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Abstract

The basidiomycetes yeast Trichosporon is widespread in the natural environment, but can cause disease, mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, there have been only few studies about this infection in Thailand. In this study, we characterized 53 Trichosporon spp. isolated from urine samples from patients admitted to a single hospital in Bangkok, Thailand over a one-year period from 2019 to 2020. The strains were identified using colony morphology, microscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and nucleotide sequence analysis of intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1). Fifty-one isolates were Trichosporon asahii, and the remaining isolates were Trichosporon inkin and other Trichosporon species. Three genotypes of IGS1—1, 3, and 7 were observed among T. asahii. The sensitivity of the yeasts to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, and voriconazole ranged from 0.25 to >16 μg ml−1, 0.5–8 μg ml−1, and 0.01–0.25 μg ml−1, respectively. We investigated biofilm formation by the isolates, and no biofilm production was found in one isolate, low biofilm production in forty-four isolates, and medium biofilm production in six isolates. T. inkin produced biofilms at low levels, and Trichosporon spp. produced biofilms at medium levels. This research increases our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of Trichosporon spp. isolated from one university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, and reveals their genetic diversity, antifungal susceptibility profiles, and capacity for in vitro biofilm production.

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Abstract

The effect of processing parameters on microencapsulation of oregano essential with maltodextrin:gum arabic using a disk atomiser spray-dryer was evaluated. By means of response surface methodology, the feed flow rate and inlet air temperature were optimised. Powder yield, moisture content, essential oil retention, and antioxidant activity of microparticles were evaluated. The best conditions to produce microencapsulated oregano essential oil were 0.6 L h−1 for feed flow rate and 200 °C for inlet air temperature. With this combination a microencapsulated powder with 89.8% powder yield, 2.1% moisture content, 92.1% essential oil retention, 76 s solubilisation time, 12.9 g of water/100 g of dry matter, 0.3371 g mL−1 bulk density, 0.5826 g mL−1 tapped density, and 8.2 μm of average particle size was produced. The microencapsulation of oregano essential oil preserves the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of its bioactive compounds.

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Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. Let R be a set of points disjoint from P such that for every x, y € P the line through x and y contains a point in R. We show that if R < 3 2 n  and P R is contained in a cubic curve c in the plane, then P has a special property with respect to the natural group structure on c. That is, P is contained in a coset of a subgroup H of c of cardinality at most |R|.

We use the same approach to show a similar result in the case where each of B and G is a set of n points in general position in the plane and every line through a point in B and a point in G passes through a point in R. This provides a partial answer to a problem of Karasev.

The bound R < 3 2 n is best possible at least for part of our results. Our extremal constructions provide a counterexample to an old conjecture attributed to Jamison about point sets that determine few directions.

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Abstract

In this study, the age-related seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection was investigated in the population in South-Transdanubia, Southwest Hungary (Central Europe) between years 2010 and 2020. Up to the age of 40, the HAV seropositivity was less than 18% in all age groups indicating a low level of HAV endemicity in this part of the country in the covered study period. The HAV seropositivity started to increase at the age group 41–45 years, reaching the ∼50% at age group 56–60, and 75–80% at age group 66–70, respectively. A total of 43 (0.2%) of the 21,106 tested sera were HAV IgM-positive (the annual percentage range of HAV IgM-positivity was 0.046–0.6%). Total of 24 (55.8%) of the 43 HAV IgM-positive samples tested RT-PCR-positive confirmed as HAV sub-genotypes IA (N = 17; 70.8%) and IB (N = 7; 29.2%), respectively. Imported HAV infections (three cases from Romania, and one-one case from Austria and Italy), two small outbreaks and 11 cases of a genetically identical sub-genotype IA strain (GenBank number of the prototype strain: KM657825) from 2012 to 2014 were identified later connected directly to the enormous HAV outbreak initiated among men who have sex with men (MSM) at the end of 2011 in the capital Budapest.

In summary, low endemicity but high and increased susceptibility for HAV infection was found in the population in Southwest Hungary, where repeated introduction of sub-genotypes IA and IB HAV strains were identified between 2010 and 2020.

