Authors:H. Xie, L. Cao, L. Ye, G. Shan, and W. Song
In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.
This study aimed to detect carbapenemase genes and to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Ceftazidime-Avibactam (CZA) in Enterobacterales isolates. Carbapenemase genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. CZA sensitivity of isolates was evaluated with broth microdilution (BMD) and disk diffusion methods. A total of 318 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales isolates were included. Most of the isolates (n = 290, 91.2%) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. The most common carbapenemase type was OXA-48 (n = 82, 27.6%). CZA susceptibility was evaluated in 84 isolates with OXA-48 and KPC carbapenemase activity. Both BMD and disk diffusion methods revealed that 95.2% of the isolates were sensitive to CZA; whereas, 4 (4.76%) isolates were resistant to CZA. Among colistin resistant isolates, 96.5% (n = 80) of them were susceptible to CZA. Our study demonstrated high in vitro efficacy of CZA in Enterobacterales isolates producing OXA-48 carbapenemase. High susceptibility rates against colistin resistant isolates which generally are also pan drug resistant, makes CZA a promising therapeutic choice for difficult-to-treat infections. Due to its high correlation with the BMD, disk diffusion method is a suitable and more practical method in detecting CZA in vitro activity.
The present paper seeks to investigate the characteristics of possessive constructions in Kurdish (the Central variety also known as Sorani) and Hungarian from a cognitive viewpoint. Starting with nominal possessive constructions, which include attenuated possessors and nominal possessees, we will argue that both Kurdish and Hungarian make use of essentially similar typological strategies to encode the possessive relationship. Moreover, the defining characteristics of nominal possessive constructions in both languages will be justifiably accounted for through the same lines of cognitive argumentation in terms of Langacker's reference-point model (, ). However, a different cognitive treatment is proposed for cases in which the possessor and the possessee are nominal and linked to each other via an Ezafe. We will argue that Ezafe, which links the nominal head to its dependents in a Noun Phrase (; ; ; ), evokes an intrinsic asymmetric relationship between the possessor as the landmark and the possessee as the trajector. As the second major type of possessive constructions elaborated on in this paper, the predicative possessive is first classified into topic-possessive and be-possessive categories. Despite their subtle structural differences, it is again shown that both Kurdish and Hungarian employ almost similar clausal patterns to form both categories of predicative possessives, and the same cognitive models can be brought into play to account for their underlying characteristics. The final section of the present paper is devoted to the so-called ergative constructions in Kurdish. Seeking to propose a new cognitive approach to account for the peculiarities of the non-accusative alignment, we will argue that the so-called ergative constructions in Kurdish are conceptually linked to predicative possessive constructions.
This paper discusses a global trend in the approach to hate speech. It describes how the international human rights organisations are recently addressing the dynamics of hate speech and how academic thinking is stretching the framework of the justification of hate speech regulations. This work analyses the aspect of cause and effect in the light of the role of the speaker; examining the academic argument that content expressed by public figures of authority have a higher impact, in particular in the context of the digital media ecosystem, with a social media dominance.
Authors:Alexandra Köves, Attila Szathmári, and Orsolya Herr
It is now becoming widely accepted that our economy has reached the limits both in terms of the carrying capacity of our planet and in terms of bringing real social justice to the table. Degrowth is a research area that aims to transcend mainstream approaches. While moving beyond the growth paradigm would entail serious changes in all areas of social life and Degrowth research extends into most of them, the transformation of sports is not among them. Neither is Degrowth a recognised concept among those who deal with sports. The participatory backcasting research introduced in this paper attempts to fill this void. In the backcasting project, master students of sports economics envisioned the sustainable future of sports and identified potential intervention steps that lead towards such normative states. This paper describes the results and assesses those elements that aim for strong sustainability. The results show that relocalisation and the sharing economy are the most accepted Degrowth concepts in a normative scenario on sustainable sports in this group. At the same time, the paper offers frameworks of thoughts for those who want to move beyond the slogans of sustainability either as responsible citizens or in positions related to the world of sports.
Authors:Andreas M. Bickl, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Johanna K. Loy, Bettina Grüne, Barbara Braun-Michl, Pawel Sleczka, Jenny Cisneros Örnberg, and Ludwig Kraus
Background and aim
Evidence on the course of gambling disorder (GD) in clients seeking help from outpatient addiction care facilities is sparse. To close this knowledge gap, this longitudinal one-armed cohort study portrays the development of GD in help-seeking clients over a 3-year timeframe.
We investigated changes in severity of GD as well as in gambling frequency and intensity in 145 gamblers in outpatient treatment in Bavaria using generalized estimation equations (GEEs). To investigate potentially different trajectories between study participants with and without migration background (MB), additional analyses were applied with time*migration interaction. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, education, electronic gambling machine (EGM) gambling, MB, GD, related help sought before and treatment status.
