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Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous negative impact on the psychosomatic status of the general population, and especially of more vulnerable populations, such as older people. The present study aimed to assess changes in psychosomatic status before and after the COVID-19 pandemic among emeritus professors over 70 years of age.

Materials/Methods

A total of 56 emeritus professors aged 77.4 ± 6.1 (74.1% male) participated in the study. The study was conducted between September 2022 and January 2023, after approximately two and a half years of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sociodemographic characteristics, including socioeconomic status, were assessed in the questionnaire, along with active involvement in academic life and healthcare/sports. Physical and mental fatigue were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, and the impact of fatigue on physical and cognitive function was measured using the Fatigue Impact Scale. Participants evaluated their physical/mental fatigue and physical/cognitive function before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results

Among the participating emeritus professors, 15% reported higher levels of physical fatigue (Z = −1.992, P = 0.046, r = 0.28) and mental fatigue (Z = −2.154, P = 0.031, r = 0.31) following the COVID-19 pandemic. A significant difference was found in physical function assessed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, t(51) = −2.986, P = 0.004, g = 0.22, while cognitive function showed a non-significant difference, t(51) = −1.265, P = 0.212, g = 0.12. After the COVID-19 pandemic, 26.9% of participants reported reduced physical function and 19.2% showed reduced cognitive function. Infection with the COVID-19 virus resulted in increased mental fatigue and reduced cognitive function among the participating emeritus professors.

Conclusion

The COVID-19 pandemic (and the introduction of restrictions on social activities) had a substantial and similar impact on the psychosomatic status of emeritus professors at both medical and sports universities. Furthermore, the reduction in physical and mental/cognitive function was exacerbated in those who were infected by SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, however, the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was smaller in the population of emeritus professors than in the general elderly population. This may be due to the better maintenance of physical and mental activity in the former population, thus emphasising the importance of remaining physically and mentally active in old age, especially in the context of critical life events.

Open access

The paper deals with one of clitic third orders in Hittite that involves later than the expected second position of the clitic -(m)a, a contrastive conjunction and discourse marker, otherwise a standard second position clitic. -(m)a is delayed beyond its common second position by clause connectives, subordinators and conjunctions with varying obligatoriness: it is obligatory with clause connectives and optional with subordinators and conjunctions. This study explores in detail the variation with subordinators and conjunctions and it argues that clitic third order in this context is an innovation. In explaining how clitic third order was triggered in this context the etymological hypothesis of Eichner (1971, 1981) is combined with the prosodic explanation of clitic third of Kloekhorst (2014) against an alternative account of Sideltsev (2019).

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In the early modern Ottoman Empire, social identity was closely tied to a hierarchical structure, with the sultanate occupying the highest tier and ordinary subjects positioned at the lower end. Empire’s inhabitants were divided into groups based on the style and color of their clothes. By dressing in clothing from a different gender, socioeconomic class, or ethnoreligious group, one could disguise their true identity and social status. This article endeavors to unveil the motivations that compelled ordinary people to employ clothing as a means to conceal their involvement in criminal activities. Furthermore, it investigates the constraints associated with common identity-altering practices, particularly from the vantage points of religion, gender, and intersectionality. Drawing from an array of archival sources such as mühimme records, chronicles, manuscripts, and qadi court registers, the article scrutinizes the consequences of these practices.

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Society and Economy
Authors:
Krisztofer Szabó
and
Márta Aranyossy

Abstract

With an overall aim of providing insights into fostering an entrepreneurial mindset and promoting economic development, researchers have devoted notable attention to intentional and motivational factors for starting businesses, as well as those influencing processes from idea generation to the realisation of a new business. This research project aims to investigate the influence of family business background on entrepreneurial intention. One of the novel features of the approach is the rigorous statistical exploration of direct and moderating effects of family business background while accounting for other factors influencing entrepreneurial intention. The analysis is based on a survey of 590 active university students studying business and economics in the seven largest universities in Hungary. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to examine how the existence of family business background can influence and moderate relationships between individual factors and entrepreneurial intention. Results confirm that family business background has a significant positive impact on entrepreneurial intention and is most likely to exert its impact through increased human capital levels, entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and experience. The findings not only contribute to accumulated knowledge of the interdisciplinary family entrepreneurship field, but also have policy and educational implications.

