Ernő Tárkány Szücs was a prominent figure in Hungarian social ethnography between 1944 and 1984. His involvement in the movement for collecting legal folk customs began as a university student in 1941. Among his professors and mentors, he was particularly influenced by György Bónis, Károly Viski, and József Venczel. His first large-scale study, published in 1944, was a presentation of legal folklore from the village of Mártély. At the same time, he investigated the folk laws related to sheep farming and the legal customs with respect to inheritance in the Hungarian villages in Transylvania. He published two substantial volumes containing the wills of peasant citizens of Hódmezővásárhely written between 1730 and 1796, and later the testaments of serf farmers from the town of Makó. He published a data collection containing around 10,000 ownership certificates and an analytical study in German on the branding of horses and cattle, accompanied by illustrations. He carried out research on the legal customs associated with Hungarian mining in the 17th to 19th centuries and elaborated Hungary's draft mining law. His principal work — on Hungarian Legal Folk Customs — is a substantial, comprehensive, and incomparably rich corpus of legal ethnography and the history of law. His work also gained recognition abroad: he spoke at many international conferences and was elected as a member of several international organizations.
The present manuscript demonstrates the work undertaken to optimise and validate a slow-release amylase-assisted extraction of polyphenols from peach fruit peel. A careful investigation and optimisation revealed that peach peel when hydrolysed with 1.50% (w/w) of SRA containing enzyme formulation at 40 °C and 6.1 pH, for 35 min significantly (P < 0.05) increased the extraction yield, levels of polyphenol contents (242.89 ± 1.56 mg gallic acid equivalents – GAE), and coumaric, chlorogenic, ferulic acids or their conjugate esters in extracts. Moreover, the extracts produced through SRA-assisted extraction exhibited ample level of free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH IC50 2.67 ± 0.03 μg mL−1), Trolox equivalent (TE) antioxidant capacity (450.52 ± 24.58 µmol of TE g−1), inhibition of peroxides in linoleic acid (85.68 ± 0.21%), and ferric reducing power of 3.11 ± 0.20 ppm gallic acid equivalents. The results suggested that the incorporation of SRA containing enzyme formulation may enhance the recovery of peach peel polyphenols while hydrolysing the glycosidic linkages without deteriorating their antioxidant character.
The object of folk law research are the customs that prevail in areas covered, or theoretically covered, by state law, which effectively ensure permanent respect for them, largely in a less formalized way. In the respective historical stratum, (folk) legal customs fulfil functions equivalent to the law where, due to the logic of historical development or for other specific reasons, (a) there is a lack of state and legal organization; (b) the state and legal organization fails to reach significant social groups due to its paucity and indifference; or (c) the law fails to be transformed into practice that would lead to the fulfillment of its true functions. In its present-day version, a legal (folk) custom emerges when the state and legal organization has wholly fulfilled the functions in question, and it survives merely within the framework and vestiges of that organization, as a component of the ongoing system of customs, as a complement and embellishment to the state and legal organization, and perhaps with content of only symbolic significance. Against a background of a living peasant society, this was, and to some extent remains, a peculiarity of Central Europe, while in other contexts, starting from different traditions, the related research comes under the domain of legal anthropology, legal ethnology, and legal pluralism. Legal ethnography contributes to the investigation of social ethnographic issues by examining the instruments and institutions of the social order and the way they function. However, in terms of jurisprudence it is simultaneously both strong and weak, since although the idea of living law has revolutionized legal thought, European legal mentality, which rests on the rule-based objectification of modern formal law, nevertheless seeks to reject both the openness that characterizes the primordial quest for peace and the formlessness familiar to peoples living close to nature. In any case, an ethnography with social-theoretical foundations, which would take into account not only legal anthropology but also the socio-ethnographic lessons of legal ethnography, remains a task for the future.