Within the entire study population, improvements in severity of GD (reduction of 39.2%), gambling intensity (reduction of 75.6%) and gambling frequency (reduction of 77.0%) were observed between baseline and 36 months of follow-up. The declines were most pronounced between baseline and follow-up 1 and stabilized thereafter. Participants with MB improved consistently less than participants without MB.
Discussion and conclusion
Our study suggests that severity of GD and gambling patterns improve in the context of outpatient treatment. The beneficial results furthermore persist for 36 months after treatment termination. As clients with MB seem to profit less than clients without MB, improvements in outpatient gambling services to the specific needs of this clientele are required.
Authors:Péter Palásti, Ádám Visnyovszki, Sándor Csizmadia, Mária Matúz, Zsanett Szabó, Edit Hajdú, Dominika Vattay, András Palkó, Tamás Zsigmond Kincses, and Zsuzsanna Fejes
In December 2019, pneumonia caused by coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Currently, COVID-19 has spread worldwide. In accordance with the restrictions of the Hungarian Government, several epidemic hospitals and centers have been established in Hungary. The first infected patient was detected on 4th March, 2020 in our country, who was not a Hungarian citizen. The first patient died of pneumonia caused by COVID-19 was on 15th March. The Hungarian epidemic curve is flattened and more prolonged. We aimed to report our computer tomography (CT) findings in correlation with clinical status in patients with COVID-19 infection.
Material and methods
All patients with laboratory-identified Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and who underwent chest CT were collected between March 26, 2020, and April 20, 2020, in our hospital. In our centre we had 107 PCR confirmed COVID-19 positive patients in this period. 52 patient (male: female 1:2, average age: 67.94) were admitted to our central epidemic hospital, according to their complains: fever, dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, altered mental status, comorbidity, sepsis or if patient isolation could not be performed. In case of every patient we took blood test, nasopharyngeal sample and a chest CT without contrast agent. In our CT report we used a score system to characterize the severity.
The majority of infected patients had a history of exposure in nursing homes and mostly presented with fever and cough. The present study confirmed the findings about results of other researches. The COVID-19 pneumonia affected the elderly patients, caused hypoxia, cough and sepsis. On the CT scan, typical signs were seen in the cases of PCR confirmed patients.
The limitations of the present study include the low number of patients. Collectively, our results appear consistent with previous studies. Chest CT examination plays an important role in the diagnosis and estimation of the severity of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. Future research should examine strategically the features of the Hungarian population.
Authors:Eszter Mátyás, Rita Hargitai, and Ágnes Haris
Összefoglaló.Bevezetés: A krónikus vesebetegség tünetei, a kezelés
sajátosságai nagymértékben korlátozzák a páciensek mindennapi életvitelét,
hatással vannak testi és lelki egészségükre, és nehezítik társas kapcsolataikat.
Célkitűzések: A jelen kutatás célja a magyar dializált
betegpopuláció egészségműveltségének, életminőségének és betegségterhének
megismerése, továbbá a kezelési típusok hatását kívántuk felmérni a fent
említett pszichológiai tényezők mentén. Módszer: A vizsgálatban
42 krónikus dializált személy vett részt: 31 hemodializált és 11 hasi dialízist
végző vesebeteg. Átlagéletkoruk 63,33 ± 12,92 év. A minta életkor, nemi eloszlás
és családi állapot alapján reprezentatív. Kérdőíves technikával mértük a betegek
életminőségét, egészségműveltségét és betegségterhét.
Eredmények: Eredményeink szerint a peritonealis dialízist
végző betegek szignifikánsan magasabb egészségműveltséggel rendelkeznek, mint
hemodializált betegtársaik. Ez a jelentős különbség az életminőségük több
területén is kimutatható volt. Következtetés: Eredményeink a
betegedukáció és a kezelőszemélyzettől kapott támogatás (bátorítás)
jelentőségére hívják fel a figyelmet. A betegoktatás a hemodializált
betegcsoport esetében is kiemelten fontos. A klinikai szempontból hasznos
intervenciós javaslatokat fogalmaztunk meg, melyek célzottan az
egészségműveltség fejlesztésére irányulnak. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(30):
Summary.Introduction: The symptoms of chronic kidney disease, the
peculiarities of the treatment greatly limit the patients’ daily life, affect
their physical and mental health and make their social relationships more
difficult. Objective: The purpose of this research is to
explore the health literacy, the health-related quality of life and illness
intrusiveness of Hungarian dialysis patients. Furthermore, we wanted to assess
the effect of treatment types along the psychological factors mentioned above.
