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Abstract

It is well-documented that harsh environmental conditions influence appetite and food choice. However, the experience of environmental harshness is complex and shaped by several underlying dimensions, notably threats to one's social support, economic prospects, and physical safety. Here, we examined the differential effects of these three dimensions of environmental harshness on desire for specific food items. We first showed 564 participants images of 30 food items. Next, they rated how much they desired each item. The participants were then randomly assigned to a condition where they read one of six scenario stories that described someone's current living conditions. Each scenario story emphasized one of the three dimensions (social support, economic prospects, physical safety), with two levels (safe, harsh). Following this, the participants once again rated how desirable each food item was. The results showed that exposure to cues of low social support and high physical threat reduce the desire to eat, whereas cues of economic harshness had little effect. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction between energy level of different foods and perceived threat to physical safety. These findings are important in helping to understand how current environmental conditions influence changes in appetite and desire for different kinds of food items.

Open access
Authors: Jérémie Richard, Émilie Fletcher, Stephanie Boutin, Jeffrey Derevensky and Caroline Temcheff

Abstract

Background and aims

Behavioral addictions such as gambling and gaming disorder are significant public health issues that are of increasing importance to policy makers and health care providers. Problem gambling and gaming behaviors have been identified as being associated with externalizing and internalizing problems, with theoretical models suggesting that both conduct problems and depressive symptoms may be significant risk factors in the development of problem gambling and gaming. As such, the purpose of this systematic review is to provide an overview of research identifying the relationship between conduct problems, depressive symptoms and problem gambling and gaming among adolescents and young adults.

Methods

Systematic literature searches in accordance with PRISMA guidelines found 71 eligible studies that met the inclusion criteria, 47 for problem gambling, 23 for problem gaming and one for both problem behaviors.

Results

Based on cross-sectional evidence, both problem gambling and gaming are consistently concurrently associated with conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal evidence appears to be clearer for conduct problems as a risk factor for problem gambling, and depressive symptoms as a risk factor for problem gaming. However, both risk factors appear to increase the risk for these problem behaviors.

Discussion and Conclusions

Results from the literature review suggest that problem gambling and gaming are associated with the presence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms, with the potential of sharing common etiological factors. Additional research is necessary to confirm these longitudinal relationships with an emphasis on investigating the interaction of both early conduct problems and depressive symptoms.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction (IA) is common among young students. This study aimed to examine the influence and mechanisms of IA and susceptible personality traits on the impact of suicidal ideation in adolescent students in China.

Methods

This cross-sectional study (09/2012–09/2015) used stratified cluster sampling with “school type” for stratification; 136,266 students from 63 schools completed the questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of IA (Young's Internet Addiction Test) and susceptible personality (Barratt impulsiveness scale, Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire; and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R Short Scale) on suicidal ideation (Scale of Suicidal Ideation).

Results

Suicidal ideation was observed in 20,218 (14.77%) of the students, and IA was detected in 28,836 (21.16%) subjects. Compared with those without IA, students with IA had a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation (P < 0.0001). No planning impulsiveness had a predictive effect on suicidal ideation in the impulsive personality trait, while in the aggressive personality trait, hostility and self-aggression had a predictive effect on suicidal ideation (all P < 0.0001). High psychoticism and neuroticism were impact factors for suicidal ideation, but extroversion was a protective factor (all P < 0.0001).

Discussion

These results highlight the importance of assessing personality traits and reducing IA as a possible means of lessening suicidal ideation. Susceptible personality (such as high psychoticism, high neuroticism, and low extroversion) play a prominent role in influencing the probability of having suicidal behavior among those recently exposed to IA.

Conclusions

IA and susceptible personality traits were significantly correlated with suicidal and self-harm ideation among adolescent students.

Open access
Authors: Claudia Marino, Natale Canale, Alessio Vieno, Gabriele Caselli, Luca Scacchi and Marcantonio M. Spada

Abstract

Background and aims

In recent years, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a mental health problem. Although research has found that social anxiety, motives, the preference for online social interactions (POSI), and metacognitions about online gaming are independent predictors of IGD, less is known about their relative contribution to IGD. The aim of the current study was to model the relationship between social anxiety, motives, POSI, metacognitions about online gaming, and IGD.

Methods

Five hundred and forty three Italian gamers who play more than 7 h a week (mean age = 23.9 years; SD = 6.15 years; 82.5% males) were included in the study. The pattern of relationships specified by the theoretical model was examined through path analysis.

Results

Results showed that social anxiety was directly associated with four motives (escape, coping, fantasy, and recreation), POSI, and positive and negative metacognitions about online gaming, and IGD. The Sobel test showed that negative metacognitions about online gaming played the strongest mediating role in the relationship between social anxiety and IGD followed by escape, POSI, and positive metacognitions. The model accounted for 54% of the variance for IGD.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, our findings show that, along with motives and POSI, metacognitions about online gaming may play an important role in the association between social anxiety and IGD. The clinical and preventive implications of these findings are discussed.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Money plays a central role in gambling, and understanding the different attitudes of gamblers towards it might benefit both prevention and treatment of gambling-related problems. This study describes the development of a new German measure of attitudes to money and the differences in these attitudes between male non-gamblers, occasional, frequent and problem gamblers. Furthermore, it investigates the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between attitudes towards money and the severity of gambling disorder.

Methods

An online study was conducted among 2,584 men aged 18–25 years, recruited via the Munich citizen registry. Additionally, a sample of n = 105 Facebook users was included in part of the analyses. Frequent and problem gamblers were invited to a 12-month follow-up. Apart from gambling participation and related problems, the questionnaire included items from existing scales measuring attitudes to money.

Results

Three factors underlying a new 12-item German Scale of Money Attitudes (SMAG) were identified: success, budgeting and evil. Compared with other groups, participants reporting any gambling problems scored highest in success and lowest in budgeting. Budgeting was associated with gambling-related problems in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses and strengthened the relationship between associating money with success and gambling disorder.

Discussion

For problem gamblers, money is important as a personal symbol of success. This attitude has an especially negative effect on gambling-related problems in individuals who handle money irresponsibly. Spending and winning money might play an important role in maintaining self-esteem among gamblers and thus hinder their attempts to quit.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

The past-year prevalence of problematic pornography use (PPU) was 1–6% in adult populations. As a result of treatment obstacles and barriers, such as unaffordable treatments, only a minority of problematic pornography users may seek treatment. Having a free, online, self-help program may overcome treatment barriers and may help those individuals who cannot receive traditional or offline treatment for PPU. Although the effectiveness of such online programs reducing substance use and problematic gambling have been reported, no prior study has examined the efficacy of an online self-help intervention aiming to reduce PPU.

Methods

This two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) will examine the effectiveness of an online self-help program (Hands-off) to reduce PPU, while also considering psychopathological comorbidities. The six-week intervention condition includes six core modules developed to reduce PPU based on motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, and wise social-psychological intervention techniques. The target sample size is 242 participants. Self-report questionnaires will be administered at baseline, right after the end of the intervention, at one-month, and three-month follow-ups after the end of the intervention. The primary outcome will be the level of PPU. Secondary outcomes will include pornography use frequency, pornography craving, pornography use-avoidance self-efficacy, sex mindset, sexual satisfaction, negative and positive emotions, and life satisfaction. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed models.

Results

Results will be reported at conferences and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. The participants will be sent a lay-person-friendly summary of the results via e-mail.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Individuals with addictive disorders are usually characterized by impaired executive control, persistent craving and excessive reward-seeking. However, it is unclear whether there is a deviation in the connection pattern among the neural systems implicated in these problem behaviors.

Methods

One hundred thirty-six online gaming players were recruited in the current study (68 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects and 68 recreational game users (RGUs) who served as controls matched on age, sex, years of education, and years of gaming). Dynamic interactions among the reward system (striatum), control system (prefrontal cortex), and the interoceptive awareness system (insula) were calculated and compared when subjects were facing gaming cues.

Results

The results revealed that RGUs showed a significant positive correlation in the putamen-middle frontal gyrus (MFG)-insula neural pathway when facing gaming cues, which was missing in the IGD subjects. Additionally, dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis revealed that the MFG region was more inhibited by the putamen in the IGD subjects relative to the RGUs.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that the inhibitory neuromodulation of the putamen to the prefrontal cortex in IGD individuals undermines the balance among the tripartite systems. Our findings provide novel neurobiological evidence for understanding the internal connection bias of the addicted individual’s neural system and how the addictive disorder impairs executive control; consequently, the pathway from the striatum to the prefrontal cortex may serve as a potential biomarker to predict the risk of developing an addiction.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Few studies have tested the underlying mechanisms in the association between workaholism and depression. This study aims to investigate the potential mediation effects of work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue and depression among Chinese male workers in Hong Kong.

Methods

A population-based study among male workers in Hong Kong (n =  1,352) was conducted. The self-reported scales of assessing workaholism, work-life balance stress, chronic fatigue and depressive symptoms were included in the questionnaire. Path analysis was conducted to test the proposed mediation model.

