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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Maria Chatzidimitriou
,
Asimoula Kavvada
,
Dimitrios Kavvadas
,
Maria Anna Kyriazidi
,
Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
,
Sotirios Varlamis
,
Vassilis Papaliagkas
, and
Stella Mitka

Abstract

Carbapenems are considered to be among the last line antibiotics against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has been frequently reported and its spread in Europe is indisputable and poses an enormous threat to hospitalized patients which is of growing concern. This review aims to record prevalence of CRKP in the Balkan region and to review the current knowledge about this life-threatening pathogen. In this review, we summarize data about clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae from Greece, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania from published reports between 2000 and 2023. Among Balkan countries, Greece and Romania are the ones with the most reports about CRKP. Since 2007, KPCs are the dominant carbapenemases in both countries. KPC-2 and NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae strains have been identified as the most frequent CRKP in Croatia, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Slovenia. OXA-48 enzyme has been identified in most Balkan countries. In addition, since 2018, CRKP sequence type 11 (ST11) seems to have replaced ST258 in Balkan Peninsula, while ST15 continues to thrive throughout the years. Not only efficacy of colistin against CRKP has decreased dramatically during the last ten years but colistin resistance mechanism is based on alterations of chromosomal mgrB gene, rather than the already known mcr genes.

Moreover, ceftazidime-avibactam-resistant CRKP were detected mostly in Greece. Emergence of CRKP poses a severe threat to the Balkan countries. Due to the narrow therapeutic window, it is essential to prevent the spread of multiresistant K. pneumoniae strains.

Open access

Abstract

Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are major human pathogens because, these cause high number of difficult-to-treat infections. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT) recipients are highly exposed to these type of bacteria. The aim of our study was to investigate prevalence of CRE colonization in AHSCT patients and to determine genes encoding carbapenem resistance. A retrospective study conducted between January 2015 and December 2019, involved 55 patients colonized with CRE strains. We determined the rate of antibiotic resistance according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the carbapenem resistance genes by PCR assays for genes encoding most frequent β-lactamases namely, bla GES , bla KPC , bla IMI , bla NDM , bla VIM , bla IMP and bla OXA-48. Eighty-one episodes of CRE colonization were recorded in 55 patients, mainly suffering from acute leukaemia (30%) and aplastic anemia (26%). History of hospitalization was noted in 80 episodes. Prior antibiotic treatment, severe neutropenia and corticosteroid therapy were respectively found in 94%, 76% and 58% of cases. Among the 55 patients, six patients (11%) developed a CRE infection. The CRE responsible for colonization were carbapenemase producers in 90% of cases. They belonged mostly to Klebsiella pneumoniae (61/81) and Escherichia coli species (10/81). Antibiotic resistance rates were 100% for ertapenem, 53% for imipenem, 42% for amikacin, 88% for ciprofloxacin and 27% for fosfomycin. Molecular study showed that bla OXA-48 gene was the most frequent (60.5%), followed by bla NDM (58%). Thirty-five (43%) strains were co-producers of carbapenemases. In our study, we report a high rate of CRE intestinal colonization in AHSCT recipients of our center.

Restricted access

Abstract

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, artificial intelligence (AI) based software on chest computed tomography (CT) imaging has proven to have a valuable role in accelerating diagnosis and screening. The proposed AI-based tools proved to be rapid and reproducible techniques to guide patient management and treatment protocols. Although no specific guidelines exist, CT-imaging and clinical features are used for patient staging. To shed light on the role of AI techniques that have been developed in fighting COVID-19, in this review, studies investigating the usage of commonly used AI models on chest CT imaging for disease quantification and prognostication are collected.

Open access

Abstract

Local scour poses a grave threat to bridge foundations, potentially causing catastrophic collapses. This study uses FLOW-3D with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes model to analyze pier scour and dune formation under bridges. It focuses on submerged debris shapes near the water's surface. Results closely match experiments when specific conditions are met. The study introduces an innovative approach to debris impact assessment. Instead of traditional methods, it proposes a novel equation accounting for debris's effective area and elevation. This enhances reliability by over 20%, improving scour depth assessment in debris-laden scenarios. This advances the understanding of debris's role in local scour, benefiting bridge design and management practices.

Open access

Abstract

As a byproduct from the deep processing of longan fruit, longan kernel is rich in starch and is a good source for starch production. In this study, the rheological properties of longan kernel starch (LS) extracted by protease-assisted alkali method were investigated. When the shear rate was from 1 to 100 s−1, the pastes containing 4%–7% (w/v) of LS showed a non-Newtonian fluid with a pseudoplastic fluid characteristic. Their shear stress, apparent viscosity, complex viscosity, storage modulus (G′), and loss modulus (G″) positively correlated with starch concentration. The loss factor (tan δ) of all LS pastes was less than 1. At same concentration, LS paste showed a stronger pseudoplastic fluid characteristic and higher elasticity than corn starch and pea starch pastes. Based on this, LS has potential in processing of jelly, soft sweets, ham sausage, and some other sauces.

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Abstract

The biceps is one of the most important muscles of the flexor compartment of the arm. Recently there has been an increase in the global reported incidence of biceps tendon rupture worldwide. Generally, tears are seen in the elderly population and are precipitated due to underlying risk factors. Diagnosis is done with a combination of clinical findings and ultrasonography. We report a case of a 60-year-old female without any underlying risk factors who presented with nontraumatic spontaneous rupture of the right biceps tendon.

Open access

Abstract

Monitoring benzoylphenylureas (BPUs) residues in ready-to-eat vegetables is of great interest for an adequate assessment of human pesticide exposure. A rapid, inexpensive, simple, and effective method for determining 8 BPUs insecticides in tomatoes and cucumbers was developed and validated. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (VA-LLE) followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) using graphitized carbon black (GCB) for cleanup was used before LC-MS/MS analysis. Different parameters were optimized, including the type and volume of extractants, vortex time, and the type and amount of adsorbents used for cleanup. The evaluation showed that the method has excellent linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.994). The recovered 8 BPUs insecticides from spiked tomato and cucumber samples at 0.01, 0.05, and 0.25 mg kg−1 ranged from 83.2 to 105.2%, with RSD of 4.9–14.6%. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.0025 mg kg−1 (0.005 mg kg−1 for lufenuron). Within-day repeatability ranged from 3.9 to 13.9%, while between-day repeatability ranged from 8.9% to 17.7%. The optimized method was used to analyze 100 samples of tomatoes and cucumbers marketed in Saudi Arabia.

