in the study. 16S rRNA sequencing targeting the V3–V4 region was performed on the microbial specimens collected from synovial fluid, periprosthetic deep-tissue, and biofilm during the revision surgery. The sequenced raw data were analysed for microbial composition and ecological and differential abundance analyses using bioinformatics tools. The AL group had relatively balanced and higher diversity, with Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Veillonella being prominent. In the PJI group, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were predominant, especially in deep-tissue samples and biofilm samples, respectively. The differential abundance analysis identified 15 and 2 distinctive taxa in the AL and PJI groups, respectively. Our findings provided preliminary insights supporting the existence of periprosthetic microbiota in orthopedic implants and explaining the differences in microbial composition between the AL and PJI groups.

Restricted access

A bi-cyclic 4-polytope in ℝ4 was introduced by Z. Smilansky as the convex hull of evenly spaced points on a generalized trigonometric moment curve in ℝ4. We present combinatorial geometric conditions that yield the face lattices of a class of such 4-polytopes.

Restricted access