Method: The sample consisted of 42 patients with chronic
kidney disease, 31 of whom have hemodialysis and 11 have peritoneal dialysis
treatment. Their mean age was 63.33 ±12.92 years. The sample is representative
by age, gender, and marital status. We measured the health-related quality of
life, the health literacy and illness intrusiveness of the patients using
special questionnaire techniques. Results: The peritoneal
dialysis patients have significantly higher health literacy than their
hemodialysis counterparts. This significant difference was seen in several areas
of their quality of life as well. Conclusion: Our results draw
attention to the importance of patient education and the special support by the
treatment staff. The patient education for the haemodialysis group is of
paramount importance for the hemodialysis group, too. We have formulated
clinically useful intervention proposals aimed at improving health literacy. Orv
Hetil. 2021; 162(30): 1208–1215.
Authors:Gabriella Mezei, Árpád Illés, and Péter Batár
Összefoglaló. A krónikus myeloid leukaemia ritka, klonális őssejt
eredetű betegség. A myeloid sejtsor kóros működését a 9-es és 22-es kromoszómák
reciprok transzlokációja következtében kialakuló fúziós gén (BCR/ABL1) által
kódolt patológiás (fokozott) aktivitású tirozin-kináz jelátviteli fehérje
okozza. A tartós, gyakran élethosszig tartó BCR/ABL1 specifikus
tirozin-kináz-gátló (TKI-) kezelés a betegek jelentős hányadában az egészséges
populáció túlélését elérő teljes gyógyulást biztosít, melyhez folyamatos, a
mindenkori szakmai ajánlásoknak megfelelő onkohematológiai ellenőrzés szükséges.
Az igen hatékony TKI-kezelés mellett azonban nemkívánatos mellékhatások
jelentkezhetnek, melyek – számos szervrendszert érintve – a krónikus myeloid
leukaemiás beteg kezelését multidiszciplináris együttműködéssé szélesítik ki.
Jelenleg Magyarországon ötféle TKI érhető el, melyek mellékhatásprofilja igen
eltérő. A kezelés elindításakor, illetve terápiamódosítás esetén beteg- és
kórképspecifikus szempontokat mérlegelve kell kiválasztani az adott
TKI-kezelést. Tekintettel a tartós kezelés mellett elérhető kiváló túlélési
eredményekre, egyre gyakoribb azoknak a krónikus myeloid leukaemiás betegeknek a
száma, akiknél változó súlyosságú nemkívánatos mellékhatások jelentkeznek,
melyek miatt a betegek sokszor nem a hematológus szakorvosnál jelentkeznek. A
leggyakrabban észlelt szövődmények ismertetését saját beteganyagunk részletes
elemzése kapcsán a mindennapi klinikai gyakorlatban is bemutatjuk. Igen fontos,
hogy a társszakmák (háziorvos, belgyógyász, kardiológus, angiológus,
diabetológus, tüdőgyógyász, gasztroenterológus stb.) gyakorlói is tisztában
legyenek az adott TKI-kezelés lehetséges mellékhatásaival, azok megelőzésével,
időben történő felismerésével és hatékony kezelésével. Szakmai közreműködésük
révén így segíthetik a klinikai hematológust a megfelelő terápia
megtervezésében, valamint a betegek folyamatos kezelése kapcsán gyakran
szükségessé váló szakmaspecifikus gondozásában is. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(30):
Summary. Chronic myeloid leukemia is a rare clonal stem cell
disorder. The pathological overproduction of the myeloid cell line is caused by
abnormal function of a tyrosine kinase encoded by a fusion gene (BCR/ABL1) which
is formed upon a reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22. Long-term,
often lifelong treatment with BCR/ABL1-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors
provides excellent disease control and overall survival rates close to the
general survival of a healthy population in a significant proportion of
patients. These patients require continuous oncohematological monitoring in
accordance with the current diagnostic and treatment guidelines. However,
undesirable side effects may occur that extend the treatment of the patients to
a multidisciplinary approach involving a number of nonhematological
specialities. Currently, five types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are available
in Hungary, with very different side effect profiles. At the start of treatment
or in the event of a change in therapy, patient- and leukemia-specific
assessments should be taken to select the most proper tyrosine kinase inhibitors
treatment. Given the excellent survival outcomes achieved with long-term
tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment, there is an increasing number of patients
who might experience adverse events of different kind or severity, which often
results in patients ending up in different, nonhematological medical situations.
The description of the most frequently observed complications in connection with
a detailed cross-sectional analysis of our own patient cohort is also presented
here resembling everyday clinical practice. It is very important that
practitioners of other medical professions (general practitioner, internist,
cardiologist, angiologist, diabetologist, pulmonologist, gastroenterologist,
etc.) should be aware of the possible side effects of specific tyrosine kinase
inhibitor therapies. They can help to assist the clinical hematologist in
planning the appropriate tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy as well as in
professional caretaking of these patients. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(30):