Open access

Abstract

Present paper shows the different types of tensor product model based linear matrix inequality controller design and feasibility analysis of two degrees of freedom aeroelastic wing section model. The tensor product models are based on reducing or removing the nonlinear behavior of the system and weighting functions. The linear matrix inequality based method results globally asymptotically stable system. The goal of the paper is to examine that selecting and varying the transformation space influences the feasibility of the linear matrix inequality based controller. The paper gives a comparison between the different tensor product models in terms of controller performance. The linear matrix inequality gives feasible solution for the controller design if the transformation space is selected adequately.

Open access

A bábaképzőtől a bábállamig

Doktor Sándor és a dicstelen 33 hónap

From the midwifery education to a puppet-state

Sándor Doktor and the inglorious 33 months
Orvosi Hetilap
Author:
Csaba Varga
Open access

A COVID–19-járvány hatása a perimenopausában érintett nők életminőségére

Quality of life in perimenopausal women affected by COVID–19 pandemic

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Edina Dombi
,
Renáta Kovács-Berta
,
Zsófia Kaufmann
,
Petra Völgyesi
, and
Zoltán Pál

Bevezetés: A menopausa időszaka számos pszichés tünet kialakulásával jár a nők számára, amit a pandémia megjelenése tovább mélyített. Célkitűzés: Kutatásunk során a perimenopausalis tünetek kialakulásának időpontját, jellegét és a mentális jóllétet vizsgáltuk, figyelembe véve a COVID–19-járvány okozta hatásokat (oltások, fertőzöttség). Módszer: Vizsgálatunkban menopausában lévő nőket kérdeztünk meg a változókort kísérő tüneteikről (n = 264, átlagéletkor: 50,69 év, SD = 4,88). A résztvevők szociodemográfiai, valamint nőgyógyászati kérdésekre és a következő pszichológiai kérdőívekre válaszoltak: Kapcsolati Elégedettség Skála, Multidimenzionális Észlelt Társas Támogatás Kérdőív, Énhatékonyság Kérdőív, Élettel Való Elégedettség Skála, Spielberger-féle Állapot- és Vonásszorongás Kérdőív, Beck Depresszió Kérdőív. Továbbá a koronavírus-járvánnyal kapcsolatos stresszorok feltárását célzó saját összeállítású kérdőív is szerepelt a kérdőívcsomagban, amelyet online felületen tettünk elérhetővé. Eredmények: A perimenopausában lévő nők 12,9%-a tartozott a középsúlyos depresszió kategóriájába, és súlyos depressziót jelző értéket mutatott a résztvevők 8%-a. Az orvosi segítségért forduló, változókorban lévő nők alacsonyabb szintű szorongással és depresszióval küzdöttek. A COVID–19-hatásokat, valamint a fertőzöttség és az oltások felvételének stresszhatásait vizsgálva azt találtuk, hogy a koronavírus-járvány idején a szociális távolságtartás, az izoláció, a fertőzéstől való félelem volt a legmarkánsabb stresszor. A fertőzésen már átesettek csoportjában szignifikánsan kisebb depressziót (t(154,876) = 2,333, p = 0,021) és szorongást (t(186) = 2,050, p = 0,042) jelző értéket és az élettel való nagyobb elégedettségre (t(186) = –2,283, p = 0,024) utaló értéket kaptunk, mint azoknál, akik még nem fertőződtek meg. Az oltások felvétele nem csökkentette a szorongás- és depresszióértékeket. Megbeszélés és következtetés: Az életvitelt megnehezítő változókor gyakoribb szorongással és depresszióval, valamint kisebb énhatékonysággal és élettel való elégedettséggel járt együtt. A pandémia megjelenése tartósan, többnyire negatívan befolyásolta a vizsgálatban részt vevők mentális egészségét. A változókorban lévő nők gondozása során elengedhetetlen a pszichés tünetek felmérése a páciensek életminőségének javítása érdekében. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(7): 249–259.

Open access

Ketogén diéta: félrevezetők lennének a tudományos vizsgálatok eredményei?

Ketogenic diet: could the results of scientific studies be misleading?

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Katalin Szendi
,
Edit Murányi
, and
Balázs Németh

Bevezetés: A túlsúlyos vagy elhízott átlagpopuláció jelentős hányada választja a ketogén diéták egyes típusait testsúlycsökkentés céljából. E népszerű divatdiéta tudományos és laikus irodalma is igen széles körű. Számos, az evidenciapiramis csúcsán álló, ezért hiteles forrásnak tartott metaanalízis vizsgálta a ketogén diéták egészségre gyakorolt hatásait. Sok közülük jótékony hatásokról számol be mind az antropometriai, mind a vérparaméreket tekintve, elhízott és 2-es típusú cukorbeteg páciensek esetében is. Ám számos zavaró tényező módosíthatja e kedvező eredményeket, melyeket a metaanalízisek többsége figyelmen kívül hagy. Célkitűzés: Irodalmi áttekintő közleményünk célja, hogy ezekre a módszertani nehézségekre és a belőlük adódó értelmezési kihívásokra felhívja a szakemberek és azok figyelmét, akik szintén rendszeres olvasói, érdeklődői a táplálkozástudománynak. Módszer: A PubMed adatbázisban történt 2023 szeptemberében az olyan metaanalízisek keresése, amelyek nem az epilepszia kezeléséről, valamint nem a különböző rosszindulatú daganatos megbetegedésekben szenvedő páciensek ketogén diétájáról szóltak. A kereséskor használt kulcsszó a „ketogenic diet” volt, kizárólag a metaanalízis címében. Eredmények: Az áttekintő közleményünkbe bevont 18 metaanalízis számos zavaró tényezőt figyelmen kívül hagyott, mint például a kalória- és szénhidrátbeviteli különbségeket a ketogén diétás és a kontrollcsoportok között, az elfogyasztott zsírsavtípusok és a vérzsírparaméterek kapcsolatát, valamint a táplálkozási ketosis meglétét a ketogén diétát követő csoportokban. Következtetés: A ketogén diétákról szóló széles körű, sokszor pozitív eredményeket közlő irodalmi háttér ellenére e diéta ajánlása mindaddig nem javasolt, amíg jól tervezett, hosszú távú klinikai kutatások és az azokat elemző metaanalízisek nem jelennek meg, nagyobb figyelmet fordítva e zavaró tényezőkre. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(7): 260–264.