In 1583, the Transylvanian Saxon community obtained from the Transylvanian prince István Báthory the ratification of its own law book, Eygen-Landrecht. For quarter of a millennium, the law book essentially defined everyday law in this unique community in Transylvania, a multiethnic region that has undergone many constitutional changes. The law book can be seen as a compilation of genetically different legal regulations, containing and combining indigenous legal traditions and legal customs with the “scholarly” law (ius commune) developed by university jurisprudence of Italian origin. The present study describes the Saxons' determined quest for laws in the 15th and 16th centuries, relegating to the background the reception paradigm typical of research on the history of law and relying on the theoretical model of the transfer of legal rules and legal irritants. It examines the external and internal circumstances that impacted the Saxons' attempts at legal renewal, and the number of phases involved. It also investigates the temporal, locally bound, and legal-cultural factors that may have played a role in the success or failure of transfer of legal approaches from abroad, and the extent to which what can be regarded as the traditional law of the Saxons was able to resist attempts at renewal. In the last section of the present paper, examples are given that illustrate the encounter between Germanic legal traditions and the transferred ius commune solutions in the Saxons' law book of 1583, highlighting the durability of certain traditional and typical solutions.
The present paper describes the native craft education and research carried out at the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy in Estonia. ‘Native crafts’ are understood as creative technical and cultural practices, applications, and developments that are based on traditional local crafting techniques, materials, design principles, and skills. The mission of the academy is to represent the values that reinforce and re-establish local and national traditions and identities through active participation in the cultural process. Its courses, which were launched in 1994, have been developed to cover the majority of the traditional crafting techniques, skills, and materials that are used throughout Estonia. By means of these courses, the academy has assumed responsibility for teaching, preserving, and integrating Estonian vernacular culture and skills. It is the only institution in Estonia advancing the practice-based research and popularization of Estonian traditional costumes, jewelry, and construction, for example, at the level of higher education. The present paper provides an overview of the BA and MA program in native crafts and their main developmental trends. It also offers a more detailed overview of costume studies as part of the textile program. It covers the history, techniques, and regional peculiarities of traditional costumes, as well as the innovative ways in which traditional materials, patterns, and ornaments can be used in modern fashion.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is known to cause various psychological and physical complications. Through data collected from an adolescent prospective longitudinal cohort, we examined how IGD is related to lifestyle and physical symptoms, as well as the temporal relationship between them.
This study was conducted as part of iCURE (Internet user Cohort for Unbiased Recognition of gaming disorder in Early Adolescence) in Korea between 2015 and 2019. Sleep and physical activity time, dry eye symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and near-miss accidents were measured at baseline and followed-up after one year. IGD risk was evaluated using the Internet Game Use – Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS). The association between IGD risk and measured variables was analyzed, both at baseline and at follow-up after one year.
At baseline, the IGD risk group had significantly less physical activity time and sleep time and had more dry eye symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and near-miss accidents than the IGD non-risk group. Additionally, in the IGD risk group at baseline, dry eye symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and near-miss accidents occurred significantly more after one year of follow-up.
Discussion and conclusion
The results of this study show that IGD is a significant risk factor that increases the probability of physical disease and trauma in adolescents. Therefore, interventions aimed at reducing IGD risk and protecting the physical and mental health of adolescents are imperative.
The water issue has become a frontier of public debate globally due to public awareness of sustainable development. Nigeria's water resources are under serious threat from inadequate catchment management that includes widespread pollution from indiscriminate waste disposal. Stormwater is now recognized as a valuable resource rather than a nuisance, especially in large urban centers. Growing demand for water has exerted pressure on groundwater via dug well and boreholes scattered virtually in every dwelling in Nigeria. This challenge motivated this investigation of the feasibility of harvesting stormwater for due purposes of supplementing water supply and flash flood management. This study aims at quantification of harvestable stormwater and identification of potential capturing sites using Spatial Hydrological Analysis of GIS model and Synthetic Hydrograph. The result indicated total harvestable stormwater for 24-hr rainfall of 161.3 Mm3 and three available capturing sites of eight depressions identified. This volume is a good incentive to incorporate storm harvesting in overall water resources sustainable management.
