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Abstract

The aim of the study was to characterize retinal atrophy (RA) with progressive retinal atrophy symptoms in mixed breed dogs using ophthalmoscopy, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and electroretinography (ERG).

The study was performed on 13 mixed breed dogs affected by retinal atrophy (11 males and 2 females that were 1.5–14 years old). Depending on the advancement of RA, SD-OCT examinations identified retinal abnormalities ranging from layer disorganisation to advanced atrophy. The most advanced RA occurred ventral to the optic disc. Total retinal thickness in both eyes (mean ± SD) was lower in dogs with RA compared to controls dorsally (77.7 ± 39.5 μm vs 173.5 ± 13.3 μm), ventrally (33.4 ± 29.9 μm vs 139.5 ± 10.8 μm), nasally (65.0 ± 34.5 μm vs 163.9 ± 11.0 μm) and temporally (61.8 ± 41.7 μm vs 171.9 ± 11.1 μm) to the optic disc. In dogs with locally normal architecture of inner retina, loss of definition of outer retinal layers occurred in many regions. Dark and light-adapted ERGs were reduced in 2 dogs with RA and were unrecordable in 11 dogs. Lesions evident in SD-OCT scans of mixed breed dogs affected with retinal atrophy initially appear ventrally to the optic disc and ventro-dorsally in advanced RA. In all mixed breed dogs with retinal atrophy, clinical signs and SD-OCT results correlate with ERG findings.

Restricted access

Abstract

In the last decade, sustainability has become a keyword that must be addressed in any environment, society, or economy segment. Therefore, the relevance of sustainable operation and behaviour in complexly interrelated fields like sports is particularly actual. This study was designed to evaluate the demonstration of sports sustainability in the relevant literature by bibliometric analysis. The yearly number of publications, core topics, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-connection, author and affiliation patterns, most relevant journals, and terms and keywords were studied to thoroughly overview the trends. It was found that the number of papers is increasing, however, with a slight setback in the last few years. The main topics relate to several environmental, economic (social), governmental (ESG) segments, but the listed publications need more SDG connections. A high proportion of fundamental papers from the research area are from authors affiliated with a narrow group of countries, and one journal published relatively far the most articles. The most relevant keywords are sustainability, physical activity, and sport, while the primary topic hot spots can be classified into four clusters. In conclusion, more in-depth publications are required to reveal the underrepresented field of sports sustainability in the literature, which should simultaneously incorporate the environmental, social, and economic aspects. This would foster better understanding, public awareness, and the spread of best practices in theory and practice, which could be implemented as an attitude-formation tool.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Many individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) present with co-occurring mental health disorders and other addictions, including behavioral addictions (BAs). Though several studies have investigated the relationship between SUDs and BAs, less research has focused specifically on compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB). Given that poly-addiction can hinder treatment outcomes, it is necessary to better understand the impact of co-occurring CSB and SUD. Therefore, the current study aimed to 1) determine the rate of CSB in a sample seeking treatment for SUDs, 2) identify demographic and clinical correlates of co-occurring CSB, and 3) to determine if co-occurring CSB impacts treatment outcomes for SUD.

Methods

Participants were 793 adults (71.1% men) ranging in age from 18–77 (M = 38.73) at an inpatient treatment facility for SUDs who were assessed for CSB upon admission into treatment. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires upon admission and at discharge to assess psychological and addiction symptoms.

Results

Rates of CSB were 24%. Younger age and being single were associated with greater CSB. Mental distress and addiction symptoms were higher in participants with CSB. Predictors of CSB severity included greater symptoms of traumatic stress and interpersonal dysfunction. Rates of treatment completion were similar between participants with and without CSB.

Discussion and Conclusions

These results highlight several clinical and demographic correlates of CSB amongst individuals in treatment for SUD. However, CSB was not associated with poorer treatment outcomes. Further identifying characteristics associated with CSB can help clinicians identify individuals who may be at higher risk.

Open access

Abstract

Given the many obstacles faced during the treatment of ovarian cancer, usually due to diagnosis at advanced stages, it is crucial to use different means to plan the therapeutic procedure in order to achieve optimal results. Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT) is a recent hybrid method of medical imaging that can provide various information on the anatomic and biochemical status of a tumor, as well as possible metastases and hence provide better insights to clinicians for the therapeutic procedure. To this end, the present mini-review explores the role of PET/CT scanning in planning surgical procedures, systemic anticancer therapy and radiotherapy and summarizes the current status of studies that examine the use of PET/CT in the personalized therapy of ovarian cancer. Nonetheless, more clinical and observational studies are required to further verify the use of PET/CT in planning therapeutic procedures for patients with ovarian tumors.

Open access

Abstract

Objective

The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention in reducing problematic mobile phone use, depression, and sleep disorders among adolescents. Additionally, it sought to investigate whether the decrease in problematic mobile phone use acted as a mediator in the relationship between the MBCT intervention and adolescent depression and sleep disorders.

Methods

In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 104 adolescents were randomly assigned to the mindfulness group (n = 52) or the wait-list control group (n = 52). The mindfulness group students completed eight 45-min sessions of mindfulness training in four weeks. The outcomes were measured at baseline, postintervention, and at the 2-month follow-up.