Open access

Okostelefon-szenzorokon alapuló technológia alkalmazása az otthoni gyógytorna eredményességének ellenőrzésére

Testing an innovative approach to smartphone sensor-based technology for verification of effectiveness of home exercise

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Fanni Zsarnóczky-Dulházi
,
Ádám Lelbach
,
Levente Racz
,
Lukasz Trzaskoma
,
István Berkes
,
Tekla Sümegi
, and
Bence Kopper

Bevezetés: A világjárvány ráébresztette a társadalmat arra, hogy adódhatnak olyan különleges helyzetek, amikor a betegek nem tudnak személyesen találkozni egészségügyi szakembereikkel, az ellátás folyamatossága mégsem szakadhat meg. A gyógytornaellátás során eddig is általánosan alkalmazott eljárás volt a személyes alkalmak közötti otthoni gyakorlásra ösztönzés a terápia sikeressége érdekében. Ám a foglalkozásokon megtanult és begyakorolt feladatok ismétlésszáma és pontossága kérdéses az otthoni környezetben, ami csökkentheti az eredményességet, és növelheti a sérülésveszélyt. Célkitűzés: Kutatásunkban olyan megoldást teszteltünk, amely megfizethető és széles körben elérhető eszközöket, okostelefont és laptopot használ képernyőmegosztási technológia alkalmazásával. Módszer: A 3 hétig tartó vizsgálatunkban négy csoport (vizsgálati: fiatal, n = 50, életkor 25,6 ± 3,1 év; idősebb felnőttek, n = 50, életkor 74,8 ± 9,1 év; kontroll: fiatal, n = 20, életkor 26,25 ± 3,6 év; idősebb felnőttek, n = 20, életkor 70,15 ± 5,2 év) vett részt. A résztvevők feladata guggolási és térdemelési gyakorlatok végrehajtása volt egy előre meghatározott végtagszöghelyzetig. A vizsgálati csoport tagjai a végtagmozgások és szöghelyzetek nyomon követésére egy – goniométeres alkalmazással a combjukra rögzített – okostelefont és egy aktivált képernyőmegosztási funkcióval rendelkező laptopot használtak, amely valós idejű önellenőrzést tett lehetővé. Eredmények: A célszögtől való eltérés szignifikánsan csökkent (a guggolás esetében a fiataloknál 7,7°-ról 1,7°-ra, az idősebbeknél 16,4°-ról 7,3°-ra; térdemelés esetén a fiataloknál 10,8°-ról 3,2°-ra, az idősebbeknél 14,8°-ról 6,4°-ra), vagyis a gyakorlatok végrehajtása szignifikánsan pontosabb lett a vizsgálati csoportokban. Következtetés: Eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy amikor a résztvevők numerikus visszajelzést kaptak a laptop képernyőjén keresztül, akkor a gyakorlat végrehajtásának pontossága jelentősen megnőtt. Összehasonlításaink és statisztikai elemzéseink alapján összességében kijelenthetjük, hogy olyan, könnyen hozzáférhető eszközök és módszerek is felhasználhatók az otthoni mozgásszervi rehabilitáció eredményességének javításához, mint az okostelefon és a laptop. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(7): 265–273.

Open access

Vörösvérsejt-paraméterek és a hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c)-szint kapcsolata 10 év adatainak retrospektív értékelése alapján

Relationship between red blood cell parameters and hemoglobin A1c levels based on a retrospective evaluation of 10 years of data

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Barna Vásárhelyi
,
Ali Jalal Dlovan
,
Béla Blaha
,
Zoltán Tóth
,
Géza Tamás Szabó
, and
Béla Gyarmati

Bevezetés: A hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c)-szint mérését általánosan használják a betegek anyagcserekontrolljának értékelésére. Több megfigyelés szerint a HbA1c-szintet azonban befolyásolja a súlyos anaemia, illetve annak típusa. Célkitűzés: Munkánk során azt értékeltük, hogy az általános orvosi gyakorlatban figyelembe kell-e venni a HbA1c-szint értékelése során a betegeknél a rutinszerűen kért, anaemiát is tükröző vörösvérsejt-paramétereket. Módszer: A 2008 és 2018 közötti időszakból 60 225 beteg adatait válogattuk le, akiknél egy (első) alkalommal HbA1c-szint-mérés és vérképvizsgálat történt. Először a paraméterek diszkrét tartományaiban értékeltük a HbA1c-megoszlást. A vörösvérsejtek (RBC) száma, az átlagos vörösvérsejt-térfogat (MCV), a hemoglobin (HB) szintje, a hematokrit (HCT) és a vörösvérsejtméret-eloszlás (RDW) közötti kapcsolat értékelésére többszörös regressziós modellt alkalmaztunk. A paraméterek és a HbA1c-szint közötti hatás mértékét az adatok z-score-szerű transzformációja alapján „coefficient of estimates” (CE-) értékkel jellemeztük. A változók HbA1c-re gyakorolt együttes hatásának jellemzésére becslő képleteket dolgoztunk ki. Eredmények: Az életkor a HbA1c-értékek legerősebb determinánsa. Mindkét nemben az MCV, férfiakban az RDW negatív, nőkben az RBC pozitív irányú kapcsolatot mutatott a HbA1c-vel. A CE-értékek alapján egyik vizsgált paraméter sem fejt ki a HbA1c-re nagyobb hatást, mint az életkor. Az MCV, RDW, HB diszkrét tartományokban felvett hisztogramja azonos. A becslő képlettel kapott és a mért HbA1c-értékek nagymértékben eltértek. Megbeszélés: Bár egyes vörösvérsejt-paraméterek szignifikánsan összefüggenek a HbA1c-szinttel, ez klinikailag nem jelentős hatást tükröz. Következtetés: A rutin klinikai gyakorlatban a súlyos vérképző szervi eltéréssel járó esetektől eltekintve nem kell az MCV értékét figyelembe venni a HbA1c értékelése során. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(7): 243–248.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Sirinun P. Tabtieang
,
Weejarin Paphussaro
,
Anudep Rungsipipat
,
Nanthida Kunnasut
,
Sekkarin Ploypetch
,
Ekarat Phattarataratip
, and
Gunnaporn Suriyaphol

