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Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Transformation of Tools and Conservation of Architecture •

Some Researches on the Use of Digital Systems for the Intervention on the Historical Buildings

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli

The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.

As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.

This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.

A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.

A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.

Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.

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Abstract

This article analyzes Ignác Goldziher’s portrayal of Ármin Vámbéry in his memorial lecture of 1915. Goldziher positioned Vámbéry, his teacher, as a Jewish Hungarian nationalist Orientalist and a foundational figure to Hungarology. Through this portrayal Goldziher opened the door to the notion that he, too, was like Vámbéry, a nationalist Hungarian Orientalist, despite the fact that his own work did not contribute to Hungarology, and did not display nationalist and patriotic tendencies as did Vámbéry’s. Goldziher’s portrayal of Vámbéry, thus, is a part of Jewish apologetics that emerged as a response to growing anti-Semitism during the early twentieth century.

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Abstract

The study demonstrated that cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus cornucopiae and Pleurotus djamor on selenium enriched substrate did not significantly affect biological efficiency (%), but total soluble protein content, total phenolic content, flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity (%) were found to be significantly improved in Se enriched fruit bodies as compared to the control. Elemental analysis of the Se biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms through SEM-EDS showed signals characteristic for selenium on surface of P. ostreatus. var. florida and P. djamor confirming that selenium was incorporated into the cell wall of these fruiting bodies. The Se content was found to be 22.34 μg g−1 dw in Se enriched wheat straw and 0.059 μg g−1 dw in respective non-enriched wheat straw. Se contents of Se-enriched fruit bodies were found to be higher compared to non-enriched Pleurotus spp. FT-IR spectra of proteins from Pleurotus spp. indicated an increase in the flexibility, unfolding, hydrophilicity of the proteins upon Se supplementation.

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Abstract

József Péczeli (1750–1792), a Calvinist minister educated at some of the outstanding German, Swiss and Dutch centres of knowledge, is mostly known for his editorial and publishing activities, including his translations of Voltaire’s dramas and epic works. However, this paper is meant to analyze the issues of calling and absolution as presented in “Moral Semons” edited and published by the “erudite minister of Révkomárom”. It argues that Péczeli’s sermons tend to show the influence of eighteenth century English theologians, thereby disseminating the ideas of modern practical theology, as well as interpreting and adapting them to the needs of young ministers serving in the communities of the various layers of contemporary Hungarian society.

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Résumé

L’ouvrage d’Anna TÜSKÉS s’appuie sur des recherches menées depuis déjà plus de dix ans (2008–2019) qui s’intéressent, de façon tout à fait originale, à certains aspects personnels, « privés », des relations littéraires entre la France et la Hongrie tout au long du siècle dernier. Ayant su mettre à profit des ressources non encore publiées du Musée littéraire Petőfi (Petőfi Irodalmi Múzeum), l’auteur réunit ici, en un dense ouvrage (383 pages), sept études distinctes au sujet d’écrivains ou traducteurs (ou encore spécialistes en arts plastiques) qui ont contribué à construire et renforcer les liens littéraires entre les deux pays, en dépit des vicissitudes historiques et politiques ayant, pendant presque un siècle, souvent menacé de les affaiblir. Les portraits individuels sont rassemblés autour d’une idée centrale, bien mise en valeur par l’auteur : le désir constant de dialogue éprouvé par des femmes et des hommes de Hongrie et de France, s’exprimant au travers d’écrits littéraires ou de correspondances, de poèmes lyriques ou cocasses, de photographies partagées… Ce livre à la très riche documentation donne à voir un tableau qui met en jeu non des « théories » littéraires, mais des sujets agissants et passionnés.

