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Low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in rat has positive effects on neuronal processes in vitro. Moreover, EMF improves learning-memory and psychomotor activity during advanced ageing, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known in the brain. In the present study we aimed to investigate the molecular effects of chronic EMF stimulation in the hippocampus of senescent rats in vivo.


Thirty months old rats were treated for six weeks with different EMF doses of 45, 95, and 1,250 µT. After sacrifice the levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and activated ribosomal protein S6 as measures for protein synthesis intensity in the hippocampus were determined by Western blot analysis.


The results showed that chronic EMF exposure dose dependently increased BDNF and the amount of phosphorylated S6 protein at the highest dose. The effects on the two proteins positively correlated at individual level. The results indicate that EMF exposure may enhance neurotrophic processes indicated by increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus of senescent rats. Increased phosphorylated S6 protein suggests coupling to support molecular regulation of protein synthesis.


In a broader perspective, these findings may support EMF as a beneficial alternative form of passive exercise in active, exercise-limited, aged individuals.

Open access

The checklist includes tree, shrub, dwarf shrub, woody liana and epiphyte species that occur or have occurred in Hungary except the settlements and other intensively utilised objects. 437 dendrotaxa were included and evaluated in this list. This means 281 species, 22 subspecies, 128 nothospecies and 6 nothosubspecies. Based on the indigenat, 260 native, 92 alien and 9 cryptogenic dendrotaxa live in Hungary, furthermore 54 cultivated dendrotaxa and 22 dendrotaxa with questionable occurrence. Analysing the invasive status of alien species, 19 invasive or being in the early stages of invasion, 12 naturalised and 61 casual dendrotaxa can be distinguished. According to residence time status, the number of archaeophytes is 16 and that of neophytes is 76. Of the 260 native dendrotaxa, 9 were extinct or presumably extinct. 44 dendrotaxa are considered to be proven endemic, and there are 8 subendemic. Of the 134 nothotaxa on the list, 14 are artificial and 120 are of natural origin.

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The genus Dracocephalum L. (Lamiaceae) with about 60 to 70 species is a genus in the sub-tribe Nepetinae, tribe Mentheae of Lamiaceae family, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are mostly perennial herbs, and rarely annual. Flora Iranica reports 8 Dracocephalum species and the Flora of Iran reports 10 Dracocephalum species in Iran out of which, 4 species are endemic. We collected 7 Dracocephalum species and studied species delimitation and species relationship by morphometric and anatomic results. The species were efficiently delimited by morphological and anatomical characters. Morphological and anatomical characters revealed closer affinity between D. moldavica and D. subcapitatum and D. thymiflorum were placed with distance from these species.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, M.-H. Jeong, S.-O. Oh, A. S. Kondratiuk, E. Farkas, and J.-S. Hur

Seven genera new to science, i.e.: Helmutiopsis, Huriopsis, Johnsheardia, Klauskalbia, Kudratovia, Kurokawia and Poeltonia of the Physciaceae are proposed for the ‘Rinodina’ atrocinerea, the ‘Rinodina’ xanthophaea, the ‘Rinodina’ cinnamomea, the ‘Heterodermia’ obscurata, the ‘Rinodina’ straussii, the ‘Anaptychia’ isidiata and the ‘Physconia’ grisea groups consequently that all form strongly supported monophyletic branches in a phylogeny analysis based on a combined matrix of nrITS and mtSSU sequences.

Phylogenetic positions of species belonging to the genera Kashiwadia s. l., Leucodermia, Mischoblastia,Oxnerella, Phaeorrhiza s. l., Polyblastidium and Rinodinella s. l. are discussed. Oxnerella afghanica which for the first time recorded as parasitic lichen species from both epiphytic and saxicolous crustose lichens is designated as type species for the genus Oxnerella.

Sequences of the recently described Physcia orientostellaris as well as Huriopsis xanthophaea and additional sequences of Kashiwadia aff. orientalis and Mischoblastia aff. oxydata are submitted to the GenBank.

The positions of Polyblastidium casaterrinum from Costa Rica, ‘Rinodinaefflorescens from Białowieża, Poland, and ‘Mischoblastiaconfragosula from Cambodia in the Physciaceae are confirmed in a phylogeny analysis based on the nrITS sequences.

The presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen associations is exemplified with earlier incorrect identifications of Heterodermia, Kashiwadia, Kurokawia,Oxnerella and Poeltonia specimens.

Fifty-six new combinations are presented: Helmutiopsis alba (for Rinodina alba Metzler ex Arn.), Helmutiopsis aspersa (for Lecanora aspersa Borrer), Helmutiopsis atrocinerea (for Parmelia atrocinerea Fr.), Huriopsis chrysidiata (for Rinodina chrysidiata Sheard), Huriopsis chrysomelaena (for Rinodina chrysomelaena Tuck.), Huriopsis lepida (for Lecanora lepida Nyl.), Huriopsis luteonigra (for Rinodina luteonigra Zahlbr.), Huriopsis plana (for Rinodina plana H. Magn.), Huriopsis thiomela (for Lecanora thiomela Nyl.), Huriopsis xanthomelana (for Rinodina xanthomelana Müll. Arg.), Huriopsis xanthophaea (for Lecanora xanthophaea Nyl.), Johnsheardia cinnamomea (for Rinodina mniaroea var. cinnamomea Th. Fr.), Johnsheardia herteliana (for Rinodina herteliana Kaschik), Johnsheardia jamesii (for Rinodina jamesii H. Mayrhofer), Johnsheardia reagens (for Rinodina reagens Matzer et H. Mayrhofer), Johnsheardia zwackhiana (for Lecanora zwackhiana Kremp.), Kashiwadia austrostellaris (for Physcia austrostellaris Elix), Kashiwadia jackii (for Physcia jackii Moberg), Kashiwadia littoralis for Physcia littoralis Elix), Kashiwadia nubila (for Physcia nubila Moberg), and Kashiwadia tropica (for Physcia tropica Elix), Klauskalbia crocea (for Heterodermia crocea R. C. Harris), Klauskalbia flabellata (for Parmelia flabellata Fée), Klauskalbia obscurata (for Physcia speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl. *obscurata Nyl.), Klauskalbia paradoxa (for Heterodermia paradoxa Schumm et Schäfer-Verwimp), Kudratovia bohlinii (for Rinodina bohlinii H. Magn.), Kudratovia candidogrisea (for Rinodina candidogrisea Hafellner, Muggia et Obermayer), Kudratovia luridata (for Buellia luridata Körb.), Kudratovia metaboliza (for Rinodina metaboliza Vain.), Kudratovia pycnocarpa (for Rinodina pycnocarpa H. Magn.), Kudratovia roscida (for Lecanora roscida Sommerf.), Kudratovia straussii (for Rinodina straussii J. Steiner), Kudratovia terrestris (for Rinodina terrestris Tomin), Kurokawia bryorum (for Anaptychia bryorum Poelt), Kurokawia isidiata (for Anaptychia isidiata Tomin), Kurokawia mereschkowskii (for Physcia mereschkowskii Tomin), Kurokawia palmulata (for Psoroma palmulatum Michx.), Kurokawia runcinata (for Lichen runcinatus With.), Kurokawia stippea (for Parmelia aquila var. stippea Ach.), Lecania safavidiorum (for Oxnerella safavidiorum S. Y. Kondr., Zarei-Darki, Lőkös et Hur), Leucodermia erinacea (for Lichen erinaceus Ach.), Mischoblastia confragosula (for Lecanora confragosula Nyl.), Mischoblastia destituta (for Lecidea destituta Nyl.), Mischoblastia moziana (for Lecanora moziana Nyl.), Mischoblastia moziana subsp. parasitica (comb. et stat. nova for Rinodina moziana var. parasitica Kaschik et H. Mayrhofer), Mischoblastia ramboldii (for Rinodina ramboldii Kaschik), Mischoblastia vezdae (for Rinodina vezdae H. Mayrhofer), Oxnerella afghanica (for Rinodina afghanica M. Steiner et Poelt), Oxnerella castanomelodes (for Rinodina castanomelodes H. Mayrhofer et Poelt), Physciella nigricans (for Lecanora nigricans Flörke), Poeltonia elegantula (for Physconia elegantula Essl.), Poeltonia grisea (for Lichen griseus Lam.), Poeltonia isidiomuscigena (for Physconia isidiomuscigena Essl.), Poeltonia perisidiosa (for Physcia perisidiosa Erichsen), Poeltonia venusta (for Parmelia venusta Ach.), and Polyblastidium albicans (for Parmelia albicans Pers.) are proposed.