Abstract

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent form of oral cancer in humans and dogs. The altered expression of cell adhesion molecules, including E-cadherin (CDH1) and syndecan-1 (SDC1), is involved in cancer progression. This study aimed to investigate the protein expression of CDH1 and SDC1 in early and late clinical stages of human and canine OSCC (hOSCC and cOSCC, respectively), using immunohistochemistry. Formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue blocks were obtained from 21 hOSCC, 8 human normal gingiva, 26 cOSCC, and 13 canine normal gingiva. Clinical stages and histological subtypes of samples were evaluated. The results indicated that both human and canine OSCC exhibited reduced levels of CDH1 and SDC1 expression at the cell membrane regardless of clinical stage or histological subtype. Additionally, decreased levels of total SDC1 expression were observed in hOSCC compared with normal controls. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a similarity in the immunohistochemical expression of CDH1 and SDC1 between humans and dogs with OSCC, lending support to the potential use of dogs as a model for studying human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Supitcha Kaewma
,
Zhao Namula
,
Suong Thi Nguyen
,
Qingyi Lin
,
Nanaka Torigoe
,
Bin Liu
,
Megumi Nagahara
,
Masahiro Nii
,
Masayasu Taniguchi
, and
Takeshige Otoi

Abstract

This study examined the effects of ergothioneine (EGT) supplementation as an antioxidant on the quality of boar spermatozoa when using liquid and frozen preservation methods. In the first experiment, boar semen was preserved in an extender supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 200 µM EGT, at 15 °C, part of the samples for one and another part for three weeks. In comparison with the control (without EGT), EGT supplementation at 100 µM significantly increased the percentage of total motility of spermatozoa that were preserved as a liquid both for one and three weeks (P < 0.05). EGT supplementation did not affect the quality of preserved spermatozoa, irrespective of the EGT concentration. In the second experiment, semen was frozen and thawed in the freezing extender supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 200 µM EGT. In comparison with the control, the 100 µM EGT supplementation significantly increased the percentages of total and progressive motility of frozen-thawed spermatozoa (P < 0.05). EGT (100 µM) supplementation did not affect the viability, the plasma membrane integrity, or the acrosomal integrity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. These findings indicate that supplementing extenders with 100 µM EGT may improve the motility of boar sperm in both liquid and freezing preservation methods.

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A hazai genetikai talajosztályozás megújításának szükségessége - 1.

A nevezéktan és a struktúra korrekcióra szoruló elemeinek azonosítása

The necessity of the renewal of the Hungarian genetic soil classification system - 1.

Identification of the elements of the nomenclature and structure to be corrected
Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Tibor József Novák
,
Tibor Tóth
,
András Makó
,
Mihály Kocsis
,
Zsófia Bakacsi
,
András Bidló
,
Károly Bartha
,
Szabolcs Czigány
,
Gergely Tóth
,
Adrienn Horváth
, and
Hilda Hernádi

A tanulmány a magyar genetikai osztályozás sok szempontból kritizált rendszerének következetlenségeit, illetve ellentmondásait elemzi azzal a szándékkal, hogy a rendszer fő jellemzőinek: a talajtaxonok elnevezésének és tartalmának megőrzése mellett szakmai párbeszédet indítson a hibák kijavításának lehetőségéről és a rendszer megújításáról.

Rámutattunk a nevében és koncepciójában genetikus, szerkezetében hierarchikus osztályozási rendszer hibrid jellegére: arra, hogy a fő genetikus szempont csak a főtípusok aggregációs szintjén érvényesül maradéktalanul, míg a típusoknál már mintegy egyharmad arányban diagnosztikus szempontok jelentik az elkülönítés alapját. Alsóbb hierarchiaszinteken (altípus, változat) pedig csaknem tisztán diagnosztikus az osztályozás. Listába rendeztük azokat a problémás típus, altípus és változati elnevezéseket, amelyek több hierarchiaszinten azonos névvel, és esetleg eltérő tartalommal fordulnak elő, illetve azonos hierarchiaszinten, de eltérő definíciókkal szerepelnek, vagy éppen szinonímnak tekinthetők, az eltérő elnevezés mögött rejlő azonos tartalom miatt. A vitacikk szándéka, hogy a kiszűrt hibák, következetlenségek széleskörű szakmai egyeztetést követően javításra kerüljenek.

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Abstract

Childhood nutrition is an important element of lifestyle research, since the regularity and nutritional content of our meals as children, and the way in which they are eaten, determine our physical and mental health throughout our lives. Prior to 2018, there was no basic interdisciplinary research on this topic in Hungary, thus to fill the gap, an interdisciplinary research group was established in 2018 at the Institute of Ethnography, which carried out nationwide research. The present study is based on fieldwork undertaken by the author in two schools — the János Lenkey Primary School in Eger (formerly Primary School No. 1) and the Tamás Bolyki Primary School in Ózd — as well as a large amount of information gleaned from questionnaires and interviews. My research was also extended in terms of a historical and geographical perspective: I studied archival sources and expanded the field of my investigations by including Salgótarján, a research location familiar from my earlier research, which provided a vantage point alongside Ózd and Eger, as a third city typical of Northern Hungary. Public catering for children has undergone significant changes in the last six to seven years, although prior to this it had appeared relatively uniform, in line with the ingredients available at the time. The obligation to provide public catering and the general obligation to work, which began in the Rákosi era and culminated in the Kádár era, significantly changed family eating habits. Traditional elements typical of a particular locality disappeared as the globalization efforts of socialism were accomplished. The ever-decreasing amount of time devoted to preparing, cooking, and consuming food moved society in the direction of canteens, fast-food restaurants, and later, after the regime change, global fast-food chains. Education on proper nutrition is not currently part of academic teacher training, thus for want of a better alternative, teachers organize children's school meals based on their own experience and socialization or following the school's regulations (where they exist), without having a unified concept. The number of meals eaten at home has been reduced to light breakfasts, lunches, and dinners, with families mostly sitting down together at the table for dinner, when they often consume ready meals. Lack of contact with foodstuffs and with the person preparing the food has a negative impact on children's psychological development. Relying on extensive basic research and participant observation, and through the joint efforts of specialists from several fields of the social sciences, a significant improvement could be achieved in both public catering and education on healthy nutrition.

