Authors:H. Xie, L. Cao, L. Ye, G. Shan, and W. Song
In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.
Authors:Attila Takács, Csaba Szabóky, and Balázs Tóth
The bionomics and distribution of Scythris sinensis () were studied in Hungary from 2004 to 2018. The host plant was found to be Chenopodium album L. The larva feeds on the leaves in a loose web. The length of the larval stage varies from 12 to 15 days, that of the pupal stage from 7 to 10 days of the summer generation. The species is generally bivoltine in Hungary, but in the southern, warmer areas a third partial generation may occur. Adults of the second and third generations have characteristic yellow patches on the forewing. The species overwinters as pupa in a white cocoon near the host plant. The immature stages and the adult are illustrated and a map of the Hungarian records is given with two Figures.
Authors:Federica Giorda, Giovanni Di Guardo, Katia Varello, Alessandra Pautasso, Eva Sierra, Maria Domenica Pintore, Carla Grattarola, Erika Molica Colella, Enrica Berio, Maria Goria, Elena Bozzetta, Cristina Casalone, and Barbara Iulini
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) is a pathogen of great concern in free-ranging cetaceans. Confirmation and staging of morbillivirus infections rely on histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC), following molecular detection. As at the present time no specific antibodies (Abs) against DMV are available, two heterologous Abs have been used worldwide for the examinations of morbillivirus infections of cetaceans. One is a monoclonal Ab (MoAb) prepared against the N protein of canine distemper virus (CDV), whereas the other is a polyclonal Ab raised in rabbits against rinderpest virus (RPV). Both Abs are known to show cross-reactivity with DMV. In this study we compared the labelling quality and the neuroanatomical distribution of staining with these two Abs by means of IHC analysis. To this end, serial sections of the target organs from ten free-ranging stranded cetaceans, previously diagnosed as being infected with DMV by PCR and/or serology, were subjected to IHC. The brain, lungs and lymph nodes of one animal were found to be positive with both Abs. From two other animals, the brain and the spleen, respectively, tested positive only with the polyclonal Ab. In the positive brain tissues, multifocal immunostaining was observed, with similar staining location and extent, with the two antibodies tested. Our results suggest that the polyclonal anti-RPV Ab might have a stronger binding activity to DMV than the anti-CDV MoAb. Nevertheless, the elaboration and use of specific anti-DMV Abs might be essential to guarantee conclusive results in diagnostic and pathogenetic investigations.
Authors:Gabriella Kútvölgyi, Kristin Brabender, Magnus Andersson, Ariuntungalag Javkhlan, Szabolcs Nagy, Tamás Páble, István Egerszegi, András Hidas, István Soós, and András Kovács
The case of an 8-year-old, sexually active but infertile Przewalski’s stallion (Equus ferus przewalskii) was studied. Besides the infertility, the stallion also showed permanent problems with its body condition, being obviously weaker than all the other group members. The horse was kept in a separate place for two years with 12 mares in its harem group (six mares had foals earlier); however, none of the mares covered got pregnant. Andrological and cytogenetic investigations revealed underdeveloped testes, arrested spermatogenesis, azoospermia, and XY/XXY/X0 mosaicism. We classify the case as a mosaic Klinefelter syndrome, the first reported case in Przewalski’s horse.
An annotated checklist of 211 species belonging to 13 families of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccoidea) of Egypt including their common names, host plants and additional remarks is provided based on literature records and collections made by the senior author in Egypt. Four species are new to the fauna of Egypt, namely Adiscodiaspis ericicola (Marchal), Dynaspidiotus ephedrarum (Lindinger), Rhizaspidiotus adiscus Gómez-Menor Ortega (Diaspididae), and Dactylopius confusus (Cockerell) (Dactylopiidae). An illustrated key to the families of scale insects of Egypt is provided.
The inclusion of salutogenic principles in education deepens and broadens the understanding of the teaching and learning process in a healthy way and opens the potential to create a sound educational environment characterised by the prevention of burnout, improved physical and mental health, and higher levels of achievement. The aim of this review is to fill the lack of comprehensive information regarding the relationship of salutogenesis, sense of coherence, and the process of teaching and learning.