Open access

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction on the quality of tiger nut milk (TNM). TNM was extracted from tiger nuts using different concentrations of xylanase (0.010–0.100%) and Tween 20 (0.005–0.010%). The yield, stability, nutritional, antioxidant, and sensory properties of the samples were determined. The yield of TNM significantly increased, by 32.72–50.67%, following surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction. Optimum yield and stability of TNM were obtained using 0.010% xylanase and Tween 20. Enzymatic extraction significantly increased total sugar and flavonoids, however, starch, dietary fibre, protein, carotenoids, lycopene, total phenolic content, and antioxidant properties reduced significantly. The incorporation of Tween 20 stabilised these parameters. There was no significant difference in panellists' preference for the control (sample extracted without enzyme and surfactant), enzymatically-extracted, and surfactant-assisted enzymatic extracted samples in mouthfeel and aroma, however, the surfactant-assisted enzymatic extracted sample was most preferred in colour, consistency, taste, and overall acceptability. Using surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction could prove invaluable for the production of TNM.

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Abstract

A simple, rapid, and sensitive method based on UPLC-MS/MS was developed to determine spiraeoside in mouse blood, and was applied to the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of spiraeoside after mice after intravenous (a dose of 5 mg kg−1) and oral (a dose of 20 mg kg−1) administration. On HSS T3 column set at 40 °C, chromatographic separation was obtained with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid using the gradient elution. Spiraeoside and internal standard (IS) were quantitatively analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode in electrospray (ESI) positive interface. The MRM mode was monitoring the fragmentation of m/z 465.4→303.1 and m/z 451.3→ 289.2 for spironoside and IS, respectively. The results showed a good linear relationship was in the concentration range of 1–200 ng mL−1 (r > 0.998) and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1.0 ng mL−1. The intra- and the inter-day precision (RSD%) of the method was within 14.0%, and the accuracy ranged from 90.0% to 115.0%. The extraction recovery of spriaeoside was better than 63.0%, and the matrix effects were in the range of 86%–98%. It also showed the half-life was short, and the absolute bioavailability was 4.0% in mice. Therefore, the established UPLC-MS/MS method was suitable for the pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study of spiraeoside in mice.

Open access

Abstract

Cultivation of specialty mushrooms on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economical organic recycling processes. Compared with other cultivated mushrooms, very little is known about the nature of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by the edible fungus Calocybe indica, its enzymatic activity profiles during submerged and solid state fermentation. The intracellular activity of laccase (7.67 U mg−1), manganese peroxidase (7.48 U mg−1), cellobiohydrolase (5.46 U mg−1), and endoxylanase (4.21 U mg−1) was best obtained in C. indica on 14th and 21st day of incubation. The extracellular activity of laccase (11.57 U mL−1), lignin peroxidase (8.45 U mL−1), and endoxylanases (6.22 U mL−1) were found to be highest on the 14th day. Ligninolytic enzyme activity was substantial during substrate colonisation but quickly dropped during fruiting body development. C. indica, on the other hand, showed relatively modest hydrolase activity during substrate colonisation. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes increased dramatically when primordia formed and peaked at the mature fruiting body stage. The yield of the crude enzyme-treated wheat straw utilised for mushroom production was 52.47%. These findings showed that the activities of lignocellulolytic enzymes were regulated in line with developmental phase of growth of C. indica.

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Abstract

This study aims to formulate the optimal pectin-curcumin-lemongrass oil emulsion (PE) for coating of chicken fillet at 50:50%, 70:30%, and 90:10%, based on microbial growth inhibition, freshness consistency, and fat absorption during frying. Throughout the 7 days of storage, chicken fillet coated with 70:30% PE showed significant (P < 0.05) suppressive activity against psychrophilic bacteria (8.09 ± 0.00 log10 CFU g−1) compared to non-coated sample (8.27 ± 0.06 log10 CFU g−1). In contrast, 90:10% PE coating inhibited the growth of yeasts or moulds on chicken fillet at 8.24 ± 0.28 log10 CFU g−1, compared to non-coated sample (9.16 ± 0.14 log10 CFU g−1). The 70:30% PE coating showed a better fillet's toughness (18.30 ± 1.32 N mm−1 s−1) and firmness (1.49 ± 0.22 N mm−1) when compared to fillet without coating. After 7 days of storage, coated and uncoated samples showed the same total colour difference (E value) indicating PE coating preserved the texture of fillet and colour. Both coated samples (70:30% and 90:10%) reduced fat uptake during frying by 13.70%–14.25%. The application of PE coating at 90:10% was effectively functioned as an excellent coating to preserve the quality and safety of fillet.