Open access

Endeavor for Self-Realization

The Story of Three Czech Professors of Architecture at the Slovak Technical University

Törekvés az önmegvalósításra

Három cseh építészprofesszor története a Szlovák Műszaki Egyetemen
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Jana Pohaničová
,
Matúš Dulla
, and
Nina Bartošová

This paper focuses on the reactions of three professors and architects (Jan E. Koula, Vladimír Karfík, and Alfred Piffl) to how the totalitarian political regime restricted and interfered with creative and academic freedoms in the period starting with the introduction of architectural education at the Slovak University of Technology and ending with the so-called “normalization” period in the former Czechoslovakia. All three of them were already active in interwar Czechoslovakia and thus had rich experience with working under democratic conditions, and their early work was influenced by the interwar avant-garde movements. After World War II, in part thanks to their pioneering work at the Slovak University of Technology, they got caught up in the system of the authoritarian socialist state. The central question that this study asks is how the trio dealt with the totalitarian regime, which stood in contrast with the democratic period of interwar Czechoslovakia that formed them as architects, and brought further limits to their work. Based mostly on material from their personal estates and period publications, we reveal how each of them found his own way to deal with the totalitarian regime, and we argue that even its limitations did not make Koula, Karfík, and Piffl abandon their beliefs and creative credos completely.

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Abstract

Fruit of rosehip (Rosa canina L.) has high economic, medicinal, and nutritional values. Rosehip is rarely consumed fresh due to limitations of seasonality and short shelf life. They are usually processed, which affects the nutritional and sensory characteristics of rosehip products. Radiation processing along with storage at 4 °C is a way to increase safety and prolong fresh rosehip durability. Rosehip fruits were harvested at enough maturity stage, irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5 kGy, and stored at 25 and 4 °C for 60 days. Gamma irradiation at 1 kGy caused an increase in weight loss during storage for 60 days at 25 °C. Microbial counts, total phenolic contents (TPC), total anthocyanin contents (TAC), ascorbic acid contents (AAC), DPPH scavenging activity, total colour difference (∆Eh ), and sensory properties were acceptable in the sample irradiated at 1 kGy and preserved for 60 days at 4 °C. The amounts of acidity, pH, and total soluble solids (TSS) were not significantly different from the control. Gamma irradiation at 1 kGy and thereafter storage of the irradiated fruit at 4 °C are suggested as minimal processing and storage conditions of rosehip fresh fruit (RFF) for 60 days.

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Abstract

Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from tumor related antigens is a promising approach for malignant tumor immunotherapy. TC2N, a recently identified tumor associated antigen from human glioblastoma, is regarded as a promising target of tumor-specific immunotherapy. As one of the most widely used histocompatibility molecules in Chinese is HLA-A*0201, we were able to identify the TC2N peptides that are provided by this molecular type. A panel of antigenic peptides produced from TC2N were predicted by using a computer tool. The binding affinities of three peptides with the highest predicted score to the HLA-A*0201 molecule were evaluated after synthesis. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of the main T-cell response against the predicted peptides. The results demonstrated that TC2N (152-160) was able to release IFN-γ and lyse U251 cells in vitro as well as in vivo by eliciting peptide-specific CTLs. Our results indicated that peptide TC2N (152-160) (RLYGSVCDL) was a novel HLA-A2.1-restricted CTL epitope capable of inducing TC2N specific CTLs in vitro. As TC2N might qualify as a viable target for immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with GBM, we speculated that the newly identified epitope RLYGSVCDL would be of potential use in peptide-based, cancer-specific immunotherapy against GBM.

Open access

Abstract

There are no recommended drugs to treat cattle infected with the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus (TF). Ivermectin, widely used in the treatment of intestinal parasites, was found effective against some protozoa growing in vitro. Here, its effectiveness against a TF line was investigated. Trophozoites were incubated in media with increasing concentrations of ivermectin and mortality was determined after 24 h. Ivermectin killed cells with a mean maximum effective concentration (EC50) of 2.47 μg mL−1. The effective concentration of ivermectin was rather high for a formulation suitable for systemic treatment. However, topical treatment of animals against TF could still be considered and tested.

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Abstract

In Hungary, about half of the 3–18 age group has regularly used school food service. This paper focuses on the operation and social embeddedness of school canteens and the at-home eating habits of the families involved. My conclusions are based on the findings of my interdisciplinary research group. Ethnographers from the RCH Institute of Ethnology and dietitians from the National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition have been studying school food from 2018 to 2023. We selected a few model settlements: in addition to the capital, Budapest, three smaller towns, and two villages. Through questionnaires, interviews, and fieldwork observations, we investigated cooking, serving, meal courses, meal time, eating habits, preferences, as well as the nutritional knowledge of students, teachers, kitchen staff, and parents. Our goal, among other things, is to collect best practices and facilitate communication between participants. Some examples from our research highlight the special role of the centrally regulated school food in local food culture, and difficulties with social and historical roots can occasionally hamper school lunches in becoming a socially accepted model of a healthy diet. The school canteen works best at sites where cooking takes place within the school premises. There is a strong connection between the kitchen staff and the teachers, and they work together in the interest of the children. The value of food and its appreciation is demonstrated by how it is treated and how it is talked about. Communication about food in the canteen should be based on food preparation at home, where parents and children work together. The operation of canteens has become particularly problematic following the measures introduced during the coronavirus pandemic. A sustainable, enjoyable canteen can only be realized through the regular communication of schools and school kitchens, as well as children and their parents. Our findings are presented to our respondents, along with providing them with a comparison of different examples.