A literature search was carried out in Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases with the cutoff date of July 2020. Search words were sense of coherence, salutogenesis, education, school, academic performance, achievement, students, and their combinations. Altogether 62 articles were found on the relationship of salutogenesis, sense of coherence, and education but only 6 were related to salutogenic teaching/learning process. These were included in the present review.
The studies included in this review presented salutogenic models related to teaching literacy as a learning process through life, building sustainable relationship between supervisor and students, improving transcultural competence, and being able to solve conflicts across cultures. Practical implications were demonstrated such as the use of drawing as an integration tool to improve self-expression and emotional recognition, realisation of teaching practice as an exercise for self-consciousness, and introducing the concept of teacher as a source of emotional security for students.
The models bring different but equally valuable contribution to the salutogenic teaching process which strengthens the educational environments resulting in better academic performance, as well as physical and mental health.
Authors:Bence Kiss-Dobronyi, Dora Fazekas, and Hector Pollitt
The article discusses how and why Green Recovery could be beneficial for the Visegrad countries based on a modelling exercise using the E3ME macroeconometric model. Green Recovery is defined as including policies in recovery plans that not only target economic recovery, but also contribute to environmental targets. The paper proposes that a Green Recovery could be valuable and suitable for the region contributing to both restoring employment and boosting economic activity as well as reaching climate goals. This is tested through a macroeconomic simulation, using the E3ME model. E3ME is built on Post-Keynesian economic theory and on econometric estimations of macroeconomic relationships. The results of the analysis focus on three dimensions: (1) social – employment, (2) environmental – level of CO2 emissions and (3) economic activity – gross domestic product (GDP). Outcomes indicate that a green recovery can shorten the time needed for employment and economic recovery as well as contributes to CO2 emission reductions. In Hungary, Czechia and Poland, the impact persists into the long-term; however, the paper also concludes that countries with high reliance on coal (e.g. Poland) could return to coal in the long term if no further policies are introduced.
Authors:Samantha J. Hollingshead, Michael J. A. Wohl, and Christopher G. Davis
Background and Aims
Casino loyalty programs are marketing strategies designed to foster attitudinal (i.e., identification and satisfaction) and behavioral (i.e., spending) loyalty among gamblers by offering rewards to members. Casino loyalty programs use a tier-based structure to segment members who spend more money into higher tiers, where they receive better rewards (compared to lower tiered members). Tier-based structures may encourage increased expenditure among patrons, especially among players living with a gambling disorder. The current work aimed to examine whether tier status and disordered gambling symptomatology interact to predict attitudinal and behavioral loyalty.
Study 1 used a cross-sectional design to examine whether tier status and disordered gambling symptomatology interact to predict self-reported loyalty among a sample of American casino loyalty program members (N = 396). In Study 2, archival player account data from Canadian casino loyalty program members (N = 649) were analyzed to examine whether tier status and disordered gambling symptomatology interact to predict objective measures of behavioral loyalty.
The greatest effect of tier status on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty was observed among non-problem gamblers in the highest tiers. Tier status, however, did not influence loyalty among members high in disordered gambling symptomatology.
Results suggest that once gambling has become problematic, loyalty programs may not influence player attitudes and behaviors. Non-problem gamblers may be particularly susceptible to the tiered structure of the programs.
Non-problem gamblers may benefit from casino loyalty programs in the short-term but longitudinal research is needed to understand the long-term influence of membership.
Authors:Fatema Moni Chowdhury, Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan, and Nils-Kåre Birkeland
The recent rise of antibiotic resistance and lack of an effective vaccine make the scenario of shigellosis alarming in developing countries like Bangladesh. In recent years, our group reported the vaccine efficacy of a non-pathogenic Escherichia albertii strain DM104 in different animal models, where an ocularly administered vaccine in the guinea pig eye model against Shigella dysenteriae type 4 challenge showed high protective efficacy and also induced a high titer of serum IgG against S. dysenteriae type 4 whole cell lysate (WCL) and LPS. In this study, we report further evaluation of the non-invasive and non-toxic environmental strain DM104 as a vaccine candidate against S. dysenteriae type 4 in mice model. Oral immunization of live DM104 bacterial strain demonstrated better protective immunity in mice model by showing 90% protection in mice against live S. dysenteriae type 4 lethal dose challenge and by inducing effective humoral and mucosal immune responses.