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Alsó légúti minták molekuláris mikrobiológiai vizsgálata a koronavírus-járvány időszakában

Molecular microbiological testing of lower respiratory tract samples during COVID–19 pandemic

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Sándor Károlyi
,
Emese Juhász
,
Miklós Iván
,
Edina Szabó
,
Petronella Farkas
,
Kamilla Székely
, and
Katalin Kristóf

Bevezetés: A BioFire FilmArray Pneumonia plus Panel (bioMérieux) az alsó légúti fertőzések mikrobiológiai diagnosztikájára kidolgozott „real-time” PCR-rendszer, mely 18 baktérium, 9 vírus és 7 antibiotikum-rezisztenciagén kimutatására képes. A két órán belül eredményt adó módszer segíti a pneumonia differenciáldiagnosztikáját, a terápiás döntéshozatalt. Célkitűzés: Laboratóriumunkban pneumonia kivizsgálása érdekében végzett PCR-paneltesztek eredményeinek áttekintése, a hagyományos bakteriológiai feldolgozás eredményeivel való összehasonlítása. Módszerek: A 2020. október és 2021. szeptember közötti időszakban 820, feltételezetten pneumoniás kórházi betegtől származó alsó légúti mintát vizsgáltunk a PCR-panellel. A mintákból a multiplex PCR-vizsgálat mellett tenyésztést is végeztünk. A kiegészítő SARS-CoV-2-PCR-vizsgálatok orr-garat törletből vett mintákból történtek. Eredmények: A minták 40%-a SARS-CoV-2-pozitív betegtől származott. A minták 60%-ánál jelzett patogént vagy rezisztenciagént a PCR-panel. A három leggyakrabban kimutatott kórokozó a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Staphylococcus aureus és az Acinetobacter baumannii volt. A PCR-rel detektált baktériumok 44%-a tenyésztéssel nem igazolódott, és viszont: tenyésztéssel számos olyan baktériumot, gombafajt, antibiotikum-rezisztenciamechanizmust igazoltunk, melyet a PCR-panel nem vizsgált, vagy melyre negatív eredményt adott. A SARS-CoV-2-pozitív csoportban a S. aureus adta az azonosított kórokozók 25,8%-át. A leggyakrabban kimutatott rezisztenciagén a mecA/C (MRSA) volt. A SARS-CoV-2-pozitív betegek mintáinak 2%-ában, míg a SARS-CoV-2-negatív betegek mintáinak 13%-ában mutattunk ki egyéb légúti vírusgént is. Következtetés: A kórházi pneumoniák gyakori kórokozóit PCR-vizsgálataink eredményei igazolták. A PCR-panel célspektrumában nem szereplő kórokozók jelentősége és az antibiotikumrezisztenciák multifaktoriális volta miatt a pneumoniaspecifikus multiplex PCR-vizsgálatokat tenyésztéssel együtt javasolt végezni, és ezek eredményét együttesen érdemes értelmezni. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(33): 1295–1302.

Open access

Diabetes és a nyomelemek

Diabetes and trace elements

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Klára Szentmihályi
,
Szilvia Klébert
, and
Anikó Somogyi

Bizonyos nyomelemek ionos, illetve komplexen kötött vegyületei nélkülözhetetlenek számtalan biokémiai folyamatban, a humán szervezet megfelelő működéséhez. Hiányuk vagy akkumulációjuk számos egészségügyi problémát, betegséget okoz. Korábban az inzulinrezisztencia és a cukorbetegség kezelésében a nyomelemeket kulcsfontosságú faktornak gondolták, azonban a diabetes kialakulásában a nyomelemek hiánya, fontossága vagy a szövődmények kialakulásában és kezelésében a nyomelemstatus megítélése, a pótlás fontossága még ma is ellentmondásos. A szerzők ezért áttekintik a nyomelemek szerepét a diabetes kialakulásában, patogenezisében és progressziójában. Röviden beszámolnak a cink(II), a mangán(II, III), a réz(I, II), a króm(III), a vas(II, III), a kobalt(II), a vanádium(III, IV, V), a molibdén(IV, VI), a jód(I), a szelén(II, IV, VI) és a lítium(I) humán szervezetben ismert legfontosabb folyamatairól és a diabetesszel összefüggő biokémiai változásokról. Részletezik a nyomelemstatus eltéréseit diabetesben, kapcsolatukat a szabad gyökökkel és az antioxidáns védelmi rendszerrel. Rátérnek néhány rizikófaktor tárgyalására, amely súlyosabb mikroelemhiányhoz és szövődmények kialakulásához vezet. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(33): 1303–1310.

Open access