Results

Workaholism was directly and indirectly associated with depression through work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue, respectively. The association between work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue was statistically significant in the correlation analysis but not in the path analysis. As high as 30.5% of the participants were classified as having probable chronic fatigue, while 8.4% of the participants were classified as having probable depression.

Discussion

Workaholism is a stressor that may induce negative consequences on well-being and health among male workers in Hong Kong. Interventions to help workers with time and stress management and fatigue reduction may be beneficial for their mental health. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The working memory (WM) ability of internet addicts and the topology underlying the WM processing in internet addiction (IA) are poorly understood. In this study, we employed a graph theoretical framework to characterize the topological properties of the IA brain network in the source cortical space during WM task.

Methods

A sample of 24 subjects with IA and 23 matched healthy controls (HCs) performed visual 2-back task. Exact Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography was adopted to project the pre-processed EEG signals into source space. Subsequently, Lagged phase synchronization was calculated between all pairs of Brodmann areas, the graph theoretical approaches were then employed to estimate the brain topological properties of all participants during the WM task.

Results

We found better WM behavioral performance in IA subjects compared with the HCs. Moreover, compared to the HC group, more integrated and hierarchical brain network was revealed in the IA subjects in alpha band. And altered regional centrality was mainly resided in frontal and limbic lobes. In addition, significant relationships between the IA severity and the significant altered graph indices were found.

Conclusions

In conclusion, these findings provide evidence to support the notion that altered topological configuration may underline changed WM function observed in IA.

Open access
Authors: Bach Xuan Tran, Giang Hai Ha, Giang Thu Vu, Chi Linh Hoang, Son Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Carl. A. Latkin, Wilson WS Tam, Cyrus S. H. Ho and Roger C. M. Ho

Abstract

Background and aims

Excessive use of electronic devices has become a major global problem. However, little is known about the development and current landscape of research concerning this field. This study aimed at exploring the overall publication trend and topics of research on the overuse of electronic devices and the Internet from 1971 to 2017.

Methods

We systematically searched the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases for published articles on the excessive use of electronic devices and the Internet. Data regarding the publication volume, international collaborations, and geographical locations were analyzed by bibliometrics analysis. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) was undertaken to categorize publications into different research topics.

Results

A total of 2,276 papers from the WOS and 600 papers from the Scopus were included. We found a dramatic increase in the number of scientific papers towards addiction to electronic devices and the Internet. The United State led in all publication parameters including the total number of papers and total citations. China, Korea and Taiwan were among the most prolific countries/regions. Smartphone addiction was the main concern, and the relationship between the overuse of electronic devices and the Internet and mental health issues have been highlighted. On the other hand, our study found a limited appearance of discussion on effective treatment and intervention.

Discussion and Conclusion

The findings of this study call for more national and international cooperation in evaluating and intervening addiction to electronic devices and the Internet to gather more knowledge about this phenomenon and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.

Open access
Authors: Yeong Seon Jo, Soo Young Bhang, Jung-Seok Choi, Hae Kook Lee, Seung Yup Lee and Yong-Sil Kweon

Abstract

Background and aim

Whereas many studies on Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have used self-report questionnaires, only a few have adopted clinical interviews and samples. The current study aimed at using data from face-to-face diagnostic interviews, based on the criteria for IGD in the DSM-5, to determine the Internet, gaming, and smartphone usage patterns of children and adolescents.

Methods

A latent class analysis was conducted using data collected through diagnostic interviews for Internet, gaming, and smartphone addiction with 190 participants (M = 13.14 years, SD = 2.46; 143 boys, 47 girls) who were part of a multicenter clinical cohort study.

Results

Participants were classified into four groups: pleasure-seeking (Class 1), internal-use (Class 2), problematic-use (Class 3), and pathological-use (Class 4). The pleasure-seeking group (8.11%) showed low tendencies in general and proper control. The internal-use group (17.63%) showed significant increases in “cognitive salience” and “craving,” with strong internal desires. The problematic-use group (37.28%) had no “interference with role performance”; however, they displayed “difficulty regulating use” and “persistent use despite negative consequences,” with a slight functional impairment. The pathological-use group (36.98%) scored the highest on all these items, revealing a severe functional impairment. Compared to the other groups, the pathological-use group had the highest depression and daily stress levels and displayed the lowest levels of happiness.

Conclusions

This study provides basic data to elucidate Internet, gaming, and smartphone overuse patterns among children and adolescents, which could be used to develop differentiated intervention strategies for each group.

Open access
Authors: Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Adrian Paterna, Álvaro Sicilia and Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

Background and aims

This study examined the relationship between self-reported symptoms of morbid exercise behaviour (MEB) and eating disorders (ED) using meta-analytic techniques.

Methods

We systematically searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, SciELO and Scopus. Random effects models were used to compute pooled effect sizes estimates (r). The robustness of the summarized estimates was examined through sensitivity analyses by removing studies one at a time.

Results

Sixty-six studies comprising 135 effect-sizes (N = 21,816) were included. The results revealed: (a) small-sized relationship in the case of bulimic symptoms (r = 0.19), (b) small- (r = 0.28) to medium-sized relationships (r = 0.41) in the case of body/eating concerns, and (c) medium-sized relationships in the case of overall ED symptoms (r = 0.35) and dietary restraint (r = 0.42). Larger effect sizes were observed in the case of overall ED symptoms in clinical, younger, and thinner populations, as well as when employing a continuously-scored instrument for assessing ED or the Compulsive Exercise Test for assessing MEB. Larger effect sizes were also found in female samples when the ED outcome was dietary restraint.

Conclusions

The identified gaps in the literature suggest that future research on the topic may benefit from: (a) considering a range of clinical (in terms of diagnosed ED) and non-clinical populations from diverse exercise modalities, (b) addressing a wide range of ED symptomatology, and (c) employing longitudinal designs that clarify the temporal direction of the relationship under consideration.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The Prevention Paradox (PP) suggests that a large proportion of aggregate harm from gambling occurs to people who do not have a gambling disorder. However, it has not yet been tested using a population-representative sample. We aimed to test whether the PP applies to gambling in Finland. The prevalence rates of diverse harmful consequences from gambling were surveyed amongst a population-representative sample of past-year gamblers.

Methods

The study used first wave data (N = 7,186) of Finnish Gambling Harms survey, collected via online and postal surveys in 2017. A subset of 3,795 adults (≥18 years), who had gambled at least monthly in 2016, were selected for analysis.

Measurements

Gambling-related harms were evaluated with the 72-item Harms Checklist. Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM) measured respondents’ probable disordered gambling from the subset of items for impaired control (4 questions) and other issues (3 questions).

Findings

Consistent with previous findings, the majority of harms were reported by those in the less severe PPGM categories (i.e. scoring <5). However, considering each domain separately, this was true only for financial, emotional/psychological, and work/study harms. The PP was not supported for health, relationship, or social deviance harms.

Conclusions

The population prevalence of the most serious harms (e.g. unsafe living conditions) is concentrated among those with severe impaired control issues. However, even excluding the ∼15% of harms occurring to occasional gamblers, most financial, emotional and work/study impacts occur to those with lower levels of control issues. Efforts at harm reduction should focus on the entire spectrum of issues that people experience from their gambling.

Open access
Authors: Shane W. Kraus, Mateusz Gola, Joshua B. Grubbs, Ewelina Kowalewska, Rani A. Hoff, Michał Lew-Starowicz, Steve Martino, Steven D. Shirk and Marc N. Potenza

Abstract

Background and Aims

To address current gaps around screening for problematic pornography use (PPU), we initially developed and tested a six-item Brief Pornography Screen (BPS) that asked about PPU in the past six months.

Methods and Participants

We recruited five independent samples from the U.S. and Poland to evaluate the psychometric properties of the BPS. In Study 1, we evaluated the factor structure, reliability, and elements of validity using a sample of 224 U.S. veterans. One item from the BPS was dropped in Study 1 due to low item endorsement. In Studies 2 and 3, we further investigated the five-item the factor structure of the BPS and evaluated its reliability and validity in two national U.S. representative samples (N = 1,466, N = 1,063, respectively). In Study 4, we confirmed the factor structure and evaluated its validity and reliability using a sample of 703 Polish adults. In Study 5, we calculated the suggested cut-off score for the screen using a sample of 105 male patients seeking treatment for compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD).

Results

Findings from a principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor solution which yielded high internal consistency (α = 0.89–0.90), and analyses further supported elements of construct, convergent, criterion, and discriminant validity of the newly developed screen. Results from a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve suggested a cut-off score of four or higher for detecting possible PPU.

Conclusions

The BPS appears to be psychometrically sound, short, and easy to use in various settings with high potential for use in populations across international jurisdictions.

Open access
Authors: Matthias Brand, Hans-JÜrgen Rumpf, Zsolt Demetrovics, Astrid MÜller, Rudolf Stark, Daniel L. King, Anna E. Goudriaan, Karl Mann, Patrick Trotzke, Naomi A. Fineberg, Samuel R. Chamberlain, Shane W. Kraus, Elisa Wegmann, JoËl Billieux and Marc N. Potenza

Abstract

Background

Gambling and gaming disorders have been included as “disorders due to addictive behaviors” in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Other problematic behaviors may be considered as “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors (6C5Y).”