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Abstract

A product with increased quality and nutritional value can be developed by enriching noodles with shrimp meat (SM). The formulation of noodle dough was supplemented with SM (10, 20 and 30% w/w). The noodles were freeze-dried due to the susceptibility of added SM to spoilage. Water activity values of all samples were below 0.35. The highest protein (19.37 ± 1.04%), lipid (39.30 ± 1.69%), moisture (6.31 ± 0.42%) and energy (571.14 ± 10.16 kcal/100 g) contents were determined in noodles with 30% shrimp meat content (30S). Carbohydrate value of noodles decreased with the SM fortification level. Cooking quality characteristics of SM added noodles, especially 10S, were better in terms of weight gain, volume increase and cooking loss. The highest L* and b* values, which are expected to be high by the consumers, were reached with 10S and 30S, respectively. The value of a* increased with the addition of SM. Hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness values of the noodles increased with an increase in the level of shrimp content. Addition of SM improved the microstructure of noodles due to enriched protein matrix. Nutritious noodles with high cooking quality and a potential for long shelf life are intended for athletes and individuals with special nutritional needs.

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Imaging
Authors: Cesare Mantini, Francesco Corradi, Domenico Mastrodicasa, Luca Procaccini, Marzia Olivieri, Fabrizio Ricci, Filippo Cademartiri, Massimo Caulo, and Raffaele De Caterina

Abstract

The pericardial cavity, sinuses, and recesses are frequently depicted on Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR).

We here review the normal human pericardial structures as provided by MR imaging of young, healthy subject and CT scans acquired after iatrogenic coronary dissection. We compared such radiological information with cadaveric axial and sagittal sections of the human body provided by the Visible Human Server (VHS), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lousanne (EPFL), Switzerland.

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Abstract

123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a radiolabeled norepinephrine analog that can be used to investigate myocardial sympathetic innervation. 123I MIBG scintigraphy has been investigated with interest in many disease settings. In patients with systolic heart failure (HF), 123I MIBG scintigraphy can capture functional impairment and rarefaction of sympathetic terminals (which manifest as reduced early and late heart-to-mediastinum [H/M] ratio on planar scintigraphy), and increased sympathetic outflow (which can be visualized as high washout rate). These findings have been consistently associated with a worse outcome: most notably, a phase 3 trial found that patients with a late H/M 1.60 have a higher incidence of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening arrhythmias over a follow-up of less than 2 years. Despite these promising findings, 123I MIBG scintigraphy has not yet been recommended by major HF guidelines as a tool for additive risk stratification, and has then never entered the stage of widespread adoption into current clinical practice. 123I MIBG scintigraphy has been evaluated also in patients with myocardial infarction, genetic disorders characterized by an increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias, and several other conditions characterized by impaired sympathetic myocardial innervation. In the present chapter we will summarize the state-of-the-art on cardiac 123I MIBG scintigraphy, the current unresolved issues, and the possible directions of future research.

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Abstract

Background

It has been observed that gluteal-femoral adipose tissue has a protective effect against risk factors for cardiovascular disease but has not yet been concluded how different evaluation methods of fat distribution affect the results.

Methods

To test the hypothesis that B-mode ultrasound-measured subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, 326 Japanese unmedicated postmenopausal women aged 50–70 years were analyzed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at 6 sites (anterior and posterior aspects of trunk, upper-arm, and thigh) and serum total (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was measured, and a ratio of HDLC to TC (HDLC/TC) was calculated. We used Bayesian linear regression with 4 separate models with each model predicting HDLC/TC.

Results

Our first model provided evidence for an inverse correlation (r = –0.23) between ultrasound measured body fat (6 site measurement) and HDLC/TC. The second model noted evidence for an inverse correlation between trunk fat and HDLC/TC and found evidence for the null with respect to the correlation between thigh fat and HDLC/TC. Therefore, we added thigh fat to the null model to produce Distribution Model 2. Within this model, we noted an inverse correlation (r = –0.353) between trunk fat and HDLC/TC. Our last model determined that within the trunk fatness, the abdominal area (anterior trunk) was a larger predictor than the subscapular site (posterior trunk).

Conclusion

These results support the evidence that ultrasound-measured abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness is a non-invasive predictor for monitoring the risk for dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women.

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