Theories posit that the combination of external (e.g. cue exposure) and internal (e.g. attention biases) factors contributes to the development of game craving. Nevertheless, whether different components of attentional biases (namely, engagement bias and disengagement bias) play separate roles on game craving has not been fully elucidated. We aimed to examine the associations between two facets of attentional biases and game craving dynamics under a daily life setting.
Participants (110 regular internet game players) accomplished the modified attentional assessment task in the laboratory, after which they entered a 10-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to collect data on their momentary game craving and occurrence of game-related events at five different time points per day.
We found that occurrence of game-related events was significantly associated with increased game craving. Moreover, attentional disengagement bias, instead of engagement bias, bore on the occasional level variations of game craving as moderating variables. Specifically, attentional disengagement bias, not engagement bias, was associated with a greater increase in game craving immediately after encountering a game-related event; however, neither attentional engagement bias nor disengagement bias was associated with the craving maintenance after a relatively long period.
Discussion and conclusions
The present study highlights the specific attentional processes involved in game craving dynamics, which could be crucial for designing interventions for attentional bias modification (ABM) in Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) populations.
Internet use has become an important part of daily living. However, for a minority it may become problematic. Moreover, problematic use of the Internet/smartphone (PUIS) has been associated with low physical activity. The present study investigated the temporal associations between three types of PUIS (i.e., problematic smartphone use [PSPU], problematic social media use [PSMU] and problematic gaming [PG]) and physical activity among Taiwanese university students.
A six-month longitudinal survey study comprising three time points for assessments was conducted. From the original 974 participants, a total of 452 completed all three waves of an online survey comprising the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) assessing physical activity level, Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) assessing PSPU, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) assessing PSMU, and Internet Gaming Disorder Short Form (IGDS9-SF) assessing PG.
The linear mixed effects model found positive temporal associations of PSMU and PG with physical activity level (PSMU: B = 85.88, SE = 26.24; P = 0.001; PG: B = 36.81, SE = 15.17; P = 0.02). PSPU was not associated with physical activity level (B = 40.54, SE = 22.99; P = 0.08). Additionally, the prevalence rates were 44.4% for at-risk/PSPU, 24.6% for at-risk/PSMU, and 12.3% for at-risk/PG.
Discussion and Conclusions
PSMU and PG unexpectedly demonstrated correlations with higher physical activity level. The nature of these relationships warrants additional investigation into the underlying mechanisms in order to promote healthy lifestyles among university students.
This article is about Ildiko Enyedi's film “Testről és lélekről”. It proposes a semiotic analyse. Its thematic frame is a theory of the fantastic literature and film and refers to Tzvetan Todorov (part 1). Following Roand Barthes “S/Z” it discusses the codes in the film, the sequences and spaces in the film (part 2). In the next part the composition of the film comes into play (e. g. repetition, analogy). The fourth part is dedicated to the uncanny and fantastic element that are created by a lack of knowledge about the world in the and the figures of the movy. The article refers to Freud's “Traumdeutung”. Part 5 analyses the funktion of silence in the film on several levels (level of narrating, communication of the figures in the film). The film is seen in a post-romantic tradition which is in-written in “classical modernism”.
In this paper, three new species of the alycaeid genus Dicharax Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1900 are described, namely Dicharax floridus n. sp., Dicharax spatiosus n. sp. (Both from Shan State, Myanmar) and Dicharax kosztarabi n. sp. (from Thailand). All three new species are known from their holotypes.
Accumulating evidence suggests brain structural and functional alterations in Internet Use Disorder (IUD). However, conclusions are strongly limited due to the retrospective case-control design of the studies, small samples, and the focus on general rather than symptom-specific approaches.
We here employed a dimensional multi-methodical MRI-neuroimaging design in a final sample of n = 203 subjects to examine associations between levels of IUD and its symptom-dimensions (loss of control/time management, craving/social problems) with brain structure, resting state and task-based (pain empathy, affective go/no-go) brain function.
Although the present sample covered the entire range of IUD, including normal, problematic as well as pathological levels, general IUD symptom load was not associated with brain structural or functional alterations. However, the symptom-dimensions exhibited opposing associations with the intrinsic and structural organization of the brain, such that loss of control/time management exhibited negative associations with intrinsic striatal networks and hippocampal volume, while craving/social problems exhibited a positive association with intrinsic striatal networks and caudate volume.
