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Abstract

Background and aims

Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP) is currently being studied as a possible treatment option for multiple disorders. Despite promising safety and efficacy findings, the high costs of the current PAP model makes it questionable if the treatment will be scalable. Non-hallucinogenic psychedelic analogs have been developed as a potential cost-effective alternative, but it is unclear what psychedelic users perceive as a reasonable cost for treatment and whether they would be open to trying a non-hallucinogenic analog.

Methods

We queried a large sample of people using psychedelics naturalistically (N = 1,221) about their attitudes regarding the role of altered states of consciousness in PAP outcomes, costs of treatment, and their openness to trying a non-hallucinogenic psychedelic analog for treating a mental health condition.

Results

We found that most (76%) participants considered altered states of consciousness as very or extremely important to the therapeutic effects of psychedelics. Despite this, most (61%) were also moderately, very, or extremely likely to try a non-hallucinogenic substance if given the chance. Lastly, participants considered approximately $70–80 per hour to be a reasonable cost for various aspects of psychedelic services (e.g., preparation, integration, and dosing sessions).

Conclusions

Participants valued the role of altered states of consciousness in therapeutic changes attributed to psychedelics, but were still open to trying a non-hallucinogenic analog. Notably, the price participants considered to be a reasonable amount for PAP is well below current market projections. Future research is needed to address limitations of the study as well as to identify ways of lowering treatment costs.

Open access

Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to provide a preliminary examination of the interaction between the Vulgar Latin grammatical gender system and other levels of linguistic change, such as phonological confusions. To achieve this description conditional inference trees and random forests were fitted to our data which enabled a more thorough understanding of these interactions than would be possible to notice without statistical methods.

Open access

Abstract

The present paper intends to provide a linguistic analysis of votive texts, with particular regard to the case and declension systems as well as their Latin usage and variants. The aim of the linguistic analysis is to identify variations occurring in the context of votive texts. The epigraphic corpus shows various Vulgar Latin features in theonyms and epithets. The names of the deities are cultural characteristics and are influenced by various factors. The inevitable phenomenon of Roman religiosity manifested itself in religious texts, especially where polytheistic religions were particularly prone to borrowing and assimilation. In the investigation, some questions which the study will attempt to answer: do the case and declension confusions of theonyms and epithets follow the characteristics of the given region? The most common feature of religious inscriptions is that the declension of an epithet follows the declension of the name of the deity and vice versa. Another characteristic is the confusion in the case system. Some of these are influenced by facts other than adjective and noun agreement. In some cases, the meaning of the name influences it, in other cases there are cultural reasons for the declension confusion, especially if the inscriptions come from Celtic, Germanic, Greek, or other language areas.

Open access

Abstract

The primary objective of the present inquiry is to formulate a sustainable method employing Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) for determination of Amlodipine (AM) and Irbesartan (IRB) simultaneously, compounds commonly prescribed for hypertension treatment. Existing literature underscores the absence of a comprehensive method in this regard. This research endeavors to align with the tenets of green chemistry by seamlessly integrating Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) with RP-HPLC, replacing environmentally hazardous chemical modifiers with eco-friendly solvents. Identifying the critical variables as the 70% ethanol level and flow rate, a central composite design is applied for optimization. The separation is achieved utilizing a Phenomenex Luna column (C 18 , 250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) with a mobile phase comprising ethanol and 0.1 % o-phosphoric acid in a 70:30 v/v ratio, flowing at 0.8 mL min−1, and detection wavelength of 242 nm. Green assessment methodologies are implemented to gauge the adherence of the proposed RP-HPLC method to eco-friendly principles while ensuring efficiency in chromatographic performance. The current developed method is rapid with retention time of 2.3 and 3.3 min for AM and IRB respectively and having a wide linear range from 55 to 130 μg mL−1, which makes the suitable for the accurate quantification of AM and IRB simultaneously in bulk and tablet dosage form, there by minimize environmental impact by providing a conscientious choice for the routine analysis which is achieved through the amalgamation of AQbD with a sustainable approach.