Methods

Narrative review, experts' opinions.

Results

We suggest the following meta-level criteria for considering potential addictive behaviors as fulfilling the category of “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”:

1. Clinical relevance: Empirical evidence from multiple scientific studies demonstrates that the specific potential addictive behavior is clinically relevant and individuals experience negative consequences and functional impairments in daily life due to the problematic and potentially addictive behavior.

2. Theoretical embedding: Current theories and theoretical models belonging to the field of research on addictive behaviors describe and explain most appropriately the candidate phenomenon of a potential addictive behavior.

3. Empirical evidence: Data based on self-reports, clinical interviews, surveys, behavioral experiments, and, if available, biological investigations (neural, physiological, genetic) suggest that psychological (and neurobiological) mechanisms involved in other addictive behaviors are also valid for the candidate phenomenon. Varying degrees of support for problematic forms of pornography use, buying and shopping, and use of social networks are available. These conditions may fit the category of “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”.

Conclusion

It is important not to over-pathologize everyday-life behavior while concurrently not trivializing conditions that are of clinical importance and that deserve public health considerations. The proposed meta-level-criteria may help guide both research efforts and clinical practice.

Open access
Authors: Eszter Kotyuk, Anna Magi, Andrea Eisinger, Orsolya Király, Andrea Vereczkei, Csaba Barta, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Székely, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Judit Farkas, Bernadette Kun, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Róbert Urbán, Kenneth Blum and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background and aims

Changes in the nomenclature of addictions suggest a significant shift in the conceptualization of addictions, where non-substance related behaviors can also be classified as addictions. A large amount of data provides empirical evidence that there are overlaps of different types of addictive behaviors in etiology, phenomenology, and in the underlying psychological and biological mechanisms. Our aim was to investigate the co-occurrences of a wide range of substance use and behavioral addictions.

Methods

The present epidemiological analysis was carried out as part of the Psychological and Genetic Factors of the Addictive Behaviors (PGA) Study, where data were collected from 3,003 adolescents and young adults (42.6% males; mean age 21 years). Addictions to psychoactive substances and behaviors were rigorously assessed.

Results

Data is provided on lifetime occurrences of the assessed substance uses, their co-occurrences, the prevalence estimates of specific behavioral addictions, and co-occurrences of different substance use and potentially addictive behaviors. Associations were found between (i) smoking and problematic Internet use, exercising, eating disorders, and gambling (ii) alcohol consumption and problematic Internet use, problematic online gaming, gambling, and eating disorders, and (iii) cannabis use and problematic online gaming and gambling.

Conclusions

The results suggest a large overlap between the occurrence of these addictions and behaviors and underlies the importance of investigating the possible common psychological, genetic and neural pathways. These data further support concepts such as the Reward Deficiency Syndrome and the component model of addictions that propose a common phenomenological and etiological background of different addictive and related behaviors.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The literature has proposed two types of problematic smartphone/internet use: generalized problematic use and specific problematic use. However, longitudinal findings on the associations between the two types of problematic use and psychological distress are lacking among East-Asians. The present study examined temporal associations between both generalized and specific problematic use of the smartphone/internet, and psychological distress.

Methods

Hong Kong University students (N = 308; 100 males; mean age = 23.75 years; SD ± 5.15) were recruited with follow-ups at three, six, and nine months after baseline assessment. All participants completed the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (for generalized problematic smartphone/internet use), the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (for specific problematic smartphone/internet use), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (for psychological distress) in each assessment. Latent growth modeling (LGM) was constructed to understand temporal associations between generalized/specific problematic use and psychological distress.

Results

The LGM suggested that the intercept of generalized problematic use was significantly associated with the intercept of psychological distress (standardized coefficient [β] = 0.32; P < 0.01). The growth of generalized problematic use was significantly associated with the growth of psychological distress (β = 0.51; P < 0.01). Moreover, the intercept of specific problematic use was significantly associated with the intercept of psychological distress (β = 0.28; P < 0.01) and the growth of psychological distress (β = 0.37; P < 0.01).

Conclusion

The initial level of problematic use of smartphone/internet increased the psychological distress among university students. Helping young adults address problematic use of the smartphone/internet may prevent psychological distress.

Open access
Authors: Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Valero-Solís, Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Isabel Baenas, S. Fabrizio Contaldo, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Neus Aymamí, Laura Moragas, Cristina Vintró, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Eduardo Valenciano-Mendoza, Bernat Mora-Maltas, José M. Menchón and Susana Jiménez-Murcia

Abstract

Background and aims

Due to the contribution of age to the etiology of gambling disorder (GD), there is a need to assess the moderator effect of the aging process with other features that are highly related with the clinical profile. The objective of this study is to examine the role of the chronological age into the relationships between cognitive biases, impulsivity levels and gambling preference with the GD profile during adulthood.

Methods

Sample included n = 209 patients aged 18–77 years-old recruited from a Pathological Gambling Outpatients Unit. Orthogonal contrasts explored polynomial patterns in data, and path analysis implemented through structural equation modeling assessed the underlying mechanisms between the study variables.

Results

Compared to middle-age patients, younger and older age groups reported more impairing irrational beliefs (P = 0.005 for interpretative control and P = 0.043 for interpretative bias). A linear trend showed that as people get older sensation seeking (P = 0.006) and inability to stop gambling (P = 0.018) increase. Path analysis showed a direct effect between the cognitive bias and measures of gambling severity (standardized effects [SE] between 0.12 and 0.17) and a direct effect between impulsivity levels and cumulated debts due to gambling (SE = 0.22).

Conclusion

Screening tools and intervention plans should consider the aging process. Specific programs should be developed for younger and older age groups, since these are highly vulnerable to the consequences of gambling activities and impairment levels of impulsivity and cognitive biases.

Open access
Authors: Margo Hilbrecht, David Baxter, Max Abbott, Per Binde, Luke Clark, David C. Hodgins, Darrel Manitowabi, Lena Quilty, Jessika SpÅngberg, Rachel Volberg, Douglas Walker and Robert J. Williams

Abstract

Background and aims

The Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to the risks and effects of gambling harmfully at the individual, family, and community levels. Coauthored by international research experts and informed by multiple stakeholders, Gambling Research Exchange (GREO) facilitated the framework development in 2013 and retains responsibility for regular updates and mobilization. This review article presents information about the revised version of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling completed in late 2018.

Methods

We describe eight interrelated factors depicted in the framework that represent major themes in gambling ranging from the specific (gambling environment, exposure, gambling types, and treatment resources) to the general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological influences). After outlining the framework development and collaborative process, we highlight new topics for the recent update that reflect changes in the gambling landscape and prominent discourses in the scientific community. Some of these topics include social and economic impacts of gambling, and a new model of understanding gambling related harm.

Discussion and conclusions

We address the relevance of the CFHG to the gambling and behavioral addictions research community. Harm-based frameworks have been undertaken in other areas of addiction that can both inform and be informed by a model dedicated to harmful gambling. Further, the framework brings a multi-disciplinary perspective to bear on antecedents and factors that co-occur with harmful gambling.

Open access
Authors: Beáta Bőthe, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Shane W. Kraus, Verena Klein, Johannes Fuss and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is included in the eleventh edition of The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as an impulse-control disorder.

Aims

The aim of the present work was to develop a scale (Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale–CSBD-19) that can reliably and validly assess CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines.

Method

Four independent samples of 9,325 individuals completed self-reported measures from three countries (the United States, Hungary, and Germany). The psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 were examined in terms of factor structure, reliability, measurement invariance, and theoretically relevant correlates. A potential threshold was determined to identify individuals with an elevated risk of CSBD.

Results

The five-factor model of the CSBD-19 (i.e., control, salience, relapse, dissatisfaction, and negative consequences) had an excellent fit to the data and demonstrated appropriate associations with the correlates. Measurement invariance suggested that the CSBD-19 functions similarly across languages. Men had higher means than women. A score of 50 points was found as an optimal threshold to identify individuals at high-risk of CSBD.

Conclusions

The CSBD-19 is a short, valid, and reliable measure of potential CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines. Its use in large-scale, cross-cultural studies may promote the identification and understanding of individuals with a high risk of CSBD.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is characterized by a persistent failure to control intense and recurrent sexual impulses, urges, and/or thoughts, resulting in repetitive sexual behavior that causes a marked impairment in important areas of functioning. Despite its recent inclusion in the forthcoming ICD-11, concerns regarding its assessment, diagnosis, prevalence or clinical characteristics remain. The purpose of this study was to identify participants displaying CSBD through a novel data-driven approach in two independent samples and outline their sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile.

Methods

Sample 1 included 1,581 university students (females = 56.9%; M age = 20.58) whereas sample 2 comprised 1,318 community members (females = 43.6%; M age = 32.37). First, we developed a new composite index to assess the whole range of CSBD symptoms based on three previously validated scales. Based on this new composite index, we subsequently identified individuals with CSBD through a cluster analytic approach.