Open access

Abstract

In endemic regions, tuberculosis in children constitutes a bigger fraction of total cases as compared to those in low endemic regions, regardless of the implications, this phenomenon has been historically neglected. Pediatric tuberculosis has an insidious onset and quickly develops into disseminated disease and the young are at a special risk for dissemination. Some studies suggest that measures to contain adult tuberculosis are not enough to manage tuberculosis in children, meaning that pediatric tuberculosis needs dedicated attention. Children are harder to diagnose than adults, because collecting samples is difficult, and their bacterial yield is low. In endemic countries, such as Mexico, where contact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is common, immunological tests are inconsistent, especially in immunocompromised children. With the disruption of Mexican healthcare services by the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an uncertainty of how the situation has evolved, current data about tuberculosis indicates a drop in the national report of cases: 15.4 per 100,000 persons in 2021, compared with pre-COVID 2019 17.7 per 100,000 persons, a small increase in mortality: 1.7 per 100,000 in 2021 compared with 2019 1.6 per 100,000, a drop in treatment success: 80.4% in 2021 compared with 85.4% in 2019, and a decrease in national vaccination rates: an estimate of 86.6% children between 1 and 2 years-old were vaccinated in 2021 compared with 97.3% reported national rate in 2018–2019. There is a need for new research on regions with high tuberculosis incidence, to clarify the current situation of pediatric tuberculosis and improve epidemiological surveillance.

Open access

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the relationship between China's outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) by assessing their impact on the economies of both the CEECs and China. By analyzing this connection, the paper seeks to gain insights into the economic dynamics and potential benefits derived from investment and trade activities between China and the countries in this region. The paper employs a regression model to examine the influence of foreign direct investment on trade with data from 2008 to 2022. The findings indicate that a one percentage point increase in China's OFDI corresponds to a 0.054 percent boost in bilateral trade between China and the 16 CEECs. In conclusion, the findings highlight a significant link between OFDI in CEECs and bilateral trade. OFDI opens up new trade opportunities and fosters economic growth in CEECs, thereby promoting the development of bilateral trade. Additionally, Chinese investment drives industrial upgrading and structural adjustments in CEECs, enhancing the competitiveness of bilateral trade.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
I. Tahiri
,
S. de Paz-Cantos
,
A. González-Marrón
,
À. Cartanyà-Hueso
,
E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz
,
J.C. Martín-Sánchez
,
C. Lidón-Moyano
,
H. Pérez-Martín
, and
J.M. Martínez-Sánchez

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and daily leisure screen time. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a representative sample of the Spanish population aged from 3 to 14 years recruited for the 2017 Spanish National Health Survey (n = 4,633). We derived the adherence to the Mediterranean diet according to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score and computed daily leisure screen time. We estimated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of high versus low, high versus medium and medium versus low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, according to categories of daily leisure screen time, using Poisson regression models. We found that the adjusted probabilities of having high adherence to the Mediterranean diet, versus low and medium adherence, were 23% (aPR 0.77; 95% CI 0.69, 0.86) and 14% (aPR 0.86; 95% CI 0.76, 0.97) lower, respectively, in children spending at least 180 minutes of daily leisure screen time in comparison with children spending less than one hour of daily screen time. This association was also observed when stratifying by age, except for children 12–14 years. In conclusion, high leisure screen time may be associated with lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

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Az építésautomatizálás technológiai lehetőségei

Az ipar 4.0 szemlélet kibontakozása az építőiparban

The Technological Opportunities of Construction Automation

The Development of the Industry 4.0 Approach in the Construction Industry
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
István Vidovszky
and
Tamás Szögi

Az építőipar a munkaerő hiánya és az egyre fokozódó minőségi elvárások miatt a hagyományos, jellemzően emberi erőforrást alkalmazó vagy emberek által közvetlenül működtetett technológiák irányából apró lépésenként az automatizált technológiák irányába fordul. Az ezzel együtt járó változás csak úgy lehet zökkenőmentes, ha az építőipar résztvevői aktív részesei a változási folyamatnak. A cikk az építőipar fejlődési irányait, annak problematikáját és lehetőségeit kívánja bemutatni a területtel kapcsolatos kutatások és a már alkalmazott technológiai megoldások elemzésével a közeljövőben lehetséges változások, további lehetőségek, illetve problémák feltérképezésére és megvilágítására törekedve.

Open access

Abstract

Integrating thermal energy storage with thermal conversion systems is necessary to maximize their use. Phase change materials are the best media for storing and releasing thermal energy from various basic material types. Because the phase change materials have a high latent heat of fusion, it is often viable to use these characteristics and include the phase change materials in building envelopes to store thermal energy. The paper provides a thorough categorization of the phase change materials and thermal energy storage systems, in addition to an evaluation of their modeling using computational fluid dynamics. The purpose was to highlight computational fluid dynamics as a useful technique for advancing the engineering of thermal energy storage devices.

Open access

Abstract

This study evaluated the thermal performance of side divergence and uniform micro-channel heat sinks by comparing and contrasting them. Heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in these micro-channel configurations were studied using computational fluid dynamics simulations employing ANSYS Fluent 2017 code for this purpose. Laminar flow through micro-channels with a Reynolds number of 207 was the subject of the investigation. The goal is to determine how side divergence affects heat dissipation efficiency concerning traditional uniform micro-channels. The results showed that the best divergence ratio is 1.5 that achieved the highest performance. The study also revealed that side divergence micro-channel heat sinks can achieve thermal performance up to 14% higher than uniform micro-channel heat sinks.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Orest Voznyak
,
Nadiia Spodyniuk
,
Iryna Sukholova
,
Olena Savchenko
,
Mariana Kasynets
, and
Serhii Shostak

Abstract

This article is dedicated to diagnosis of damage to air distribution in a room with twisted, compact, and flat air jets, and to searching of ways to solving the problem. It was found that in order to avoid damage to the air distribution system in rooms of different purposes and dimensions; it should be air streams of the appropriate types and with the appropriate characteristics. Parameters of a swirled, compact, flat, rectangular air jet when creating comfortable climatic conditions in the rooms of different purposes and dimensions are determined. The relationship between the angle of inclination of the rotating plates (for twisted jets), ratio of sides of the slit (for all rectangular including compact and flat streams) and a long-range of these flows is established.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Maher F. Al Lebban
,
Ameer A. Alraie
,
Qusay A. Jabal
,
Laith Abdul Rasool Alasadi
,
Rawa Shakir Muwashee
, and
Waseem H. Mahdi

Abstract

Progress in building construction requires more durable concrete with higher strength. Polymer and water reducer liquids can improve concrete strength and durability. This research aims to improve the mechanical properties of polymer-modified concrete by using anti-slip sand and silica fume to achieve more durable concrete against sulfate attack and higher mechanical properties. The study shows an increase in compressive strength from 25.7 MPa for reference mix to 45.5 MPa using 15% silica fume and 30% Anti-slip sand; tensile strength increased from 2.72 to 4.4 MPa. Flexural strength also increased, and durability to sulfate attack also increased. The study includes the increment of durability against freezing-thawing cycles for different mixes.

