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Abstract

Based on the current literature, the link between Achilles tendon moment arm length and running economy is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the connection between Achilles tendon moment arm and running economy and the influence of Achilles tendon moment arm on the function of the plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit during running.

Ten male competitive marathon runners volunteered for this study. The participants ran on a treadmill at two running speeds: 3 and 3.5 m s−1. During running the oxygen consumption, lower leg kinematics, electrical activity of plantar flexor muscles, and fascicle behavior of the lateral gastrocnemius were measured simultaneously. On the second occasion, an MRI scan of the right leg was taken and used to estimate the Achilles tendon moment arm length.

There was a negative correlation between running economy and the body height normalized moment arm length at both selected speeds (r = −0.68, P = 0.014 and r = −0.70, P = 0.01). In addition, Achilles tendon moment arm length correlated with the amplitude of the ankle flexion at both speeds (r = −0.59, P = 0.03 and r = −0.60, P = 0.03) and with the electrical activity of the medial gastrocnemius muscle at 3 m s−1 speed (r = −0.62, P = 0.02). Our finding supports the concept that a longer moment arm could be beneficial for distance runners.

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Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Transformation of Tools and Conservation of Architecture •

Some Researches on the Use of Digital Systems for the Intervention on the Historical Buildings

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli

The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.

As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.

This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.

A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.

A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.

Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.

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Acrolejeunea aulacophora (Mont.) Steph. is recorded for the first time in Asia. It was earlier known from Africa, Australia and New Caledonia. A detailed description with figures and a photographic plate is provided.

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Drepanolejeunea clavicornis and D. friesii were previously synonymised with D. physaefolia or all of them with D. vesiculosa. In the meantime, Drepanolejeunea vandenberghenii was described from the same species group, as new. In this paper many African specimens are compared with the original descriptions of the above species. Morphological investigations of these and their distributional patterns suggested that the former synonymisation was not justified. In addition, a new, rheophytic species from the same group: Drepanolejeunea vanderpoortenii, is described, as new to science. As a result, from the taxa related to Drepanolejeunea vesiculosa, now six species are recognised from Africa, including its Indian Ocean islands. For these 6 morphotaxa an identification key is provided. The results need confirmation by a future molecular analysis.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: K. T. Kiss, Zs. Trábert, and M. Duleba
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A new species similar to Bryocrumia vivicolor, the only known species in the genus Bryocrumia, is described as Bryocrumia malabarica spec. nova from the Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats of Kerala in Peninsular India. It resembles Homalia in external appearance and was collected in a rheophytic habitat along a stream channel in the evergreen forest. The new species is characterised by closely arranged leaves with distinct tricostate, ovate-rounded to truncate leaves, upper margin of leaf rounded with fine serrations and an inconspicuous central strand in stem cross section.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. P. Popova, O. Y. Khodosovtsev, L. Lőkös, N. M. Fedorenko, and N. V. Kapets

The “Fourth checklist of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of Ukraine”, including 2150 accepted scientific names based on published records as well as analysis of current additions are provided. Current additions include 439 taxa newly recorded for Ukraine after the third checklist of lichens of Ukraine by and 262 nomenclatural novelties. Annotations to each taxon of 318 newly recorded to Ukraine are provided in the style of the second checklist by Kondratyuk et al. (1998), i.e. data on phytogeographical regions and administrative districts (oblasts) of Ukraine as well as references to published papers are provided. Among current additions 99 taxa were annotated in the Checklist of lichenicolous fungi of Ukraine by Darmostuk and Khodosovtsev (2017) and consequent references to the latter are provided.

The conclusion confirms the earlier recommendation that national checklists of lichens are to be re-published more often than once a decade.

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Cytogenetic studies on four species of vascular coastal and water plants from Russian Far East are presented. During the present investigation the next chromosome numbers have been revealed: Gypsophila pacifica (2 n = 34), Allium sacculiferum (2 n = 32), Mertensia maritima (2 n = 24), and Nelumbo komarovii (2 n = 16). Unusual chromosome numbers for these species have not been noted but it was the first case of karyological studies of Nelumbo komarovii from the Jewish Autonomous Region and most northern habitat. The number of nucleoli in interphase nuclei of these species was counted. Interphase nuclei of studied species contain 1–4 nucleoli except in A. sacculiferum so far which have 1–2 nucleoli per cell. Different points of view on polyploidy of studied species are discussed.

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Hydroxycitric acid made the genus Garcinia economically important. Genetic and chemical diversity has been studied in Garcinia species using molecular markers, HCA and antioxidant activity. Nine species were collected and screened for molecular diversity and six were subjected to analyse antioxidant and HCA content and its interspecies variability. A total of 129, 125 and 89 bands with polymorphism of 78.74%, 78.4% and 93.36% were obtained using ISSR, RAPD and EST-SSR, respectively. The average PIC value obtained with ISSR, RAPD and EST-SSR markers was 0.9161, 0.9440 and 0.8903, respectively. Determined HCA content by HILIC-HPLC system using 0.1% orthophosphoric acid and acetonitrile (30:70) as mobile phase in fruit powder of various Garcinia species was found to be significantly different. G. gummi-gutta, G. indica and G. xanthochymus are rich of HCA containing 12.44±1.04%, 7.92±0.83% and 6.3±0.286%, respectively. G. morella, G. talbotii and G. celebica contained very negligible amount of HCA, 0.023±0.012%, 0.083±0.034% and 0.34±0.013%, correspondingly. G. talbotii showed high antioxidant capacity (95.40±0.720). Below that G. indica and G. xanthochymus were showing significant amount of total phenols (1.23±0.015 and 1.07±0.008), flavonoids (11.17±0.075 and 12.35±0.219) and antioxidant activity (90.73±0.976 and 91.37±0.854). Correlation analysis found significant association between molecular and chemical variation indicating influence of genetic background on the observed HCA and antioxidant profiles. The conducted analysis showed the most distinct species at the genetic and chemical levels were G. gummi-gutta, G. indica and G. xanthochymus. This study signifies the utility of molecular and chemical fingerprints for commercial exploitation of HCA from Garcinia species.

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