Results

The estimated occurrence of CSBD was 10.12% in sample 1 and 7.81% in sample 2. Participants with CSBD were mostly heterosexual males, younger than respondents without CSBD, reported higher levels of sexual sensation seeking and erotophilia, an increased offline and especially online sexual activity, more depressive and anxious symptoms, and poorer self-esteem.

Conclusions

This research provides further evidence on the occurrence of CSBD based on an alternative data-driven approach, as well as a detailed and nuanced description of the sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile of adults with this condition. Clinical implications derived from these findings are discussed in detail.

Open access
Authors: Barbara Penolazzi, Fabio Del Missier, Davide Francesco Stramaccia, Anna Laura Monego, Luigi Castelli, Amalia Manzan, Marco Bertoli and Giovanni Galfano

Abstract

Background and aims

Many psychopathologies, including addictions, are characterized by inhibitory control deficits. In this regard, recent studies on substance-related disorders (SRD) have shown an impairment in the ability to inhibit potentially interfering memories, despite preserved motor inhibition. To investigate whether the same dissociation could also characterize gambling disorder (GD) in a transdiagnostic perspective, we tested both cognitive and motor inhibitory processes through dedicated tasks, for the first time in this behavioral addiction.

Methods

30 outpatients with GD and 30 healthy controls performed a go/no-go task addressing the integrity of motor inhibition, and the Retrieval Practice Paradigm, a task addressing the integrity of memory inhibition as indexed by the Retrieval-Induced Forgetting (RIF) effect. Self-report questionnaires assessing impulsivity were also administered.

Results

Whereas RIF was similar across the two groups, patients showed more commission errors in the go/no-go task, and higher self-rated scores of impulsivity than controls.

Discussion

The present findings suggest preserved memory inhibition and impaired motor response inhibition in GD, a pattern of inhibitory deficits opposite to that previously reported for SRD. Therefore, although both GD and SRD are characterized by altered inhibitory processing, a more fine-grained analysis revealed a specific inhibitory profile indicating vulnerability in different inhibitory components.

Conclusion

The present study highlights the need to investigate the multifaceted construct of inhibition more thoroughly, using performance measures able to assess its various components. This approach would enable to both better characterize different psychopathologies and orient their treatment.

Open access

Abstract

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has necessitated physical distancing, lockdown, contact tracing, and self-quarantine so as to prevent the spread of the disease. Amid the outbreak, gaming data usage has reportedly increased in the United States, and game download volume has reached a record high in Europe. Because gaming can be used to cope with the psychological stress from the outbreak, therefore mental health professionals should be aware of how increased gaming during the pandemic may contribute to risk of gaming disorder, especially if the pandemic persists. Mental health professionals should thus formulate safe social interaction alternatives for people, particularly adolescents, who have gaming disorder risk.

Open access

Abstract

Objectives

We examined serial mediating roles of low self-control and aggression in explaining relationships between levels of inattention and hyperactivity problems (IHPs) and severity of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) features when exposed to online games among adolescents without Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stratified by gender using three-wave longitudinal study.

Method

The sample comprised a total of 1,732 family dyads from a study that was conducted among seventh graders without diagnoses of ADHD at baseline. Levels of IHPs were assessed by the parent reported Korean version of the ADHD rating scale at baseline (wave1). Severity of IGD features was assessed by the Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS) at wave3. Both levels of self-control (wave1) and aggression (wave2) were assessed by self-report. The mediating role of low self-control and aggression in the relationships between level of IHPs and severity of IGD were evaluated using serial mediation analysis separately for each gender.

Results

Levels of IHPs were related directly to severity of IGD features in both genders. The indirect effects via low self-control were also significant in both genders, however, the indirect effects via aggression was significant only in women. The serial mediation effect via low self-control and aggression between levels of IHPs and IGD features was significant in both genders (men, coefficient:0.009, 95%CI 0.005–0.019; women, coefficient:0.010, 95%CI:0.005–0.026).

Conclusion

We revealed a possible mechanism underlying a serial mediation chain from low self-control to aggression explaining the effects of IHPs on severity of IGD features. However, this conclusion should be taken with a caution, because the effect sizes were very low.

Open access
Authors: Paul Delfabbro, Daniel L. King and Neophytos Georgiou

Abstract

Background

Engagement in responsible or ‘positive play’ strategies is known to be negatively associated with problem gambling, as indexed by measures such as the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Less is known about whether positive play is associated with reduced harm or a greater ability to enjoy the recreational benefits of gambling.

Aims

This study investigated the relationship between positive play and gambling harm after controlling for PGSI scores and whether positive play moderated the relationship between PGSI scores and harm. It also examined whether positive play was related to perceived benefits associated with gambling.

Methods

The study utilised an online panel sample of 554 respondents who completed a survey that included the PGSI, measures of gambling harm drawn from Browne et al. (2016), and the newly developed Positive Play Scale (Wood et al., 2019). The study involved predominantly monthly gamblers with higher levels of gambling risk: 23% problem gamblers; 36% moderate risk; and 21% low risk gamblers.

Results

The results indicated that positive play was negatively associated with reduced gambling harm. The behavioural Positive Play subscales relating to pre-commitment and honesty and control explained additional variation in harm after controlling for PGSI scores. Higher levels of positive play also moderated and reduced the relationship between the PGSI and gambling harm. Perceived benefits were, unexpectedly, found to be higher in problem gamblers and negatively related to positive play.

Conclusion

Behavioural measures of positive play appear to be useful moderating factors in understanding the relationship between problem gambling and harm. Higher-risk gamblers appear to experience both greater costs as well as benefits from gambling, which likely reflects a stronger personal need to engage in the activity.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Although family history of psychiatric disorders has often been considered potentially useful in understanding clinical presentations in patients, it is less clear what a positive family history means for people who gamble in the general community. We sought to understand the clinical and cognitive impact of having a first-degree relative with a substance use disorder (SUD) in a sample of non-treatment seeking young adults.

Methods

576 participants (aged 18–29 years) who gambled at least five times in the preceding year undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluations. Those with a first-degree relative with a SUD were compared to those without on a number of demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. We used Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression to identify which variables (if any) were significantly associated with family history of SUDs, controlling for the influence of other variables on each other.

Results

180 (31.3%) participants had a first-degree family member with a SUD. In terms of clinical variables, family history of SUD was significantly associated with higher rates of substance use (alcohol, nicotine), higher rates of problem gambling, and higher occurrence of mental health disorders. Family history of SUD was also associated with more set-shifting problems (plus higher rates of obsessive-compulsive tendencies), lower quality of decision-making, and more spatial working memory errors.

Conclusions

These results indicate that gamblers with a first-degree family member with a SUD may have a unique clinical and cognition presentation. Understanding these differences may be relevant to developing more individualized treatment approaches for disordered gambling. Compulsivity may be important as a proxy of vulnerability towards addiction.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Strategic games, such as poker, require gamblers to develop several skills to perform better than others and to expect a potential gain. Players must remain as unpredictable and unreadable as possible by inhibiting the expression of their emotions in response to both good and bad poker events. The aim of the present study was to compare several aspects of the inhibition process in experienced poker gamblers and controls to better understand how inhibitory control is involved in poker performance.

Methods

Thirty experienced non-pathological poker gamblers (EG) and thirty healthy controls with no or limited poker experience (HC) completed 3 cognitive tasks. Each task measured a specific type of inhibition: motor inhibition [Go/No-Go task], verbal inhibition [Hayling Sentence Completion Task] and expressive inhibition [expressive suppression task, which combines subjective, expressive (facial EMG) and physiological (skin conductance, heart interbeat interval, cardiovascular and respiratory activation) measures of emotional experience]. Linear mixed models with random effects were performed.

Results

Inhibitory control skills were similar between the two groups, regardless of the form of inhibition tested. The only difference observed in EG was a higher ability to partially suppress the physiological expression of emotion. However, this difference was only present for negative and positive emotional induction and was not maintained for emotional induction related to poker situations.

Discussion and conclusions

The development of specific inhibition skills in experienced poker gamblers was not supported and raises questions about the transferability of poker skills previously discussed in the literature.

Open access
Authors: Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Róbert Urbán, Gábor Varga, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Szekely, Borbála Paksi, Bernadette Kun, Judit Farkas, Gyöngyi Kökönyei and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background and aims

Due to its important role in both healthy groups and those with physical, mental and behavioral disorders, impulsivity is a widely researched construct. Among various self-report questionnaires of impulsivity, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is arguably the most frequently used measure. Despite its international use, inconsistencies in the suggested factor structure of its latest version, the BIS-11, have been observed repeatedly in different samples. The goal of the present study was therefore to test the factor structure of the BIS-11 in several samples.

Methods

Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two representative samples of Hungarian adults (N = 2,457; N = 2,040) and a college sample (N = 765).

Results

Analyses did not confirm the original model of the measure in any of the samples. Based on explorative factor analyses, an alternative three-factor model (cognitive impulsivity; behavioral impulsivity; and impatience/restlessness) of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is suggested. The pattern of the associations between the three factors and aggression, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, and psychological distress supports the construct validity of this new model.

