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Abstract

Based on the current literature, the link between Achilles tendon moment arm length and running economy is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the connection between Achilles tendon moment arm and running economy and the influence of Achilles tendon moment arm on the function of the plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit during running.

Ten male competitive marathon runners volunteered for this study. The participants ran on a treadmill at two running speeds: 3 and 3.5 m s−1. During running the oxygen consumption, lower leg kinematics, electrical activity of plantar flexor muscles, and fascicle behavior of the lateral gastrocnemius were measured simultaneously. On the second occasion, an MRI scan of the right leg was taken and used to estimate the Achilles tendon moment arm length.

There was a negative correlation between running economy and the body height normalized moment arm length at both selected speeds (r = −0.68, P = 0.014 and r = −0.70, P = 0.01). In addition, Achilles tendon moment arm length correlated with the amplitude of the ankle flexion at both speeds (r = −0.59, P = 0.03 and r = −0.60, P = 0.03) and with the electrical activity of the medial gastrocnemius muscle at 3 m s−1 speed (r = −0.62, P = 0.02). Our finding supports the concept that a longer moment arm could be beneficial for distance runners.

Open access

Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background and aims

Impulsiveness is an important factor in the pathophysiology of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and regional brain functions can be different depending on the level of impulsiveness. This study aimed to demonstrate that different brain mechanisms are involved depending on the level of impulsiveness among patients with IGD.

Methods

Resting-state functional MRI data were obtained from 23 IGD patients with high impulsivity, 27 IGD patients with low impulsivity, and 22 healthy controls, and seed-based functional connectivity was compared among the three groups. The seed regions were the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and amygdala.

Results

Connectivity of the vmPFC with the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and NAcc-left insula connectivity were significantly decreased in the patients with high impulsivity, compared with the patients with low impulsivity and healthy controls. On the other hand, amygdala-based connectivity with the left inferior frontal gyrus showed decreases in both patient groups, compared with the healthy controls.

Conclusion

These findings may suggest a potential relationship between impulsivity and deficits in reward-related social cognition processes in patients with IGD. In particular, certain interventions targeted at vmPFC-TPJ connectivity, found to be impulsivity-specific brain connectivity, are likely to help with addiction recovery among impulsive patients with IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Quercetin (Que) is present in many vegetables and fruits as a secondary antioxidant metabolite. Deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by various Fusarium mould species can induce cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and farm animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Que on DON-induced oxidative stress in a non-tumourigenic porcine IPEC-J2 cell line. Two experimental designs were used in our experiments as follows: (a) pretreatment with 20 µmol/L Que for 24 h followed by 1-h 1 µmol/L DON treatment and (b) simultaneous application of 20 µmol/L Que and 1 µmol/L DON for 1 h. Cell cytotoxicity, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of cell monolayers and extracellular/intracellular redox status were studied. It was found that DON significantly decreased TER and triggered oxidative stress, while Que pretreatments were beneficial in maintaining the integrity of the monolayers and alleviated oxidative stress. However, co-treatment with Que was unable to preserve the integrity and redox balance of the cells exposed to DON. These results indicate that only the 24-h preincubation of cells with 20 µmol/L Que was beneficial in compensating for the disruption caused by DON in extracellular oxidative status.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Loot boxes are a common feature in video games where players win, buy or are gifted a virtual box or other container that is unwrapped to reveal virtual items of value, such as skins, weapons, in-game currency or special abilities. The current study aimed to relate the use of loot boxes to gambling problems and harm.

Methods

An online survey was conducted with 1,954 adolescents and young adults from NSW Australia, 59.9% female (aged 12–24), recruited by online panel aggregator, Qualtrics.

Results

Buying and selling loot boxes was associated with higher 12-month gambling frequency and gambling problems in young adults, aged 18–24 (Problem Gambling Severity Index). Young adults who bought loot boxes additionally had more gambling-related harms (Short Gambling Harms Screen). Young women, aged 18–24, who opened, bought and/or sold loot boxes spent more money in the last 12 months on gambling. In adolescents, aged 12–17, buying loot boxes was similarly associated with gambling problems (DSM-IV-MR-J). Furthermore, adolescent girls who bought and/or sold loot boxes viewed gambling more positively than other girls (Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale). There was no evidence, however, that longer-term experience in opening or purchasing loot boxes, a differentiating feature of the survey, is associated with current gambling problems.

Discussion and conclusions

This study suggests that loot boxes may be attractive to people who are already predisposed to engage in other gambling, and females who use loot boxes may have unique vulnerabilities to gambling problems that could be explored in future research.

Open access

Összefoglaló. Az inkluzív intézményvezetés fogalma a 2000-es évek elején került be a pedagógiai szakmai gondolkodásba annak a felismerésnek az eredményeképpen, hogy a nevelési-oktatási intézmények vezetőinek meghatározó szerepük van az inklúziós politikák átültetésében, a befogadó gyakorlat és az inkluzív iskolai kultúra eredményes megvalósításában (Ainscow–Sandil 2010; Ruairc 2013). A tanulmányban bemutatott kutatás, melyet a European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education 2019-ben indított (Supporting Inclusive School Leadership, SISL), három szakaszban vizsgálja a részt vevő tagállamok szakpolitikáit, illetve intézményi gyakorlatait. A projekt célja az inkluzív intézményvezetést elősegítő szakpolitikai környezet bemutatása, azoknak a kompetenciáknak a leírása, melyek a sikeres inkluzív intézményvezetőt, illetve intézményvezetést jellemezhetik, illetve a képzés, továbbképzés és a professzionális fejlődés lehetőségeinek támogatása önértékelő eszköz kidolgozásával.

