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The article is devoted to the biography of the Polish traveller and diplomat Marcin Broniowski (d. 1592), author of Tartariae descriptio (1578), a classic description of early modern Crimea. While working on the article, I discovered a number of previously unknown Polish sources relating to the diplomat’s biography. This allowed me to reconstruct Marcin Broniowski’s biography and the chronology of his visits to Crimea. I also analyse the main early modern editions and translations of Tartariae descriptio, as well as its influence on the history of European geographical thought.

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This paper introduces several new fragments that were collected by Luo Zhenyu 羅振玉 (1866–1940) and subsequently acquired by the Liaoning Provincial Museum. In 1928, Luo relocated from Tianjin to Liaoning, transporting his extensive collection with him. He resided in Liaoning for 12 years until his demise, during which time his collections were integrated into the museum’s holdings. The fragment we are publishing here is one of the items. Our research indicates that the pieces assembled by museum staff are parts of two leaves. The Uighur text corresponds to a section of chapter 32 of the Buddhāvataṃsaka Sūtra in forty chapters.

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The aim of this article is to demonstrate that the reading ötrü of the postposition which means ‘against’ in the Cun Lord’s Prayer in which it is spelled ⟨utro ⟩ is incorrect and should be amended to utru. The postposition ötrü is used in the Turkic languages not in the meaning ‘against’, but ‘because of, following on’. In addition, it may not follow a nominal in the dative as it appears in the Cun Lord’s Prayer, since ötrü requires the ablative. On the contrary, the opposition utru fulfils both requirements.

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to characterize retinal atrophy (RA) with progressive retinal atrophy symptoms in mixed breed dogs using ophthalmoscopy, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and electroretinography (ERG).

The study was performed on 13 mixed breed dogs affected by retinal atrophy (11 males and 2 females that were 1.5–14 years old). Depending on the advancement of RA, SD-OCT examinations identified retinal abnormalities ranging from layer disorganisation to advanced atrophy. The most advanced RA occurred ventral to the optic disc. Total retinal thickness in both eyes (mean ± SD) was lower in dogs with RA compared to controls dorsally (77.7 ± 39.5 μm vs 173.5 ± 13.3 μm), ventrally (33.4 ± 29.9 μm vs 139.5 ± 10.8 μm), nasally (65.0 ± 34.5 μm vs 163.9 ± 11.0 μm) and temporally (61.8 ± 41.7 μm vs 171.9 ± 11.1 μm) to the optic disc. In dogs with locally normal architecture of inner retina, loss of definition of outer retinal layers occurred in many regions. Dark and light-adapted ERGs were reduced in 2 dogs with RA and were unrecordable in 11 dogs. Lesions evident in SD-OCT scans of mixed breed dogs affected with retinal atrophy initially appear ventrally to the optic disc and ventro-dorsally in advanced RA. In all mixed breed dogs with retinal atrophy, clinical signs and SD-OCT results correlate with ERG findings.

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Abstract

Due to the spread of the communicative language teaching method language learners were often encouraged not to use a dictionary but rather infer the meaning of a word or phrase from its context. Proper dictionary use, however, is now seen as an important element of autonomous and life-long language learning. The present research used the quantitative research paradigm and a self-prepared questionnaire (n = 925) to investigate attitudes towards dictionary use in the case of university students studying languages for business. The study investigated participants' willingness to use and pay for dictionaries and their willingness to read usage guides in dictionaries. Our results show that participants typically use a dictionary if they do not know the meaning of a word or phrase, but are reluctant to buy a dictionary and are likewise unwilling to read the information guides in dictionaries. Our results also reveal that willingness to pay for dictionaries is positively influenced by willingness to use dictionaries, willingness to read usage guides in dictionaries and language learners' age.