Open access

The article deals with the origin of palatalisation in the plural paradigm of the Khotanese i-declension. According to the common view, palatalisation resulted from regular sound change only in the nominative-accusative plural, with the etymological form of the endings remaining not-palatalised in the rest of the plural inflection. Subsequently, there emerged a tendency for the palatalised allomorph to become generalised and extend across the paradigm. However, a thorough examination of older and later Old Khotanese manuscripts challenges this perspective, revealing no evidence of original allomorphy between the palatalised and non-palatalised stem variants in the plural. This study demonstrates that palatalisation did not originate from analogical levellings but rather arose from regular sound change. Additionally, the article draws a comparison between the i-declension plural paradigm and the inflection of most numerals greater than ‘three’, which exhibit palatalisation in all case forms except for the nominative-accusative.

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The multi-layered cultural structure of the Mamluk Kipchak area can be seen in the language of the period. The linguistic evolution of the Turkmens and Kipchaks, the initial settlers of the region, is documented in contemporary grammars and dictionaries. The language of the Eastern Turks also became incorporated as their numbers in the region gradually increased. This study investigates the vocabulary used in al-Qavânîn al-Kulliyya li-Ẓabṭ al-Luġat at-Turkiyya, one of the grammars of the period. The first stage of the study was to identify words with the same meanings and equivalent pairs that may be indicators of how the dialect of the period has changed. The status of the words which were considered to be indicators of the dialectal differences between the historical text, and that of the Turkic languages of contemporary Oghuz and Kipchak groups, was then analysed. Results indicate that 37.03% of the fifty-eight words analysed in this study still exist in contemporary Oghuz, while 25.93% are still present, and even have the same meaning, in contemporary Kipchak. The rate of equivalent pairs identified in this historical text was 37.03%.

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There are more than 10 block-printed and hand-copied versions of the Vajracchedikā Sūtra (The Diamond Sūtra) in Old Uighur preserved in Berlin, Paris and St. Petersburg. Recently, two block-printed fragments of Vajracchedikā Sūtra in Old Uighur, which are of the same origin as those in Berlin, were found in the National Library of China. Based on a comparative study, these items are believed to be translated from a Sanskrit version while referencing the Chinese translation by Dharmagupta. This paper presents a textual examination of the two Old Uighur Vajracchedikā Sūtra fragments.

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Abstract

Thermomechanical treatments and variations in chemical composition during the production of these alloys allow their properties to be adjusted as necessary. In the present research, the influence of chemical modification was analyzed by adding a combination of two rare earth elements (lanthanum and cerium) and performing a pretreatment before natural and artificial aging. With this, it was observed that said chemical modification led to an increase in hardness after artificial aging and specific suppression of the hardening speed at room temperature, combined with a pretreatment process to improve the density of the nucleation site and take advantage of the possible vacancy capture effect. Furthermore, microstructural changes were observed in the study alloys by scanning electron microscopy. The above allows the design of alloy production processes according to the requirements of each application.

Open access

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been in the center of attention for several years as an opportunistic human pathogen implicated in many severe acute and chronic infections particularly in immunocompromised patients. Its high persistence and resistance against many antimicrobial agents are mostly attributed to biofilm formation. Biofilms are microbial communities mainly consisting of extracellular polymeric substances that encapsulate bacteria together and protect them from extracellular stresses. This cell aggregation is a stress response that P. aeruginosa employes as a survival strategy during growth with the toxic detergents. This process has shown to involve several operons such as psl, pel, and alg. Here we used P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 in control group, 40 P. aeruginosa strains from sink and 40 strains from surface of public places. Biofilm formation and gene expression were measured before and after exposure to sub minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of biocides chlorhexidine diacetate and benzalkonium chloride. The qRT-PCR and biofilm formation results demonstrated an increase in biofilm formation ability and gene expression of pslA/B and pelA/B in two groups collected from sink and surface in contrast to the control group. A remarkable increase was observed in the biofilm formation and expression of pslA in the bacterial strain collected from the sink after exposure to biocides chlorhexidine diacetate. Both Pel and Psl appeared to have redundant functions as structural scaffolds in biofilms. Sub-MIC levels of detergents can improve biofilm formation ability of P. aeruginosa and therefore trigger resistance.

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