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Abstract

Direct resistance check by applying advanced numerical models is getting increasingly used for the design of steel slender plated structures. This method has to take into account the same uncertainties as traditional analytical design calculations and should ensure the Eurocode-based prescribed safety level. The application of the model factor gives the possibility to account for the model-related uncertainties. The current study focuses on the determination of the model factor for one specific failure mode, the patch loading resistance. Numerical model has been developed and validated based on laboratory test results. To evaluate the model uncertainties, physically possible modeling differences are introduced, and their effects are evaluated on the resistance. The final aim of the study is to determine the model factor for the analyzed girder type and failure mode based on statistical evaluation.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Problematic Social Networking Site Use (PSNSU) is not a formally recognised addiction, but it is increasingly discussed as such in academic research and online. Taking a quantitative, exploratory approach, this study aims to (1) determine whether PSNSU is presented like clinically defined addictions by the affected community and (2) address how well measurements of PSNSU fit with the thematic content found within the associated discourse.

Methods

Four corpora were created for this study: a corpus concerning PSNSU and three control corpora concerning established addictions, including Alcohol Use Disorder, Tobacco Use Disorder and Gaming Disorder. Keywords were identified, collocates and concordances were explored, and shared themes were compared.

Results

Findings show broad thematic similarities between PSNSU and the three control addictions as well as prominent interdiscursive references, which indicate possible confirmation bias among speakers.

Conclusions

Scales based upon the components model of addiction are suggested as the most appropriate measure of this emerging disorder.

Open access

Abstract

Warping not only one of the most important phenomena in steel section it is also considered as the most complicated phenomena. Ductility, bearing capacity and serviceability of steel sections may affect by increasing stress concentration of the normal stresses due to warping. In the present work, simulation of steel beam section under effect of warping is studied. Two cantilevers connected to two columns in opposite sides with a middle steel beam-column connection to create different moments on the beam to investigate the behavior of steel section under warping using building information modeling. It is found that the stress strain relationship has four groups depending on the load intensity and the angle of rotation induced due to warping.

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Abstract

Method of numerical analysis of the influence of initial depression depth coupled with absolute surface roughness and with Manning's roughness coefficient onto the key hydraulic parameters of the stormwater runoff is proposed. Small highly urbanized catchment with 100% impervious cover was used in stormwater management model numerical simulations for climatic conditions of the Lviv City (Ukraine) at the return period of 1 year. An increase in depression depth from 1 to 5 mm causes reduction in the specific maximum peak runoff from 5.13∙10−3 L/(s∙m2) to 3.29∙10−3 L/(s∙m2), while the critical duration of rainfall increase from 17 min to 56 min. The dimensionless maximum peak flow rate is expressed as a two-parameter exponent function of the initial depression depth, allowing the estimation of the lower limit of this discharge for the practically significant range of the depression depth.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Sabra Ahyaten
,
Jalal El Bahaoui
,
Narjisse Amahjour
,
Francisco Ortegón Gallego
, and
Issam Hanafi

Abstract

Due to the substantial rise in wind power generation, the direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator has emerged as a leading technology for efficient variable speed operation, meeting grid demands effectively. This paper presents a comparative analysis of control strategies for permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind turbine using real variable wind speed data from a 2 MW of Tetouan wind farm in Morocco. The proposed approach is based on evaluating two primary control strategies: the adaptive fuzzy-proportional-integral controller and the conventional proportional-integral controller aimed at enhancing the wind turbine's output power. The simulation performed on MATLAB-Simulink indicates that pitch control mechanisms play a crucial role in optimizing power generation, also demonstrating its ability to achieve satisfactory performance.

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Abstract

The structural assessment of historical buildings poses a significant challenge for engineers. However, when it comes to historical structures, more commonly used and reliable destructive testing may not always be viable. Instead, non-destructive testing has gained prominence, encompassing techniques like the Schmidt hammer test, georadar, and sonic-based tests.

In this paper, the viability of employing sonic testing on historical masonry structures was investigated. This study involves using the measured sonic velocities to identify voids and solid parts within masonry walls. In addition, the purpose is to determine the compressive strength of both mortar and brick constituents and to analyze the effects of moisture and compressive stress on the propagation velocity of waves.

Open access

Abstract

This work investigates the effect of two wall roughness types, triangular and circular, on convection and radiation heat transfer in a small space. The ANSYS Fluent is used to do thermal and dynamic modeling; the left wall is warmer than the right one. The upper and lower walls are adiabatic. The Nusselt numbers are compared in all cases and for two Rayleigh values, which change based on the cavity's characteristic length. The results show temperature contours and Nusselt curves. It was observed that the roughness had a strong effect on the air's thermal behavior inside the cavity, where the Nusselt decreased in both roughness cases, especially at small heights. However, the largest decrease is in the triangular case and for angles less than 90°. For 72°, Nusselt is 13.32 and 6% less than smooth and circular cases respectively.