Open access

Abstract

Background

While the acute effects of high-load resistance training on the force generating capacity of muscles have been widely examined, limited data exist on the relationship with the force-velocity profile (FV). Evidence suggests high sensitivity of the vertical FV profile to monitor changes in the muscle's mechanical properties according to the type of the exercise protocol. However, the interpretation of the findings seems not as straightforward. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a high-load resistance training protocol on the muscle's mechanical properties during loaded jumps and on the vertical force-velocity profile (FV) in relation to maximal strength.

Methods

29 resistance-trained male (mean age±SD: 35.4 ± 7.8 years) and 29 female athletes (mean age±SD: 32.5 ± 7.0 years) participated in the study. Five-repetition maximum (5RM) in back squat, unloaded countermovement jump (CMJ) and FV profile were assessed. Loaded jumps were performed against 25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of body mass. Participants performed exercise protocols corresponding to their 5RM. Immediately after, unloaded CMJ and FV profile measurements were repeated.

Results

A significant decrease in CMJ height (∼5–6%) and in average power (∼4%) was recorded for both men and women. The FV profile did not change after the exercise protocol; however, there was a significant decrease in theoretical maximal power (from 4 to 5%) and in theoretical maximal velocity (∼3%). Maximal strength was not associated with the changes in FV profile.

Conclusions

Findings suggest that an acute high-load exercise decreased vertical jump performance and maximal power output, but without a concomitant change in FV profile. The large interindividual variability in FV measures indicates a less straightforward connection of the applied exercise with the acute response in the FV profile, highlighting the complexity of the FV profile to monitor changes in response to an acute training load.

Open access

Abstract

A new species, Hyalesthes (Homalesthes) sagittus sp. n., of the family Cixiidae (Cixiinae, Pentastirini) is described from the Krasnodar Territory. The new species belongs to the Hyalesthes productus species group known from the Western Mediterranean and the Middle East. Natural disjunctive Western Mediterranean – Caucasian distribution as well as unintentional introduction of Auchenorrhyncha taxa are discussed.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
F. Brahmi
,
S. Achat
,
I. Mateos-Aparicio
,
T. Sahki
,
O. Bedjou
,
N. Ben Bara
,
L. Benazzouz-Smail
,
H. Haddadi-Guemghar
,
K. Madani
, and
L. Boulekbache-Makhlouf

Abstract

This work proposes the optimisation of the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) for total phenolic content (TPC) from potato peels (PP). The optimised extract was obtained using ethanol 20% (v/v) for 30 min at 40 °C, and it was found to be rich in total phenolics (45.03 ± 4.16 mg GAE/g DM) and flavonoids (7.52 EQ/g DM) and exerted a good antioxidant effect with IC50s of 125.42 ± 2.78, 87.21 ± 7.72, and 200.77 ± 13.38 μg mL−1 for DPPH, phosphomolybdate, and FRAP, respectively. PP were used for the fresh cheese formulation, and this supplementation did not impact its physicochemical properties; however, the phenol content and antioxidant capacity of formulated cheeses were improved. PP-enriched fresh cheese presented a good acceptability, even better than the control.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background and aims

This qualitative ethnographic study of a psychedelic integration group in the Southeastern United States contributes to an understanding of the role of supportive communities in processing psychedelic experiences. This article proposes the concept of ‘social efficacy’ to capture the importance of social relationships to the efficacy of psychedelics. Social efficacy refers to a source of efficacy that includes not just the immediate social environment in which psychedelics are experienced and processed, but also the broad range of social relationships and political economic and historical contexts that frame their use.

Methods

This year-long ethnographic research project took place with a psychedelic integration group in an urban center in the Southeastern United States. It was based on observation, interviews, and a focus group.

Results

Overall, the participants in the integration group see the group as critical to their ability to effectively process their psychedelic experiences. The group is important as a supportive community of like-minded people that facilitates enduring cognitive and affective transformation.

Conclusions

Community-based non-therapeutic integration groups can play a vital role in the positive integration of psychedelic experiences, improving mental health and quality of life for users. The important role of community-based groups has significance for both the legalization and the medicalization of psychedelics. It highlights the need for safe and legal spaces in which people can talk about their psychedelic experiences and for medical models of efficacy that include social, relational elements.

Open access