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Az Inana és Šukaletuda című mítosz •

Áldás vagy átok a hírnév?

Antik Tanulmányok
Author:
Anna Krisztina Pintér

Az alábbi tanulmány a sumer Inana és Šukaletuda mítosz új magyar fordítását tartalmazza, illetve egy elemzést a szöveg egyik problematikus részéről, Šukaletuda „megáldásáról”. Az elemzésben amellett érvelek, hogy a szöveg szóhasználata arra vonatkozó utalásokat rejt, hogy Šukaletuda, a kertész, alacsony származású, uralkodói szerepkörök betöltésére alkalmatlan személy, és az uralkodókat utánzó, jogtalan tette után kap isteni büntetést. A mítoszról szóló eddigi elemzések a szöveg ezen aspektusára még nem tértek ki.

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Propertius II. 15. elégiájának fordítása az Erato latin ciklusának közepén (Ovidius Amores I. 5. elégiájával szimmetrikus párban) hangsúlyos szerepet tölt be Babits fordításkötetében. Ennek a Proper-tius-fordításnak ez az első és egyetlen megjelenése Babits életművében, de a klasszikus szerzőhöz való viszonya nem előzmény nélküli. Babits levelezésében és irodalomtörténeti munkáiban is előkerül Propertius neve, de mindezeken túl latintanári pályafutása során is foglalkozhatott verseivel. Ez a dolgozat elsősorban arra a kérdésre keres választ, hogy a fordításhoz Babits milyen szövegforrást használhatott, illetve hogy a Babitsra sajátosan jellemző fordítói paradigma jelei, a költői invenciók mutathatnak-e összefüggéseket a szövegforrások vagy Babits más fordításai között.

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Abstract

In Hungarian settlements, tizedek (tenths), streets, divisions, and fertályok (viertels, quarters, or districts) were areas that enjoyed a certain autonomy. They were led by elected “decurions,” “street captains,” or “captains” in Hungarian-populated settlements, and by viertelmeisters, or district wardens, in German-speaking settlements. These officials liaised between the municipal authorities and the local community. From the 16th century until the mid-19th century, the decurions and district wardens had official powers, kept the population informed about national and local regulations, helped carry out local censuses, collected taxes, and organized public works. They played a key role in maintaining law and order in their neighborhoods, and in ensuring protection from fire. In the northeastern region of present-day Hungary, we have information concerning the history of the district wardens in the cities of Eger, Gyöngyös, and Miskolc, while in the case of Eger the tradition is still in existence today. There were decurions in Eger as early as the end of the 17th century, who were replaced by district wardens from the 1710s. The position existed in Gyöngyös from the middle of the 18th century until 1874. In Miskolc, there were district wardens from 1794 to 1800. After a hiatus of half a century, the position was then restored, while in 1884 the parallel position of “section warden” was abolished. In Eger, district wardens were active until 1949, then, after a forced interruption in the Socialist era, the institution was revived in 1996, becoming an important element in local identity through its heritage preservation activities. The present study introduces the different eras in the institution of the district warden, its changing functions, its organizational structure, its symbols, and its various forms of social interaction. Eger is the only city in Hungary in which this centuries-old office is still preserved today, justifying the inclusion of this living custom in the UNESCO National Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2014.

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Abstract

The optimized chord and twist angle of the preliminary blade design through Blade Element Momentum theory are non-linear distributions, which adds to the complexity of blade manufacture and does not always guarantee the best aerodynamic performance. In this paper, the effect of the linearization on aerodynamic performance using Prandtl-Glauert correction model was investigated through four cases: case 1 and case 2 and case 3, where the chord and the twist angle are linearized and case 4, where sole chord is linearized. The effect of the linearization using Shen correction model while making a comparison to the linearization using Prandtl-Glauert correction model was also studied. The simulation is conducted for S809 wind turbine blade profile. The results show that case 4 using Shen correction model represents the best technique of linearization in terms of higher aerodynamic performance and easy manufacturing process.

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A XVI. század elején tizenkét kéz által másolt Codex Monacensis Graecus 307a jelzetű kézirat Laonikos Chalkokondylés történeti munkáját tartalmazza. A kézirat a főszövegen kívül több széljegyzetet is megőrzött. Chalkokondylés Apodeixise után, a kódex 237v oldalán található egy Nikolaos Sophianos által írt bejegyzés, amelyben a szerző különböző módszereket ír le a bolhák és poloskák ellen. Bár Darkó Jenő korábban már kiadta a receptet, az átírása pontatlan és számos helyen hibás. Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy új átírást adjunk a négysoros szövegről fordítással és rövid megjegyzésekkel kiegészítve.

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Abstract

In his treatise The Exposition of the Content of Virgil according to Moral Philosophy, Fabius Fulgentius allegorically interpreted the contents of Virgil's epic the Aeneid. The aim of our paper is to explain the main principles of Fulgentius' allegorization by analysing the first verse of Virgil's Aeneid. In Fulgentius' view, the 12 books of the epic depicted the three main stages of a human life as they follow the “natural order”: childhood, adolescence and adulthood. In his prologue (Fulg. Cont. 87. 4–6; 87. 11–89. 3; 89. 19–90. 17), the author supports his claim by presenting an allegorical interpretation of the first line of Virgil's epic (Verg. A. 1. 1), which contains three famous words: arma (“arms”), vir (“man”) and primus (“first”). According to Fulgentius, the first term arma (“arms”) represents virtus (“manliness”) in the sense of characteristics that are available to all human individuals during childhood. The second term vir (“man”) refers to sapientia (“wisdom”), which is related to the development of the ingenium (“mind”) during adolescence. The third term primus (“first”) symbolises the adult ability ornare (“to ornament”) what we have learnt in the first phases of our life. With life experience in childhood and adolescence, a person can gradually become princeps (“a ruler”). In other words, they can be “first” within a given society and thus conclude their personal development towards perfection. As such, the contents of Virgil's Aeneid correspond to these three terms: Books 1–3 to childhood, Books 4–6 to adolescence, and Books 7–12 to adulthood.

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