Summary. The concept of inclusive school leadership was introduced into pedagogical professional thinking in the early 2000s, as a result of the realisation that the leaders of educational institutions have a decisive role in transposing inclusive policies, effective implementation of inclusive practices and inclusive school culture (Ainscow and Sandill, 2010; Ruairc, 2013). The research presented in the study, launched by the European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education in 2019 (Supporting Inclusive School Leadership SISL) examines the policies and institutional practices of the participating member states in 3 phases. The aim of the project is to present a policy environment conducive to inclusive institution-management, to describe the competences that can characterise a successful inclusive leader of institution or institution management, and to support the opportunities for training, further training and professional development by developing a self-assessment tool.

Open access

Befogadók vagy jogvédők?

A roma/cigány oktatáspolitika dilemmái

Educatio
Authors: Katalin Forray R. and Tamás Kozma

Összefoglaló. A befogadás (inklúzió) eredetileg a szegénypolitika (szociálpolitika) szakkifejezése volt. Onnan terjedt át a társadalompolitikába és a pedagógiába (gyógypedagógia). A Lisszaboni Egyezmény (2000) óta az Európai Unió hivatalos állásfoglalásaiban visszatérően szerepel mint törekvés a „társadalmi kohézió” erősítésére. A jogvédelem eredete visszanyúlik az 1960-as évtized amerikai polgárjogi mozgalmára. Két eset ismertetésével a szerzők bemutatják a kétféle mozgalom hasonlóságait és különbségeit; összekapcsolva őket a roma/cigány oktatáspolitika dilemmáival. A roma/cigány szegénység még mindig szükségessé teszi a befogadás politikáját. Ugyanakkor a szegénységből kiemelkedő roma/cigány középosztály köreiben erősödik a politizálás szándéka és a jogvédelem igénye.

Summary. “Inclusion” has initially been a social policy term. Its use spread from there to policies of welfare, healthcare and education (special education). Inclusion has repeatedly mentioned since the Treaty of Lisbon (2007) in European Union resolutions as an effort to strengthen “social cohesion”. “Legal protection”, on the other hand, goes back to the American civil rights movement of the 1960s. By describing two Hungarian cases, the authors present the similarities and differences between the two policies; linking them to the dilemmas of Roma education policy. Inclusion as a social policy is still necessary because of existing Roma poverties. At the same time, the intention to politicize and the need for legal protection is growing among the new Roma middle class, which emerges out of poverty and steps into the political arena.

Open access
Educatio
Authors: Aranka Varga, Kitti Vitéz, István Orsós, Bálint Fodor, and Gergely Horváth

Összefoglaló. Tanulmányunk hazai és nemzetközi írásokra támaszkodva tisztázza az inklúzió és a diverzitás fogalomkörét. Vizsgáljuk, hogy miként vált a felsőoktatás jellemzőjévé a diverzitás, valamint az inkluzivitás fókuszba kerülése mögött meghúzódó további okokat és következményeket. Kérdőíves kutatásunk arra irányult, hogy a Pécsi Tudományegyetem diverz hallgatói köre (N: 809) mennyire részese az egyetemi közösségi és tudományos életnek, mutatnak-e különbséget a társadalmi hátránnyal küzdők a bevonódásban. Az eredmények rámutattak, hogy a nagy egyetemi programokon a társadalmi hátrányban levők alulreprezentáltak, azonban a szakkollégiumok és egyéb mikroközösségek nagyobb mértékben képesek a személyes megszólításra, az inkluzív közeg biztosítására.

Summary. Our study clarifies the concepts of inclusion and diversity based on domestic and international studies. We examine how diversity has become a feature of higher education, and the additional causes and consequences behind the focus of inclusivity. Our questionnaire study explored the extent to which the diverse group of students of the University of Pecs (N: 809) is involved in the university social and academic life, and whether those with social disadvantages show a difference in involvement. The results revealed that socially disadvantaged students are underrepresented in large university programmes, however, student colleges and other micro-communities are more able to address these students in a personal way and to provide an inclusive environment.

Open access

Összefoglaló. A kutatás fókuszában a Kárpát-medencei magyar felsőoktatási intézményeket érintő hallgatói pályák feltérképezése áll. E témakör fő kérdése, hogy milyen mértékben és milyen minőségben valósul meg a Kárpát-medencei magyar felsőoktatásban a hallgatói mobilitás. A kvalitatív kutatásaink alapján sikerült feltérképeznünk a Kárpát-medencei magyar felsőoktatási intézményeket érintő hallgatói pályákat. A kutatás keretében elemeztük a hallgatók mobilitási hajlandóságát, attitűdjét, a mobilitás lehetséges akadályait, valamint az ezekre kínálkozó megoldási alternatívákat is feltérképeztük.

Summary. The focus of the research is the mapping of students’ career paths outside the Carpathian Basin and of Hungarian higher education institutions in the Carpathian Basin. The main question in this topic is the extent and quality of student mobility in Hungarian higher education in the Carpathian Basin. Through the methodology of qualitative research, we have been able to map in detail the depths of student careers in Hungarian higher education institutions in the Carpathian Basin. Within the framework of the research, we analysed the students’ willingness to move, their attitudes, the possible obstacles to mobility, and the solutions available to them.

Open access