Discussion

The new measurement model of impulsivity was confirmed in two independent samples. However, it requires further cross-cultural validation to clarify the content of self-reported impulsivity in both clinical and nonclinical samples.

Open access
Authors: Daniel L. King, Paul H. Delfabbro, Joel Billieux and Marc N. Potenza

Abstract

Stay-at-home mandates and quarantines related to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic have led to greatly increased participation in online gaming. Initiatives such as #PlayApartTogether that promote gaming for socializing and stress reduction may achieve positive outcomes. Although gaming can be a healthy coping strategy for the majority, it can also pose risks to some vulnerable individuals. Protracted periods of social isolation and technology-based activity pose the danger of solidifying unhealthy lifestyle patterns, leading to difficulties to readaptation when the COVID-19 crisis has passed. Balanced and effective approaches to gaming during the COVID-19 pandemic are needed to support physical and psychological wellbeing.

Open access
Authors: Gemma Mestre-Bach, Gretchen R. Blycker and Marc N. Potenza

Abstract

With the global expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic, social or physical distancing, quarantines, and lockdowns have become more prevalent. Concurrently, Pornhub, one of the largest pornography sites, has reported increased pornography use in multiple countries, with global traffic increasing over 11% from late February to March 17, 2020. While some substantial increases have coincided with Pornhub making its premium services free to countries in lockdowned or quarantined jurisdictions, countries without such free premium access have also reported increases in the range of 4–24%. In addition, pornography searches using the terms “coronavirus”, “corona”, and “covid” have reached more than 9.1 million. In this letter, we discuss COVID-19-related pornography-use patterns and the impact they may have with respect to problematic pornography use.

Open access

Abstract

Objectives

Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is essential for the condition's diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms of IGD remain elusive at present. Hence, we employed multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) to explore this issue.

Methods

Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 103 IGD subjects (male = 57) and 99 well-matched recreational game users (RGUs, male = 51). Regional homogeneity was calculated as the feature for MVPA based on the support vector machine (SVM) with leave-one- out cross-validation. Mean time series data extracted from the brain regions in accordance with the MVPA results were used for further spDCM analysis.

Results

Results display a high accuracy of 82.67% (sensitivity of 83.50% and specificity of 81.82%) in the classification of the two groups. The most discriminative brain regions that contributed to the classification were the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PG), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Significant correlations were found between addiction severity (IAT and DSM scores) and the ReHo values of the brain regions that contributed to the classification. Moreover, the results of spDCM showed that compared with RGU, IGD showed decreased effective connectivity from the left PG to the right MFG and from the right PG to the ACC and decreased self-connection in the right PG.

Conclusions

These results show that the weakening of the PG and its connection with the prefrontal cortex, including the ACC and MFG, may be an underlying mechanism of IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Aim

Critics of gaming disorder (GD; i.e., Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5; Gaming disorder in the ICD-11) have expressed concerns about the potential risks of misclassification (e.g., false positives). An important consideration of relevance to this discussion is the extent to which commonly used screening instruments contain appropriate, sensible, and relevant items. The aim of this review was to evaluate the face validity of items within current tools for GD.

Methods

A systematic review of databases identified 29 instruments. An item bank (n = 417 items) was independently evaluated by three professional raters (i.e., a senior academic in clinical psychology, a senior psychometrician, and an academic/clinical psychologist) according to guidelines for defining and measuring addiction and gaming disorder.

Findings

Evaluation of the item bank identified issues related to: scope (i.e., “scope creep” or items of questionable relevance); language (i.e., confusing language, unusual wording or syntax); and overpathologizing (i.e., pathologizing typical and/or beneficial aspects or consequences of gaming). A total of 71 items across 23 tools had at least one face validity issue.

Conclusions

Most items (83%) demonstrated satisfactory face validity and were consistent with either the DSM-5 or ICD-11 GD classification. However, many tests contain at least one item that may pathologize normal gaming behaviors. Such items refer to basic changes in mood when gaming, a desire to play or continue playing games, and experiencing immersion when gaming. This analysis highlights the challenges of screening for problematic behaviors that are thought to arise within the context of normal recreational activities.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Diminished control over a specific behavior is a core characteristic in addictive behaviors such as problematic Internet-pornography (IP) use. First studies suggest that a hyperactivity of the impulsive system is one reason for impulsive behaviors in the context of problematic IP use. The tripartite-process theory of addiction explains neurocognitive mechanisms beyond common dual-process theories in addictive behaviors. However, the role of the reflective and interoceptive system is still unresolved.

Methods

The study comprised a stop-signal task (SST) including neutral and pornographic images during fMRI and questionnaires to investigate associations between symptoms of problematic IP use, craving, and neural activity of the impulsive, reflective, and interoceptive system. We examined 28 heterosexual males with varying symptom severity of problematic IP use.

Results

Data indicates that individuals with more symptoms of problematic IP use showed better performance in the SST which was linked to decreased insula and inferior frontal gyrus activity during pornographic image processing. An increase in craving was associated with lower activity of the ventral striatum during pornographic image processing. The interoceptive system showed varying effects. Increased insula activity during inhibitory control and decreased activity during pornographic image processing were associated with higher inhibitory control performance.

Discussion and Conclusion

Effects of tolerance and motivational aspects may explain the better inhibitory control performance in individuals with higher symptom severity which was associated with differential activity of the interoceptive and reflective system. Diminished control over IP use presumably results from the interaction between the impulsive, reflective, and interoceptive systems.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Given that Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has tentatively been included in DSM-5 as a psychiatric disorder, it is important that the effect of parental and peer attachment in the development of IGD is further explored.

Methods

Utilizing a longitudinal design, this study investigated the bidirectional association between perceived parent–adolescent attachment, peer attachment, and IGD among 1,054 first-year undergraduate students (58.8% female). The students provided demographic information (e.g., age, gender) and were assessed using the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Assessments occurred three times, six months apart (October 2017; April 2018; October 2018).

Results

Cross-lagged panel models suggested that IGD weakly predicted subsequent mother attachment but significantly negatively predicted father attachment. However, father and mother attachment did not predict subsequent IGD. Moreover, peer attachment had a bidirectional association with IGD. Furthermore, the model also demonstrated stable cross-sectional negative correlations between attachment and IGD across all three assessments.

Discussion and conclusions

The findings of the present study did not show a bidirectional association between parental attachment and IGD, but they did show a negative bidirectional association between peer attachment and IGD. The results suggested previous cross-sectional associations between IGD and attachment, with larger links among males than females at the first measurement point. We found that peer attachment negatively predicted subsequent IGD, which indicates that peer attachment plays an important role in preventing addictive gaming behaviors for university students.

Restricted access
Authors: Lijuan Shi, Yuanyuan Wang, Hui Yu, Amanda Wilson, Stephanie Cook, Zhizhou Duan, Ke Peng, Zhishan Hu, Jianjun Ou, Suqian Duan, Yuan Yang, Jiayu Ge, Hongyan Wang, Li Chen, Kaihong Zhao and Runsen Chen

Abstract

Background

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the associated interaction effects of childhood trauma, depression and anxiety in college students.

Methods

Participants were enrolled full-time as freshmen at a University in the Hunan province, China. All participants reported their socio-demographic characteristics and undertook a standardized assessment on childhood trauma, anxiety, depression and IGD. The effect of childhood trauma on university students' internet gaming behaviour mediated by anxiety and depression was analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) using R 3.6.1.

Results

In total, 922 freshmen participated in the study, with an approximately even male-to-female ratio. A mediation model with anxiety and depression as the mediators between childhood trauma and internet gaming behaviour allowing anxiety and depression to be correlated was tested using SEM. The SEM analysis revealed that a standardised total effect of childhood trauma on Internet gaming was 0.18, (Z = 5.60, 95% CI [0.02, 0.05], P < 0.001), with the direct effects of childhood trauma on Internet gaming being 0.11 (Z = 3.41, 95% CI [0.01, 0.03], P = 0.001), and the indirect effects being 0.02 (Z = 2.32, 95% CI [0.00, 0.01], P = 0.020) in the pathway of childhood trauma-depression-internet gaming; and 0.05 (Z = 3.67, 95% CI [0.00, 0.02], P < 0.001) in the pathway of childhood trauma-anxiety-Internet gaming. In addition, the two mediators anxiety and depression were significantly correlated (r = 0.50, Z = 13.54, 95% CI [3.50, 5.05], P < 0.001).

Conclusions

The study revealed that childhood trauma had a significant impact on adolescents' Internet gaming behaviours among college students. Anxiety and depression both significantly mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and internet gaming and augmented its negative influence. Discussion of the need to understand the subtypes of childhood traumatic experience in relationship to addictive behaviours is included.

Open access
Authors: Hideki Nakayama, Fumihiko Ueno, Satoko Mihara, Takashi Kitayuguchi and Susumu Higuchi

Abstract

Background and aims

An important proportion of infants and adolescents in Japan are using Internet-equipped devices, including smartphones, tablets, and game consoles. However, the relationship between the risk of IA and the age at initial habitual Internet use remains unknown. We aimed to investigate this relationship among adolescents.

