Authors:Matthias Halfter, Ulrich Müseler, Ralf Matthias Hagen and Hagen Frickmann
The study was performed to assess the infection risk of German police officers on predominantly tropical deployments, mostly United Nations missions, with gastrointestinal pathogens.
Police officers were offered PCR-based screening for gastrointestinal pathogens before and after deployment. The screening panel comprised enteroinvasive bacteria (Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Yersinia spp.), enteropathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora cayetanensis), as well as enteric helminths (Ancyclostoma spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Necator americanus, African Schistosoma spp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, and Trichuris trichiura).
G. duodenalis (n = 3), C. jejuni (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 1), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli (n = 3), and S. stercoralis (n = 3) were detect in 12 out of 133 (9.0%) police officers. The majority had shown gastrointestinal symptoms on deployment and all were asymptomatic at the time of medical assessment. The major infection sites were Sub-Saharan Africa followed by Northern Africa and the Middle East.
Deployment of police officers to tropical deployment sites on United Nations missions is associated with a considerable acquisition risk of gastrointestinal pathogens in a quantitatively relevant minority. Post-deployment screening is advisable to facilitate therapeutic and hygiene-related consequences.
To have a successful publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a collection of factors and items is needed. Some of them directly and the others indirectly have important roles in scholarly publication. However, a well-designed scientific investigation together with a powerful academic English language may guarantee the publication of a manuscript. In other words, a standard and professional methodology which is expressed by an influent academic English language constitutes the soul of the manuscript's body. Obviously, the accuracy and fluency of the English language of the manuscript is the author(s)' responsibility and neither the reviewers' nor the editor's and the journal's. As publication of a research paper is the complementary section of a scientific study, it is recognized as an academic criterion for academicians. Thus, this review focuses on the all of items which are necessary and vital for a successful scholarly publication.
Authors:Anja Dörschug, Julian Schwanbeck, Andreas Hahn, Anke Hillebrecht, Sabine Blaschke, Uwe Groß, Markus M. Heimesaat, Hagen Frickmann and Andreas E. Zautner
To efficiently monitor the COVID-19 pandemic for surveillance purposes, reliable serological rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are desirable for settings where well-established high-throughput bench-top solutions are not available. Here, we have evaluated such an RDT.
We have assessed the Xiamen AmonMed Biotechnology COVID-19 IgM/IgG test kit (Colloidal gold) and the EUROIMMUN benchtop assay with serum samples from patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 disease. Samples from patients with Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV) infection and blood donors were used for specificity testing.
For the colloid gold rapid test and the EUROIMMUN assay, the study indicated overall sensitivity of 15.2% and 67.4%, respectively, while specificity of 99.0% and 97.9% with the blood donor sera, as well as 100% and 96.8% with the EBV-patients, were observed, respectively. An association of the time period between positive PCR results and serum acquisition with serological test positivity could be observed for the immunologlobulin G subclass of the EUROIMMUN assay only.
In spite of acceptable specificity of the assessed RDT, the detected poor sensitivity leaves room for improvement. The test results remain difficult to interpret and therefore the RDT can currently not be recommended for routine diagnostic or surveillance use.
Authors:Rasmus G. Bandick, Soraya Mousavi, Stefan Bereswill and Markus M. Heimesaat
Infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria including carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae are emerging worldwide but are difficult to treat with the currently available antibiotic compounds and therefore constitute serious threats to human health. This prompted us to perform a literature survey applying the MEDLINE database and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials including clinical trials comparing different treatment regimens for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae. Our survey revealed that a combined application of antibiotic compounds such as meropenem plus vaborbactam, meropenem plus colistin and carbapenem plus carbapenem, resulted in significantly increased clinical cure and decreased mortality rates as compared to respective control treatment. However, further research on novel antibiotic compounds, but also on antibiotic-independent molecules providing synergistic or at least resistance-modifying properties needs to be undertaken in vitro as well as in large clinical trials to provide future options in the combat of emerging life-threatening infections caused by MDR bacteria.
Authors:Dorothea Wiemer, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Gerd-Dieter Burchard, Hagen Frickmann, Ulrike Loderstaedt and Ralf-Matthias Hagen
Diarrhoea is a frequent symptom associated with travelling to tropical regions, but the cause is often not found. Epidemiology was assessed including up-to-date real-time PCR approaches.
We analysed datasets of 528 patients who presented at the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg, Germany, between 2006 and 2010 for screening purposes or because of diarrhoea. Stool samples were obtained and investigated by microscopy, bacterial culture, two PCR assays targeting Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum, or Salmonella spp., Shigella/EIEC spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Yersinia spp.