Open access

Abstract

Autophagy is a cellular stress-induced intracellular process, through which damaged cellular components are decomposed via lysosomal degradation. This process plays important roles in host innate immunity, particularly the elimination of intracellular pathogens inside host macrophages. A more detailed understanding of the roles of autophagic events in the effective manifestation of macrophagic antimycobacterial activity is needed. Furthermore, the effects of medicinal plants on macrophagic autophagy response to mycobacterial infection need to be clarified. We herein examined the significance of autophagic events in the manifestation of host immunity during mycobacterial infection, by performing a literature search using PubMed. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy up-regulated macrophage functions related to the intracellular killing of mycobacteria, even when pathogens were residing within the cytoplasm of macrophages. The majority of medicinal plants potentiated macrophagic autophagy, thereby enhancing their antimycobacterial functions. In contrast, most medicinal plants down-regulate the development and activation of the Th17 cell population, which reduces macrophage antimycobacterial activity. These opposing effects of medicinal plants on macrophage autophagy (enhancement) and Th17 cell functions (inhibition) may provide a plausible explanation for the clinical observation of their modest efficacy in the treatment of mycobacterial infections.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Nerilee Hing
,
Alex M.T. Russell
,
Vijay Rawat
,
Gabrielle M. Bryden
,
Matthew Browne
,
Matthew Rockloff
,
Hannah B. Thorne
,
Philip Newall
,
Nicki A. Dowling
,
Stephanie S. Merkouris
, and
Matthew Stevens

Abstract

Background and aims

COVID-19 lockdowns limited access to gambling but simultaneously elevated psychosocial stressors. This study assessed the relative effects of these changes on gambling risk status during and after the Australian COVID-19 lockdown from late-March to late-May 2020.

Methods

The study administered three surveys to people who had gambled within the past year at T1. Wave 1 asked about before (T1, N = 2,125) and during lockdown (T2, N = 2,125). Subsequent surveys focused on one year (T3; N = 649) and two years after lockdown (T4, N = 458). The dependent variable was changes in reporting any problem gambling symptoms (PGSI 0 vs 1+). Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression tested for significant associations with: demographics, psychosocial stressors (perceived stress, psychological distress, loneliness, health anxiety about COVID, financial hardship, stressful life events), gambling participation and gambling frequency.

Results

Gambling participation and at-risk gambling decreased between T1 and T2, increased at T3, with little further change at T4. When gambling availability was curtailed, decreased gambling frequency on EGMs, casino games, sports betting or race betting, and lower psychosocial stress, were associated with transitions from at-risk to non-problem gambling. When gambling availability resumed, increased EGM gambling frequency, decreased online gambling frequency, and higher psychosocial stress were associated with transitions from non-problem to at-risk gambling.

Discussion and conclusions

Gambling availability appears a stronger influence on gambling problems, at the population level, than psychosocial risk factors. Reducing the supply of high-risk gambling products, particularly EGMs, is likely to reduce gambling harm.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Salman Khayoon Aldriasawi
,
Abbas Nasser Hasein
,
Ashham Muhammed Anead
, and
Barhm Mohamad

Abstract

The study analyzed surface treatment's impact on mechanical properties of Fe-based amorphous coatings. Specimens underwent six-hour treatments at 670 and 770 °C using vacuum heat. Results revealed distinct mechanical features in the coating: Vickers hardness reached 755, scanning electron microscope images displayed glassy phases, showcasing good wear resistance and compressive residual stresses at around −55 MPa. A remarkable 122% increase in compressive residual stress was noted through combined vacuum heat treatment and sandblasting. Volume wear decreased from the initial 18 to 14 mm3 after treatment at 670 °C followed by sandblasting, indicating a 30% enhancement in wear resistance. Yet, using vacuum heat treatment at 770 °C negatively impacted the coating's properties.

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Abstract

The paper presents a normalized, varying step size-based least mean square-based control for a standalone microgrid and Ant Lion optimization-based maximum power point tracking. This modified version of the incremental conductance algorithm addresses issues like slow dynamic response, fixed step size issues, and steady state oscillations. Comparative analysis with well-known techniques shows that Ant Lion optimizes the tracking of maximum power points more accurately, with fewer oscillations and increased efficiency. Power management and power quality are maintained through proposed adaptive voltage source converter control. The proposed voltage control shows better performance under various dynamic and steady conditions.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Mahdi J. Hussein
,
Maryam H. Naser
,
Fatimah H. Naser
,
Ali Hameed Naser Almamoori
, and
Mohammed L. Hussien

Abstract

The present research studies the effect of adding sugar factory waste sugarcane molasses as an alternative to chemical inhibitory additives manufactured on concrete cast during hot weather in the summer of Iraq. The current study includes a study of the setting time for cement paste and workability for fresh concrete and some mechanical properties of hardened concrete with sugarcane molasses using percentage 0–0.3% of cement weight. The study also included studying the value of pH of concrete to investigate the effect of sugarcane molasses on reinforced concrete. The results showed that the sugarcane molasses can be used by about 0.1% of cement weight for medium projects and between 0.1 and 0.2% for large projects. It was also found that the compression strength increased by about 11.5% and the indirect tensile strength increased by about 7.5 and 7.4% for splitting and flexural test, respectively for concrete mixtures containing 0.2% of sugarcane molasses.

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Abstract

Diarrheal diseases are of great concern worldwide and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the epidemiology and the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens among diarrheal patients of all ages in Crete, Greece during 2011–2022. Stool specimens were tested by conventional cultural methods for Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, STEC), Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas species and Clostridioides difficile. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method for Enterobacterales, Campylobacter and Aeromonas, and by the gradient diffusion method for C. difficile. Of the 26,060 stool samples from patients of any age, 1,022 (3.9%) were positive for bacterial enteropathogens. Campylobacter spp. were the most commonly isolated bacteria (56.4%), followed by Salmonella enterica (32.3%), and E. coli (EPEC, STEC) (6.5%). Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from 341 out of 8,848 diarrheal specimens examined (3.9%). Resistance to ampicillin was observed in 12.4% of Salmonella, 66.7% of Shigella and 34.8% of E. coli (EPEC, STEC) isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was observed in 5.8% of Salmonella, 33.3% of Shigella, and 15.1% of E. coli (EPEC, STEC) isolates. High rates of ciprofloxacin resistance (77.3%) were detected among Campylobacter isolates, while resistance to erythromycin was observed in 2.4% of them. All C. difficile isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole. Our findings suggest declining trends in prevalence of bacterial enteropathogens, except for Campylobacter spp. and changes in the susceptibility rates to antimicrobials. Continuous surveillance of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens is mandatory for implementing targeted and effective prevention and infection control measures.

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School Meals on the Menu

Studies on the Practices of Children's Catering

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author:
Anikó Báti
Open access