Methods

We surveyed 1,775 subjects in seven public junior high schools in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan, in November 2017. Students were asked to complete the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), which captured information regarding gender, school grade, night sleep, age at which they first started using the Internet at least once weekly, Internet usage situation, and Internet use time for purposes other than study. Data from subjects who reported experience of weekly Internet use were analyzed.

Results

Junior high school students who were younger at initial weekly Internet use tended to have problematic Internet use (PIU) and to spend more time on Internet activities. In particular, initial weekly Internet use before the age of five in boys was associated with a significantly increased risk of PIU (YDQ ≥ 5), with an odds ratio of 14.955, compared with initial weekly Internet use after the age of 12. Smartphone ownership significantly increased the risk of PIU compared with no ownership among the total population and among girls.

Discussion and Conclusions

Junior high school male students displayed a robust relationship between initial weekly Internet use and PIU, whereas junior high school female students displayed a particularly strong relationship between smartphone ownership and PIU. Therefore, longitudinal IA preventive education from an early age is necessary.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB) are unable to control their sexual cravings, regardless of other situational factors. This inability to control cravings is a common trait in patients with neurological pathologies related to response inhibition. Until recently, however, it was unclear whether individuals with PHB have decreased inhibition and altered neural responses in the brain regions associated with inhibition compared to healthy control individuals, especially in the presence of distracting sexual stimuli. In this study, we examined the neural and psychological underpinnings of inhibition in individuals with PHB.

Methods

Thirty individuals with PHB and 30 healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a modified go/no-go task with neutral or sexual backgrounds used as distractors.

Results

Individuals with PHB showed poorer response inhibition than healthy subjects, especially when sexual distractors were present. Further, compared to healthy control subjects, individuals with PHB showed decreased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and reduced functional connectivity between the IFG and the pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) when response inhibition was required. Finally, the reduced activation and connectivity were more pronounced in the presence of sexual distractors than in the presence of neutral distractors.

Discussion

These findings suggest that individuals with PHB show reduced ability to inhibit responses that might be related to lower IFG activation and IFG-preSMA connectivity during response inhibition. Our results provide insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of poor response inhibition in individuals with PHB.

Open access
Authors: Roser Granero, Susana Valero-Solis, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Laura Moragas, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Amparo del Pino-Gutierrez, Ester Codina, Virginia Martín-Romera, Gemma Casalé, Zaida Agüera, Isabel Baenas-Soto, Eduardo Valenciano-Mendoza, Bernat Mora-Maltas, Isabel Sánchez, María Lozano-Madrid, José M. Menchón and Susana Jiménez Murcia

Abstract

Background and aims

The significant increase in the prevalence of gambling disorder (GD) among young adults in recent years has attracted interest in determining therapeutic efficiency in this sector of the population. The aim of this work was to estimate the response trajectories of gambling severity during the six-month follow-up after a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program in young adult patients and to identify the main variables associated with each trajectory.

Methods

The sample included n = 192 patients, aged 19–35 years old, seeking treatment for GD. Response trajectories were identified through latent class growth analysis.

Results

Three trajectories emerged: T1 (n = 118, 61.5%), composed of patients with severe GD at pre-treatment and good evolution to recovery; T2 (n = 62, 32.3%), with patients with moderate-high GD affectation at baseline and good evolution to recovery; and T3 (n = 12, 6.3%), with participants with severe baseline GD severity and poor evolution after CBT (Abbott, 2019). The highest risk of poor therapeutic outcomes was related to lower social index positions, high emotional distress, high scores in harm avoidance and low scores in self-directedness.

Discussion and conclusions

Differences in the response trajectories at short-term follow-up after CBT reveal heterogeneity in the samples including young and young-adult GD patients. Patients' phenotype at baseline should be considered when developing efficient, person-centered intervention programs, which should comprise strategies aimed at increasing emotional regulation capacities, self-esteem and self-efficacy, with the aim of avoiding relapses in the medium-long term after therapy.

Open access
Authors: Gal Levi, Chen Cohen, Sigal Kaliche, Sagit Sharaabi, Koby Cohen, Dana Tzur-Bitan and Aviv Weinstein

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive sexual behavior is characterized by extensive sexual behavior and unsuccessful efforts to control excessive sexual behavior. The aim of the studies was to investigate compulsivity, anxiety and depression and impulsivity and problematic online sexual activities among adult males and females who use the Internet for finding sexual partners and using online pornography.

Methods

Study 1- 177 participants including 143 women M = 32.79 years (SD = 9.52), and 32 men M = 30.18 years (SD = 10.79). The Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Spielberger Trait-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T STAI-S) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Study 2- 139 participants including 98 women M = 24 years (SD = 5) and 41 men M = 25 years (SD = 4). The impulsivity questionnaire (BIS/BAS), Problematic online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex) and Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST).

Results

Study 1- Multiple regression analysis has indicated that a model which included BDI, Y-BOCS, and STAI scores contributed to the variance of sexual addiction rates, and explained 33.3% of the variance. Study 2- Multiple regression analysis indicated that BIS/BAS and s-IAT scores contributed to the variance of sexual addiction rates, and explained 33% of the variance.

Discussion and conclusions

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms contributed to sexual addiction among individuals who use the Internet for finding sexual partners. Impulsivity and problematic online sexual activity contributed to ratings of sex addiction. These studies support the argument that sex addiction lies on the impulsive-compulsive scale and could be classified as a behavioral addiction.

Open access
Authors: Kun Qin, Feifei Zhang, Taolin Chen, Lei Li, Wenbin Li, Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Graham J. Kemp and Qiyong Gong

Abstract

Background and aims

Numerous studies on behavioral addictions (BAs) have reported gray matter (GM) alterations in multiple brain regions by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). However, findings are poorly replicated and it remains elusive whether distinct addictive behaviors are underpinned by shared abnormalities. In this meta-analysis, we integrated VBM studies on different BAs to investigate common GM abnormalities in individuals with BAs.

Methods

We performed a systematic search up to January 2019 in several databases for VBM studies investigating GM differences between individuals with BAs and healthy controls. The reference lists of included studies and high-quality reviews were investigated manually. Anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping was applied in this meta-analysis.

Results

Twenty studies including 505 individuals with BAs and 564 healthy controls met the inclusion criteria. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with BAs showed GM atrophy in the left anterior cingulate (extending to the left medial superior frontal gyrus and bilateral orbitofrontal gyrus), right putamen and right supplementary motor area. Subgroup analysis found heterogeneity in gender and subtypes of BAs. Meta-regression revealed that GM decreases in the left anterior cingulate and right supplementary motor area were positively correlated with addictive severity. Higher impulsivity was associated with smaller volume of the left anterior cingulate.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings on BAs were mainly derived from internet gaming disorder (IGD) and pathological gambling (PG) studies, preliminarily suggesting that GM atrophy in the prefrontal and striatal areas might be a common structural biomarker of BAs.

Open access
Authors: Haoran Meng, Hongjian Cao, Ruining Hao, Nan Zhou, Yue Liang, Lulu Wu, Lianjiang Jiang, Rongzi Ma, Beilei Li, Linyuan Deng, Zhong Lin, Xiuyun Lin and Jintao Zhang

Abstract

Background and aims

Previous studies on smartphone use motivation (SUM) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) have been limited in the utilization of regional samples of emerging adults (e.g., college students) and also in the foci on the direct association between SUM and PSU. To address such gaps, using data from a large, national representative sample of Chinese young adolescents and their parents this study examined the associations between adolescents' various types of SUM and their PSU, and also tested the potential mediating roles of smartphone use time (SUT) that adolescents spent on various activities in such associations.

Methods

A nationwide representative sample of 8,261 Chinese adolescents (M age = 12.86 years old, SD = 1.76; 42.6% females) and their parents (49% mothers) participated in this survey study.

Results

Instrumental SUM (i.e., to expand knowledge or acquire information) was associated negatively with PSU via longer SUT spent on learning and shorter SUT spent on entertainment and communication. Self-expression SUM (i.e., to gain acceptance and recognition of others by maintaining or improving self-images) was associated with longer SUT spent on both learning and entertainment, which, in turn, predicted lower and higher levels of PSU, respectively. Last, hedonic SUM (i.e., to gain pleasure) was associated positively with PSU via longer SUT spent on entertainment and communication.

Discussion

These findings contribute to the literature by adding greater specificity in our understanding of the implications of SUM and SUT in the etiology of PSU during the critical life stage of adolescence in a Chinese cultural context.

Open access
Authors: Martina Goslar, Max Leibetseder, Hannah M. Muench, Stefan G. Hofmann and Anton-Rupert Laireiter

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction, sex addiction and compulsive buying are common behavioral problems, which share similarities with gambling disorder and substance use disorders. However, little is known about the efficacy of their treatments. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of the treatments of such problem behaviors, and to draw parallels to gambling disorder and substance use disorders in terms of treatment response.

Methods

Literature search yielded 91 studies totaling 3,531 participants to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the short-term and long-term efficacy of psychological, pharmacological and combined treatments for internet addiction, sex addiction, and compulsive buying.