Results

Compared with the control group, the mindfulness group had significantly greater levels of mindfulness and lower levels of problematic mobile phone use, depression, and sleep disorders postintervention. The intervention effects were maintained at the 2-month follow-up. In addition, decreased problematic mobile phone use significantly mediated the association between the MBCT intervention and decreased depression and decreased sleep disorders.

Conclusion

The findings suggest that MBCT could improve adolescent depression and sleep disorders and that decreasing problematic mobile phone use is an effective pathway accounting for the MBCT intervention effect on adolescent depression and sleep disorders.

Open access

Abstract

Cell cultures are models in biological and medical research to understand physiological and pathological processes. Cell lines are not always available depending on cell type and required species. In addition, the immortalization process often affects cell biology. Primary cells generally maintain a greater degree of similarity in short-term culture to the cells in tissue. Goal of this study was to verify the suitability of chicken primary epithelial caecal cells (PECCs) for in vitro investigations of host‒pathogen interactions. Epithelial nature of PECCs was confirmed by detection of tight and adherens junctions and cobblestone-like cell morphology. Sialic acids distribution was similar to that in caecal cyrosections. To understand the capacity of PECCs to respond to microbial challenges, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) repertoire was determined. Exposure of PECCs to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to upregulation of type I and III interferon (IFN) as well as interleukin (IL-) 1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. Overall, the PECCs showed properties of polarized epithelial cells. The presence of TLRs, their differential expression, as well as pattern recognition receptor dependent immune responses enable PECCs to act as suitable in vitro model for host‒pathogen interaction studies, which are difficult to conduct under in vivo conditions.

Open access

Abstract

As the wider culture is experiencing what some call a “psychedelic renaissance,” various Christian voices are beginning to comment on this cultural moment in the press and social media. Some are curious, even open minded, about the developments; others are expressing concern about what they see as the inauthenticity and danger of psychedelics as a spiritual practice. In the academic literature, most work on the intersection of Christianity and psychedelic medicine treat either the historical question of psychedelics' possible role in the foundations of the religion or on the practical question of “should we or shouldn't we?” Absent, however, is discussion of how a Christian psychedelic practice might look. This article seeks to address this shortfall by showcasing three extant examples of what we term “psychedelic Christianity”: 1) hippies who converted to Christianity while still using psychedelic substances during the “Jesus movement”; 2) mid-twentieth-century Catholic intellectuals experimenting with the compounds for spiritual and therapeutic reasons; and 3) contemporary clergy who participated in the Johns Hopkins and NYU study with psychedelics and religious professionals. In all of this, we give special attention to the healing experienced by these Christians who undertook a psychedelic Christianity in their recourse to these substances.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Psychedelics show promise for treatment of mental health conditions (MHCs). But there is relatively little research on indigenous psychedelics conducted in the Global South (GS). Much research is carried out in the Global North, where there are different cultural perceptions of mental health and psychedelics. Therefore, this paper appraises research on psychedelics for treatment or therapy where research was carried out in the GS.

Method

A systematic review of research literature was conducted from 1st January 2010 to 31st July 2023. Medline, PsychINFO and Global Health databases were searched for studies of patients undergoing treatment for MHCs with psychedelics.

Results

Data from 27 papers were extracted and narratively synthesized. A total of 984 participants were included suffering from depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and eating disorders. The studies investigated the feasibility of psychedelic treatments and presented evidence for their safety. There was preliminary efficacy data for ayahuasca, iboga, 5-MeO-DMT, psylocibin, and MDMA in the treatment of some MHCs. All studies were conducted in line with ethical and medical guidelines, and no serious adverse events were reported.

Conclusion

A renaissance of clinical psychedelic research on substances that have been used as traditional medicines in the GS presents promising evidence for treatment efficacy and safety across a range of MHCs. Psychedelics present an exciting new treatment approach for people in the GS, in a health area with considerable unmet need. Moreover, research demonstrated cost-effectiveness, while results suggested no significant safety concerns or side effects.

Open access

Abstract

In this investigation, a rapid and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) technique was developed for quantification of veliparib in rat plasma and used the method to study the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of veliparib in rats after oral (6 mg kg−1) and intravenous (2 mg kg−1) administration. Plasma samples were protein precipitated with acetonitrile using midazolam as internal standard. A UPLC HSS T3 chromatographic column was utilized for separation, with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-formic acid in gradient elution procedure. Quantitative analysis was performed using multiple reaction monitoring in electrospray positive-ion mode. Veliparib exhibited excellent linearity within the 1–1,000 ng mL−1 range (r > 0.99). The intra- and inter-day precision of veliparib were both within 15%, and the accuracy ranged from 93.7 to 107.7%. The average recovery was above 86%, and the matrix effect was 89.0–95.8%. The AUC(0-t) values for oral and intravenous administration were 1014.7 ± 42.9 and 647.2 ± 85.2 h ng mL−1, respectively, resulting in a bioavailability of 52.3%. The UPLC-MS/MS method established in this study featured a low sample injection volume, a low quantification limit, a short chromatographic runtime, high sensitivity, and selectivity. The developed method can be used for the pharmacokinetic analysis of veliparib in both preclinical and clinical studies.

Open access