Open access

Abstract

In the last decade, sustainability has become a keyword that must be addressed in any environment, society, or economy segment. Therefore, the relevance of sustainable operation and behaviour in complexly interrelated fields like sports is particularly actual. This study was designed to evaluate the demonstration of sports sustainability in the relevant literature by bibliometric analysis. The yearly number of publications, core topics, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-connection, author and affiliation patterns, most relevant journals, and terms and keywords were studied to thoroughly overview the trends. It was found that the number of papers is increasing, however, with a slight setback in the last few years. The main topics relate to several environmental, economic (social), governmental (ESG) segments, but the listed publications need more SDG connections. A high proportion of fundamental papers from the research area are from authors affiliated with a narrow group of countries, and one journal published relatively far the most articles. The most relevant keywords are sustainability, physical activity, and sport, while the primary topic hot spots can be classified into four clusters. In conclusion, more in-depth publications are required to reveal the underrepresented field of sports sustainability in the literature, which should simultaneously incorporate the environmental, social, and economic aspects. This would foster better understanding, public awareness, and the spread of best practices in theory and practice, which could be implemented as an attitude-formation tool.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Many individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) present with co-occurring mental health disorders and other addictions, including behavioral addictions (BAs). Though several studies have investigated the relationship between SUDs and BAs, less research has focused specifically on compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB). Given that poly-addiction can hinder treatment outcomes, it is necessary to better understand the impact of co-occurring CSB and SUD. Therefore, the current study aimed to 1) determine the rate of CSB in a sample seeking treatment for SUDs, 2) identify demographic and clinical correlates of co-occurring CSB, and 3) to determine if co-occurring CSB impacts treatment outcomes for SUD.

Methods

Participants were 793 adults (71.1% men) ranging in age from 18–77 (M = 38.73) at an inpatient treatment facility for SUDs who were assessed for CSB upon admission into treatment. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires upon admission and at discharge to assess psychological and addiction symptoms.

Results

Rates of CSB were 24%. Younger age and being single were associated with greater CSB. Mental distress and addiction symptoms were higher in participants with CSB. Predictors of CSB severity included greater symptoms of traumatic stress and interpersonal dysfunction. Rates of treatment completion were similar between participants with and without CSB.

Discussion and Conclusions

These results highlight several clinical and demographic correlates of CSB amongst individuals in treatment for SUD. However, CSB was not associated with poorer treatment outcomes. Further identifying characteristics associated with CSB can help clinicians identify individuals who may be at higher risk.

Open access

Abstract

Given the many obstacles faced during the treatment of ovarian cancer, usually due to diagnosis at advanced stages, it is crucial to use different means to plan the therapeutic procedure in order to achieve optimal results. Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT) is a recent hybrid method of medical imaging that can provide various information on the anatomic and biochemical status of a tumor, as well as possible metastases and hence provide better insights to clinicians for the therapeutic procedure. To this end, the present mini-review explores the role of PET/CT scanning in planning surgical procedures, systemic anticancer therapy and radiotherapy and summarizes the current status of studies that examine the use of PET/CT in the personalized therapy of ovarian cancer. Nonetheless, more clinical and observational studies are required to further verify the use of PET/CT in planning therapeutic procedures for patients with ovarian tumors.

Open access

Abstract

Objective

The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention in reducing problematic mobile phone use, depression, and sleep disorders among adolescents. Additionally, it sought to investigate whether the decrease in problematic mobile phone use acted as a mediator in the relationship between the MBCT intervention and adolescent depression and sleep disorders.

Methods

In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 104 adolescents were randomly assigned to the mindfulness group (n = 52) or the wait-list control group (n = 52). The mindfulness group students completed eight 45-min sessions of mindfulness training in four weeks. The outcomes were measured at baseline, postintervention, and at the 2-month follow-up.

Results

Compared with the control group, the mindfulness group had significantly greater levels of mindfulness and lower levels of problematic mobile phone use, depression, and sleep disorders postintervention. The intervention effects were maintained at the 2-month follow-up. In addition, decreased problematic mobile phone use significantly mediated the association between the MBCT intervention and decreased depression and decreased sleep disorders.

Conclusion

The findings suggest that MBCT could improve adolescent depression and sleep disorders and that decreasing problematic mobile phone use is an effective pathway accounting for the MBCT intervention effect on adolescent depression and sleep disorders.

Open access

Abstract

Cell cultures are models in biological and medical research to understand physiological and pathological processes. Cell lines are not always available depending on cell type and required species. In addition, the immortalization process often affects cell biology. Primary cells generally maintain a greater degree of similarity in short-term culture to the cells in tissue. Goal of this study was to verify the suitability of chicken primary epithelial caecal cells (PECCs) for in vitro investigations of host‒pathogen interactions. Epithelial nature of PECCs was confirmed by detection of tight and adherens junctions and cobblestone-like cell morphology. Sialic acids distribution was similar to that in caecal cyrosections. To understand the capacity of PECCs to respond to microbial challenges, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) repertoire was determined. Exposure of PECCs to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to upregulation of type I and III interferon (IFN) as well as interleukin (IL-) 1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. Overall, the PECCs showed properties of polarized epithelial cells. The presence of TLRs, their differential expression, as well as pattern recognition receptor dependent immune responses enable PECCs to act as suitable in vitro model for host‒pathogen interaction studies, which are difficult to conduct under in vivo conditions.

Open access