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Sacred groves are the fairly well-protected system of community-based conservation of tree patches on account of their association with village gods, and repository of many rare and threatened elements of biodiversity. There are, however, few publications on lichens of sacred groves. The lichens have long been regarded as sensitive indicators for monitoring environmental state. The present study reports one hundred and sixteen species of lichens from forty-four genera of nineteen families in four selected sacred groves of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. These lichens represent two different growth forms, i.e. crustose (105 species) and foliose (11 species). Shorea robusta, a dominant tree species in two sacred groves bears the highest lichen diversity with seventy-four species. To better understand the related biodiversity and climate, this work is likely to promote further studies on lichen diversity in other regions of West Bengal.

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The telicity behavior of degree achievements has been a puzzling problem to many linguists. The most successful and currently standard theory (Kennedy & Levin 2008) treats them as degree expressions lexicalizing different types of scales, which in turn influence the resulting evaluative or non-evaluative interpretation. While it may account for English, this theory does not hold up cross-linguistically. We challenge the scalar theory with new Slavic data and show that verbal prefixes influence the (non-)evaluative interpretation of degree achievements more than their underlying scales do. This proposal is formalised as an addition of two type shifters, morphosyntactically realised as prefixes, which, in result, have an evaluative/non-evaluative effect on the given degree achievement.

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Results of bryoindication mapping based on calculation of an index of atmospheric purity (IAP) of towns of the Left Bank Ukraine, i.e. the smallest Romny (Sumy oblast) and Myrhorod (Poltava oblast) towns, small Pryluky (Chernihiv oblast) and Lubny (Poltava oblast) towns as well as medium size Poltava town (Poltava oblast), are provided. It is found that isotoxic bryoindication zones of moderately polluted air are predominate and often forming entire areas in the centre / industrial / densely built-up areas of Poltava, Lubny and Pryluky towns while isotoxic zones with slightly polluted or unpolluted air are predominant or more widely distributed in smaller towns Romny and Myrhorod. Correlation of data on species diversity, community composition of bryophytes as well as data of the IAP zoning of the territory of all towns mentioned as well as natural conditions of their territory and anthropogenic pressure is discussed.

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This is the second manuscript about a series of papers dedicated to study the flora of Los Farallones de Cali, an Andean natural region in Colombia. The general purpose is to make an inventory of plants, algae and fungi by studying different locations in Los Farallones. This paper deals with aroids (Araceae family), from a low montane forest at Pico de Águila (Valle Department, Colombia). Data about altitudinal and geographical distribution in Colombia of aroids found are presented here, along with some drawings for facilitating field identification.

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The paper aims at providing an overview of hate crimes through an interdisciplinary lens based not only on theories but also empirical research results. The paper first deals with the central components of hate crimes: prejudice and aggression. Not only the classical social-psychological theories of these phenomena are discussed but also some newer ones. As hate crimes do not occur in a vacuum, the next chapter of the paper deals with the social, political, cultural context and factors that facilitate or impede the occurrence of hate crimes. Community disorganization, urban ecology, racial balance, residential stability, economic conditions, and the role of the media and the internet are discussed in detail. The last chapter of the paper deals with the perpetrators of hate crimes, let them be lonely ones or members of organized hate groups. The paper demonstrates that the investigation of hate crimes can only occur in an interdisciplinary setting that can simultaneously take into account legal, social, cultural, and political factors.

Open access

The genus Diplasiolejeunea is added to the liverwort flora of India from the Kerala part of the Western Ghats reporting two species: Diplasiolejeunea cavifolia Steph. and D. cobrensis Gottsche ex Steph. The genus is known from tropical Asia with eight species. Among them Diplasiolejeunea cavifolia is widespread, but still the genus was not yet recorded from India.

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