Among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 51% tested positive for bacteria or parasites, of which 66% had a known enteropathogenic potential. In patients without diarrhoea, 53% (n = 80) were positive, and 33% of these cases harboured agents of pathogenic potential. Association with clinical symptoms was primarily found for bacterial infections. Blastocystis hominis, however, was more frequent in asymptomatic than in symptomatic travellers.
In conclusion, the study stresses the etiological relevance of bacterial gastroenteritis in travellers returning from the tropics, the need for molecular approaches to increase diagnostic sensitivity and demonstrates that asymptomatic carriage of enteropathogens after prolonged stays in the tropics is similarly frequent compared with symptomatic infections in travellers.
Authors:G. Zadehdabagh, K. Karimi, M. Rezabaigi and F. Ajamgard
The northern of Khuzestan province in Iran is mainly considered as one of the major areas of miniature rose production. Blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea has recently become a serious limiting factor in rose production in pre and post-harvest. In current study, an attempt was made to evaluate the inhibitory potential of some local Trichoderma spp. strains against B. cinerea under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The in vitro results showed that all Trichoderma spp. strains were significantly able to reduce the mycelial growth of the pathogen in dual culture, volatile and non-volatile compounds tests compared with control, with superiority of T. atroviride Tsafi than others. Under in vivo condition, the selected strain of T. atroviride Tsafi had much better performance than T. harzianum IRAN 523C in reduction of disease severity compared with the untreated control. Overall, the findings of this study showed that the application of Trichoderma-based biocontrol agents such as T. atroviride Tsafi can be effective to protect cut rose flowers against blossom blight.
Authors:Sz. Szanyi, I. Szarukán, A. Nagy, J. Jósvai, Z. Imrei, Z. Varga and M. Tóth
The performance of a semisynthetic bisexual lure (SBL, containing isoamyl alcohol, acetic acid and red wine) previously found attractive for a number of noctuids was compared with that of the respective synthetic sex attractants of Orthosia cerasi (=stabilis), O. cruda, O. gothica, O. incerta, Anorthoa munda and Conistra vaccini. The respective sex attractants performed significantly better in the Orthosia spp. than the SBL lure, which, although regularly catching low numbers of both females and males, did not differ significantly from zero catch in unbaited control traps. On the other hand, the SBL lure performed as well as the sex attractant in C. vaccini. Sizeable catches of C. rubiginea, C. rubiginosa and C. erythrocephala were also recorded in traps with the SBL lure. The SBL lure can prove to be a useful tool in ecological and faunistical studies of Conistra and related hibernating Xylenini species.
Authors:G. Ripka, E. Kiss, J. Kontschán, A. Neményi and Á. Szabó
Aceria bambusae ChannaBasavanna, 1966 is reported from Hungary for the first time. The species was collected from the leaf sheaths of the introduced bamboo species, Phyllostachys rubromarginata McClure and Phyllostachys tianmuensis Z.P. Wang et N.X. Ma (both Poaceae) in Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this species from other bambusoid inhabiting congeners are discussed. In addition, new date-locality-host records for 3 eriophyoid species collected from 7 bamboo species are given.
Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has three distinctive reproductive modes: arrhenotokous, thelytokous and deuterotokous. This experiment was focused on the arrhenotokous leek-(L1) and tobacco-associated (T) T. tabaci lineages. These two lineages are distinctively varied genetically and in host adaptations. L1 and T lineages perform better on leek and tobacco plants, respectively. Fighting occurs between males when they compete for food, mating, and oviposition sites. The aim of this research was to examine the fighting behaviour and characterize the fighting elements of males in L1 and T lineages. The experiment was performed in the laboratory by using a Euromex VC.3036 video camera and each experiment was recorded for a duration of 10 minutes. Transparent PCR tube caps formed the arena to observe the fighting interactions in both lineages. A total of 40 video recordings have been observed and each recording had a different arena. The fighting performance was observed at 2, 5, 8, 10, 12 days old specimens in four replications. This result has shown L1 lineage had better fighting performance and a more aggressive fighting ability than T lineage. Antennal bouts, jumping, flipping, stabbing and pitching are the most commonly observed fighting elements.
Aculus epiphyllus (Nalepa, 1892) is reported from green ash in Europe for the first time. Ash rust mite has never been found on green ash, and we therefore re-describe and illustrate the female and male, and describe the nymph. The species was collected from the underside of the leaflets of the introduced ash species, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae) in Hungary.