Results

Psychological, pharmacological, and combined treatments were associated with robust pre-post improvements in the global severity of internet addiction (Hedges's g: 1.51, 1.13, and 2.51, respectively) and sex addiction (Hedges's g: 1.09, 1.21, and 1.91, respectively). For compulsive buying, psychological and pharmacological treatments were also associated with a large-sized pre-post reduction in global severity (Hedges's g: 1.00 and 1.52, respectively). The controlled pre-post and within-group pre-follow-up effect sizes were in the similar range, with few exceptions. Moderator analyses suggest that psychological interventions are effective for reducing compulsive behaviors, especially when delivered face-to-face and conducted over extended periods of time. Combinations of cognitive-behavioral approaches with medications showed an advantage over monotherapies.

Discussion and Conclusions

The results suggest that treatments for common behavioral addictions are effective in the short term, similar to those implemented for gambling disorder and substance use disorders, but more rigorous clinical trials are needed.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

There is a considerable amount of research on the psychological antecedents and outcomes of gaming disorder. Although many studies have examined various personality traits or motivations as predictors in isolation, fewer studies have investigated the mediations between personality traits and motivations. Furthermore, the analyzed personality traits have been limited to a few core concepts, with the Big Five personality traits being a standard model in this context. However, more recently the dark triad of personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) has been found to be associated with various forms of problematic online behavior and usage, such as online gambling, yet little is known about gaming disorder. The current study examines the relationship of these dark personality traits to gaming disorder with three gaming motivations (achievement, social, and escapism) as mediators.

Method

The study uses an online survey of 1,502 German digital game users.

Results

Results indicate a fully mediated association for narcissism via escapism and partial mediation associations for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Direct effects on gaming disorder were observed for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Indirect effects by psychopathy were observed via escapism and social motivation, by narcissism via escapism, and by Machiavellianism via social motivation.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings contribute to the theoretical understanding of the mediation of gaming motivations and the dark triad personality traits' importance for gaming disorder.

Open access
Authors: Ji-Won Chun, Chang-Hyun Park, Jin-Young Kim, Jihye Choi, Hyun Cho, Dong Jin Jung, Kook-Jin Ahn, Jung-Seok Choi, Dai-Jin Kim and In Young Choi

Abstract

Background and aims

Although the Internet has provided convenience and efficiency in many areas of everyday life, problems stemming from Internet use have also been identified, such as Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Internet addiction, which includes IGD, can be viewed as a behavioral addiction or impulse control disorder. This study investigated the altered functional and effective connectivity of the core brain networks in individuals with IGD compared to healthy controls (HCs).

Methods

Forty-five adults with IGD and 45 HCs were included in this study. To examine the brain networks related to personality traits that influence problematic online gaming, the left and right central executive network (CEN) and the salience network (SN) were included in the analysis. Also, to examine changes in major brain network topographies, we analyzed the default mode network (DMN).

Results

IGD participants showed lower functional connectivity between the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other regions in the CEN than HC participants during resting state. Also, IGD participants revealed reduced functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and other regions in the SN and lower functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex of the anterior DMN. Notably, in IGD individuals but not HC individuals, there was a positive correlation between IGD severity and effective connectivity and a positive correlation between reward sensitivity and effective connectivity within the ventral striatum of the SN.

Conclusions

Problematic online gaming was associated with neurofunctional alterations, impairing the capacity of core brain networks.

Open access

A gyermekkorban (családon belül) elszenvedett traumatizáció fontos, de sokszor fel nem ismert patogén tényező, amely az egész személyiségfejlődést (de)formálhatja, és szerepet játszik nem csupán a későbbi pszichológiai károsodások, hanem az egészségkárosító viselkedésformák, valamint a krónikus egészségi problémák kialakulásában is. Míg a gyermekkori ártalmas élmények szerepe a mentális betegségek etiológiájában régóta ismert, addig a kapcsolata az akár élethosszig jelenlevő, krónikus szomatikus problémákkal és megbetegedésekkel csupán az utóbbi évtizedekben került a nemzetközi tudományos érdeklődés középpontjába. A gyermekkorban elszenvedett krónikus traumatikus élmények sokrétű neurobiológiai, hormonális és immunműködésbeli eltéréseket eredményeznek, amelyek mediáló tényezőkként közvetítik az ártalom patogén hatását számos szervrendszer irányába. A nemzetközi kutatások eredményei bizonyították ezen élményeknek a felnőttkori egészségkárosodásban játszott oki szerepét, valamint azt is, hogy egy kellően fel nem ismert „járványról“ beszélhetünk, amennyiben a gyermekkori traumatizáció elterjedtségét és az abból következő kedvezőtlen következményeket tekintjük. Célunk az öszszefoglaló során áttekintést nyújtani a nemzetközi szakirodalomban fellelhető főbb kutatási eredményekről, amelyek összegzik eddigi tudásunkat az ártalmas gyermekkori élmények szomatikus egészségi állapotra gyakorolt hatásáról. Említést teszünk többek között a daganatos és kardiovaszkuláris megbetegedésekkel, egészségkárosító magatartásformákkal, emésztő- és légzőrendszerrel, krónikus fájdalomszindrómával, alvászavarokkal és korai halállal kapcsolatban feltárt összefüggésekről. Mindez hozzájárul a korai pszichoszociális rizikófaktorok elterjedtségének és felnőttkorra is átívelő súlyos következményeinek felismeréséhez, és felhívja a figyelmet a gyermekkori ártalmas élmények megelőzésének és kezelésének népegészségügyi jelentőségére.

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Author: Szalai Tamás Dömötör
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Author: Tiringer István
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Elméleti háttér: A párkapcsolati elégedettség a családi és a párkapcsolati működés egyik legtöbbet kutatott területe, fontos jelzője a párkapcsolatok stabilitásának és minőségének. A párkapcsolat minősége továbbá hatással van az általános jóllétre, a testi és lelki egészségre. Cél: Házas és együtt élő párok párkapcsolati működésének és elégedettségének feltárása David H. Olson családszerkezeti koncepcióját alapul véve. Módszerek: A keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves vizsgálat résztvevői házas és együtt élő párok voltak (n = 282 pár; átlagéletkor: 45,06 ± 9,52 év és 42,74 ± 10,27 év a férfi és női partnereknél). Terápiába járás szempontjából két alminta volt megkülönböztethető: nem jár terápiába 202 pár (71,6%), terápiába jár 80 pár (28,4%). Mérőeszközök: Olson-féle Családi Teszt negyedik verziója (FACES-IV), Kapcsolati Elégedettség Skála (RAS-H) és a szubjektív egészségi állapotra vonatkozó kérdés. Eredmények: Hierarchikus klaszterelemzést végeztünk 282 pár adataival, az Olson-teszt Kohéziós index, Flexibilitás index és Családi kommunikáció dimenzióit alapul véve. Öt klasztert azonosítottunk: (1) „magas női kohézió“, (2) „jól kommunikáló, átlagos működésű“, (3) „gyengén kommunikáló“, (4) „magas férfi kohézió“ és (5) „flexibilis és jól kommunikáló“ klaszterek. A két alminta között elsősorban a „gyengén kommunikáló“ csoport relativ gyakoriságában volt különbség (56,3% vs. 33,2%) a terápiába járó illetve nem járó pároknál. A klaszterekhez tartozó párok összehasonlítása azt mutatta, hogy a klaszterek átlagai statisztikailag jelentős mértékben eltérnek a párkapcsolati elégedettség tekintetében mind a férfi partnerek (F(4) = 11,07; p < 0,002), mind a női partnerek esetében (F(4) = 9,48; p < 0,005), valamint a szexuális elégedettség tekintetében a férfi partnerek (F(4) = 7,66; p < 0,001) és a női partnerek esetében is (F(4) = 6,87; p < 0,001). A klaszterek nem mutattak szignifikáns kapcsolatot a szubjektív egészségi állapottal. Következtetések: Eredményeink arra utalnak, hogy a párkapcsolati elégedettség többféle kapcsolati működésmódban is megélhető. A kiegyensúlyozottan működő, párkapcsolati szempontból elégedett párok közös jellemzője a jó kommunikáció, amely segíti a kohéziót és a flexibilitást, és ezáltal egyensúlyfenntartó szerepet tölt be a párkapcsolatban.