Our findings provided the first evidence for IUD symptom-domain specific associations with progressive alterations in the intrinsic structural and functional organization of the brain, particularly of striatal systems involved in reward, habitual and cognitive control processes.
The bark of Eucommia ulmoides and the roots of Achyranthes bidentata are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, and their pairing appears in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas as a recognized compatible unit. However, the changes and interactions of the main components of these two formulas when paired remain unclear, and there is currently no standard or method for their quality control and assessment of pharmacological effects.
An optimized ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous identification of 10 components in E. ulmoides and A. bidentata using in vitro and in vivo models. Tributyltin methacrylate was the internal standard solution, and the blood samples were treated by an organic solvent precipitation method. Gradient elution was conducted on a C18 column at 25 °C with 0.1% formic acid water:acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min−1. Dynamic multiple response monitoring was performed in negative-ion mode using an Agilent Jet Stream electrospray ionization ion source.
In negative-ion detection mode, eucommiol exhibited a good response, and the isomers ginsenoside Ro and achyranthoside C could also be well separated. The developed method accurately detected the five components with a low blood content. Compared to controls, the levels of ginsenoside Ro, chikusetsusaponin Ⅳa, and achyranthoside C increased; the contents of geniposidic acid and pinoresinol diglucoside were unchanged; and the levels of eucommiol, geniposide, β-ecdysterone, genipin, and achyranthoside D decreased in vitro. In vivo, the contents of geniposidic acid, geniposide, pinoresinol diglucoside, and β-ecdysterone were reduced; the contents of eucommiol and ginsenoside Ro were unchanged; and those of achyranthoside D, chikusetsusaponin Ⅳa, and achyranthoside C increased compared to the corresponding levels in the internal control.
A method for the quality control of the E. ulmoides-A. bidentata drug pair was established for the first time and the main components in 10 drug pairs could be determined simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. These findings show that the E. ulmoides and A. bidentata drug pair cause a compositional change, providing new ideas for the development of this combination to improve clinical efficacy.
Oleogels have been extensively investigated in the food processing in recent years, and they have become one of the healthier alternative. The possibility of constructing oleogel material in a manner similar to hydrocolloid gel has now been gradually becoming a reality. In this regard, this review provides coverage of the latest developments and applications of oleogels in terms of preparation strategies, physicochemical properties, health aspects, and potential food applications. Both solid fat content and crystallisation behaviour are discussed for oleogels fabricated by gelators and under different conditions. Oleogels could replace hydrogenated vegetable oils in food product, reduce the fatty acid content, and be used to prepare food products such as meat, ice-cream, chocolate, bread, and biscuits with desirable properties. The aims were to assess the formation mechanism, construction methods of oleogels and the advance on the application of oleogel structures in the food field, as well as the further exploration of oleogels and in complex food systems in the future.
We aim to explore whether ongoing digital innovations in Premier League clubs may substantiate a prospective change in their business model and potentially lead to a solution to the financial sustainability issue in professional football. Our exploratory study is to identify ongoing digital innovations and what changes can be foreseen in future years. The empirical analysis is based on information collected from club webpages, their selected social media pages, and top sports business journals. Our results indicate that despite the numerous digital innovations already implemented in the clubs, their utilisation has not reached a level to justify a more complex business model innovation. However, several changes indicate that such a fundamental transformation will likely happen in the foreseeable future. Our work's scholarly contribution is exploring a novel field of study concentrating on the digitally focused business model innovations of professional clubs, unlike most football business model analyses that focus on leagues. We have concluded that clubs can and should apply business innovations to look for more financially sustainable operations, even without necessarily waiting for changes to be made in the generic competitive structure they perform in.
In this paper, we argue that the very convincing performance of recent deep-neural-model-based NLP applications has demonstrated that the distributionalist approach to language description has proven to be more successful than the earlier subtle rule-based models created by the generative school. The now ubiquitous neural models can naturally handle ambiguity and achieve human-like linguistic performance with most of their training consisting only of noisy raw linguistic data without any multimodal grounding or external supervision refuting Chomsky's argument that some generic neural architecture cannot arrive at the linguistic performance exhibited by humans given the limited input available to children. In addition, we demonstrate in experiments with Hungarian as the target language that the shared internal representations in multilingually trained versions of these models make them able to transfer specific linguistic skills, including structured annotation skills, from one language to another remarkably efficiently.