Although the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) has been translated into Japanese and widely used, the Japanese version has not previously been validated. We used the clinical diagnosis of IGD as a gold standard for validating the test.
The Japanese version was validated using 244 gamers drawn from the general young population in Japan. Expert interviews using the Japanese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Internet Gaming Disorder evaluated diagnoses of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This resulted in a diagnosis of IGD for eight individuals, categorized as the gold standard group. The screening performance of the two Japanese versions with different scoring conditions was examined: the scoring method proposed by the original study (original version) and a less stringent scoring method where responses of either “often” or “sometimes” were regarded as affirmative (modified version).
The results of the sensitivity and specificity analyses, the Cronbach's alpha and the receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed a higher screening performance for the modified versus the original version. The optimum cutoff for the modified version was 5 or more – the sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's index were 87.5, 85.2, and 72.7%, respectively. The rate of probable IGD using the original and modified versions were 1.8% and 11.3%, respectively.
Discussion and conclusion
A less stringent scoring method for the Japanese version of IGDT-10 showed a higher screening performance than the original scoring method. Future studies comprising different ethnic groups and gaming cultures should further examine the suggested scoring method.
Nocardia species are rare causative agents of psoas abscess, more frequently occurring as part of disseminated infection. Only sporadic cases have been reported so far, with Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia farcinica being the most common causative agents. Nocardia elegans is an opportunistic pathogen, accounting for only 0.3–0.6% of infections caused by Nocardia species, usually affecting the respiratory tract.
In this study, a previously healthy 74-year-old man was admitted to the University Hospital of Heraklion with fever and intense pain radiating from the lumbar region to the groin and the left thigh, increasing with movement. Imaging findings revealed a large abscess in the left iliopsoas. Blood and pus aspirate cultures yielded a pure culture of Nocardia that was identified by 16S rRNA sequence as N. elegans. The patient was successfully treated with drainage of the abscess along with administration of ceftriaxone, linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of iliopsoas abscess caused by N. elegans. Early, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment with drainage of the abscess and long-term administration of antimicrobial agents optimize the outcome.
A koszorúér-betegség, a szívritmuszavarok, valamint a szívelégtelenség különböző
formái a társadalom jelentős részét érintik, a halálozási statisztikák első
helyén szereplő kóroki tényezők. Bár a jelenleg zajló SARS-CoV-2-pandémia
kapcsán a közgondolkodásban nagymértékben háttérbe szorult, továbbra is komoly
epidemiológiai jelentőségű az influenzafertőzés is, mely az évről évre
visszaköszönő járványok során jelentős morbiditással és mortalitással jár
elsősorban az idős, társbetegségekkel rendelkező betegek körében. Erre
vonatkozóan számos kutatási eredmény látott napvilágot, melyekben felhívják a
figyelmet a jelentős néptömeget érintő szívbetegségek és az influenza együttes
fennállásából fakadó szinergista egészségkárosító és mortalitásnövelő hatásra,
továbbá az influenza elleni vakcináció mint prevenciós stratégia jelentőségére.
Különösen aktuálissá teszi ezt a kérdést a SARS-CoV-2-világjárvány, mely vírus
szintén az idősebb, illetve a sok társbetegséggel rendelkező betegekre van
súlyos, nemritkán végzetes hatással, de egy influenza által legyengített
fiatalabb szervezet is könnyebben eshet áldozatául egy esetleges
koronavírus-fertőzésnek. Ennek megfelelően a nemzetközi ajánlásokban
egyértelműen javasolt sok más, magasabb rizikójú betegcsoporton túl a
szívbetegek influenza elleni oltása. Ennek, valamint az elérhető térítésmentes
vakcináknak dacára az átoltottság mind nemzetközi, mind hazai szinten igen
alacsony. A szerzők a jelen összefoglaló közleményben felhívják a figyelmet az
influenza és a szívbetegségek kapcsolatára, valamint az influenza elleni
vakcináció szerepére a kardiológiai eredetű morbiditás és mortalitás
csökkentésében. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(40): 1585–1596.