Open access
Authors: Tiringer István, Nagy Alexandra, Teleki Szidalisz, Žilinski Nikolett and Szabados Eszter

Műhelytanulmányunkban egy olyan új szemléletmódot mutatunk be, amelyet az elmúlt években egy kardiológiai rehabilitációs osztályon működtetett standard, manualizált betegedukációs program használata során sajátítottunk el. Az edukáció új szemléletében a betegek képessé tevése alapozza meg azt, hogy mindennapi életükben meg tudják oldani a betegségükhöz kapcsolódó problémákat. Ennek kiindulópontja, hogy a betegek az igényeiknek megfelelő információkat kapnak betegségükről és kezelésükről. A betegséggel kapcsolatos reális attitűdök és adekvát készségek megtanulása olyan edukációs módszereket igényel, amelyek célja a betegek aktív részvételének ösztönzése, a betegséggel kapcsolatos saját elképzelések és tapasztalatok megosztása és megbeszélése. Az aktív részvétel segíti a betegek felelősségvállalását és a megtanult képességek átültetését a mindennapi életükbe. A tanulmány további részében ismertetjük „A koszorúér-betegség oktatási programjá“-t, amely saját betegedukációs gyakorlatunk alapjául szolgált. A program öt egymásra épülő modulból áll. Kialakítása multidiszciplináris együttműködés keretében történt, a kockázati tényezők csökkentésével és az életmód-változtatással foglalkozó részei az egészségmagatartás társas-kognitív folyamatmodelljén alapulnak. Saját tapasztalataink szerint a betegedukációs program működtetését nagymértékben segíti strukturáltsága és részletes kidolgozottsága. Ezek nemcsak fontos feltételei az edukáció minőségének, hanem segítséget adnak az egyes témák megbeszélése során kialakuló csoportdinamikai folyamatok kezeléséhez is. A betegedukációs program standardizált alkalmazása elősegítheti eredményességének és mechanizmusainak empirikus kutatását.

Open access

Elméleti háttér: A flow a jóllét növelésének egyik eszköze is lehet, aktivitáselméletként a viselkedés pozitív következményeire, növekedéshez való hozzájárulására épít. Cél: A társas helyzetben tapasztalt áramlat-élmény összefüggéseit a jóllét különböző dimenzióival – élettel való elégedettség és pszichológiai jóllét – ezidáig nem vizsgálták, holott a társas kapcsolatok jóllétet növelő szerepét több koncepció hangsúlyozza. Jelen kutatás célja ezen összefüggés igazolása. A társas flow gyakoriságát, intenzitását, valamint a flow szinkronizáció tényezőinek hatását vizsgáljuk. Módszerek: 1060 fő, 18 éven felüli vizsgálati személy, életkor: M(SD) = 26,67(10,76) év, vett részt az online kérdőíves módszerrel lebonyolított keresztmetszeti kutatásunkban. A kérdőíveket anonim módon töltötték ki: Általános Flow Leírás, Általános Flow Leírás Társas Interakciókban, Flow Állapot Kérdőív, Flow Szinkronizáció Kérdőív, Élettel Való Elégedettség Skála és Pszichológiai Jóllét Skálák. Eredmények: A hierarchikus lineáris regresszióanalízis alapján elmondható, hogy a társas helyzetben átélt flow-élmény gyakorisága (ß = 0,07; p = 0,038) és intenzitása (ß = 0,08; p = 0,039) az élettel való elégedettség szignifikáns, kismértékű magyarázó tényezője. Az egyéni helyzetben átélt flow gyakorisága (ß = 0,10; p = 0,002) és a társas helyzetben tapasztalt optimális élményhez kapcsolódó szinkronizációs tényezők (az együttműködő, flow-t indukáló helyzet interakciós jellemzői) (ß = 0,15; p < 0,001) szintén szignifikáns meghatározói a pszichológiai jóllétnek. Köuetkeztetések: Eredményeink alapján valószínűsíthető, hogy a flow-élmény társas helyzetben hozzájárul a jóllét különböző aspektusaihoz, átélési gyakorisága, intenzitása, valamint az interakcióból fakadó szinkronizációs dimenziók támogatják a jóllét magasabb szintjének elérését.

Open access
Authors: Mi Ran Choi, Hyun Cho, Ji-Won Chun, Jae Hyun Yoo and Dai-Jin Kim

Background and aims

Overindulgence in Internet gaming, which is related to rapid development of the online game industry, can cause a psychiatric disorder known as Internet gaming disorder (IGD). The number of adolescents with IGD is on the rise in countries with developed Internet technologies, such as South Korea. Therefore, it is important to develop biomarkers to detect patients at high risk of IGD. This study investigated expression levels of proteins in the blood of adolescents to provide insight into the development of biomarkers.

Methods

We collected blood samples from 73 subjects [40 healthy adolescents (Internet gaming control, IGC) and 33 adolescents with IGD] between 13:00 and 15:00. We analyzed the expression levels of orexin A, oxytocin, cortisol, melatonin, BDNF, sICAM-1, RANTES, and NCAM using multiplex assay kits.

Results

Orexin A was significantly (p = .016) elevated in the IGD group and the expression levels of melatonin tended to be higher (p = .055) in the IGD group. On the other hand, increased Internet gaming time in the IGD group was negatively correlated (p = .041) with expression of BDNF. On the contrary, sICAM-1 associated with inflammation exhibited the tendency of the positive correlation (p = .073) with Internet gaming time in the IGD group.

Discussion and conclusions

We identified elevation of orexin A in the peripheral blood of adolescents with IGD and a negative correlation between Internet gaming time and BDNF in adolescents with IGD. Our results provide useful information to understand the pathophysiology of IGD in adolescents.

Open access
Authors: Melissa M. Norberg, Jonathan David, Cassandra Crone, Vani Kakar, Cathy Kwok, Jake Olivier and Jessica R. Grisham

Background and aims

Individuals who meet criteria for compulsive buying–shopping disorder (i.e., acquiring problems only) or hoarding disorder (i.e., acquiring and discarding problems) may acquire possessions to compensate for unmet belonging needs, but may do so in different ways. Those with compulsive buying–shopping disorder may acquire objects that they believe will relieve the distress associated with unmet belonging needs (e.g., objects that distract or comfort), whereas those with hoarding disorder may acquire objects that they believe achieve belonging needs (e.g., objects that have interpersonal connotations). Accordingly, this study examined whether a belongingness threat would drive individuals who excessively acquire possessions to choose a human-like object (person-shaped tea holder) or a comfort item (box of chamomile tea).

Methods

One hundred seventy-five participants (57 self-reported excessive acquiring only; 118 self-reported excessive acquiring and difficulty discarding) recalled a time when they either felt supported or unsupported by a significant other before choosing an object to take home with them. Participants rated how anthropomorphic and comforting the objects were as well as how attached they became to their chosen object.

Results

Unsupported individuals were more likely to acquire the comfort item than supported individuals; however, individuals with both acquiring and discarding problems were more likely to acquire the human-like item than those with an acquiring problem only. Comfort and anthropomorphism ratings predicted object choice and attachment.

Discussions and conclusion

The current findings extend the Compensatory Consumer Behavior Model to include what factors determine strategy choice and object attachment.

Open access

Elméleti háttér

A reziliencia azon tényezőket foglalja magában, amelyek a potenciálisan traumatizáló, veszélyeztetett életkörülmények ellenére történő sikeres alkalmazkodást elősegítik, a stressz negatív hatásait enyhítik, és a változásokkal szembeni adaptív megküzdést lehetővé teszik. A Szülői Reziliencia Skála (Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire – PREQ) a szülők lelki ellenálló képességének mérésére kidolgozott eszköz.

Célkitűzések

A kutatás célja a 16 itemes PREQ magyar nyelvre adaptálása és pszichometriai elemzése volt.

Módszerek

Keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves vizsgálatunkban összesen 249 szülő vett részt – 65 fős vulnerábilis csoport (átlagéletkor:42,3 év; szórás: 5,66 év) és 184 fős kontrollcsoport (átlagéletkor: 40,7 év; szórás: 6,01 év) – , akik az alábbi kérdőíveket töltötték ki: 16 itemes Szülői Reziliencia Kérdőív (PREQ16), a Connor–Davidson Reziliencia Skála 10 itemes változata (CD-RISC 10), General Health Questionnaire 12itemes változata (GHQ12), Beck Depresszió Kérdőív 21 itemes változata (BDI21), Szülői Stressz Kérdőív (PASS), Képességek és Nehézségek Kérdőív (SDQ).

Eredmények

A konfirmatív faktorelemzés igazolta magyar mintán az eredeti Szülői Reziliencia Kérdőív 3 faktoros struktúráját, a kérdőív Cronbach-alfa értéke magas (0,842) volt. A kérdőív az elvárásoknak megfelelő irányú együtt járást mutatott a validáláshoz alkalmazott konstruktumokkal, a konvergens, divergens, diszkrimináló és inkrementális validitás egyaránt megegyezett a nemzetközi irodalomban tapasztaltakkal.

Következtetések

Összességében elmondhatjuk, hogy a 16 itemes PREQ magyar változatának (PREQ-H) pszichometriai mutatói megfelelőek, a kérdőív megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköznek bizonyul a szülői reziliencia mérésére.

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Authors: MAKAI GÁBOR, BANDI SZABOLCS and KISS ENIKŐ CSILLA

Háttér és célok

Az amputáció egy olyan átélt trauma, amely gyökeresen átalakítja az egyén önmagáról és a külvilágról alkotott képét. Jelen vizsgálat célja az volt, hogy megvizsgáljuk, az amputáción átesett betegek milyen pszichés, szociális és fizikai nehézségekkel találják szembe magukat a műtétet követően, valamint hogyan igyekeznek megküzdeni a kritikus élethelyzettel. A reziliencia nézőpontjából azt kerestük, melyek azok a protektív és rizikótényezők, amelyek szerepet játszanak az alkalmazkodóképesség és a betegek mentális egészségének megőrzésében.

Móds