Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the leading pathogen in urinary tract infection. In recent years multidrug-resistant B2-ST131 E. coli clonal group has disseminated worldwide. The ST131 and its subclones H30 and H30-Rx have been identified only in a few studies from Turkey. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of ST131 and its subclones and to analyze their adhesin virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 250 urinary ExPEC isolates were included in the study. Resistance rates of 16 antimicrobial agents were determined by disk-diffusion. Multidrug-resistance and ESBL production were analyzed. Altogether 8 adhesin genes were investigated namely, papAH, fimH, sfa/focDE, focG, afa/draBC, iha, bmaE and gafD. A total of 39 ST131 isolate were determined and 33 (84.6%) were multidrug-resistant. ESBL production was detected in 34 (87.2%) ST131 and 61 (28.9%) of non-ST131 strains. In our study, we found a strong correlation between ST131 strains and fimH, iha, afa/draBC, papAH virulence determinants. Twenty-nine (85.3%) of 34 ST131-O25b-H30 isolates were identified as H30-Rx. All the papAH gene positive isolates were identified within ST131-O25b-H30-Rx lineage. Non-H30-Rx isolates within H30 isolates were identified as pattern 2. Almost 16% of the isolates were identified as ST131 regardless of clinical syndrome and approximately 34% of the multidrug-resistant isolates were H30-Rx subclone. We report H30-Rx as the dominant subclone of ST131 in our study. Imipenem, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin proved to be the most effective agents according to antibiotic resistance patterns of both ST131 and non-ST131 E. coli strains.
The aim of our study was to delineate an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Shigella flexneri and affecting sixteen persons between May and June 2014 in Bilbao, Spain. All patients exhibited symptoms after consuming kebab in the same kebab shop.
The outbreak is described through the clinical cases, the microbiological and molecular genetic diagnosis, and the epidemiologic investigation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for ampicillin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, third and fourth generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, co-trimoxazole, colistin and tigecycline were measured. The S. flexneri strains were screened by PCR for TEM, SHV, CTX-M beta-lactamases and plasmidic AmpCs and aac(6′)-Ib gene. Serotyping, pulsed field gel-electrophoresis, conjugation assay, plasmid sizing by S1 enzyme digestion and Southern blot hybridization were accomplished.
All the S. flexneri isolates proved to be serotype 2 and produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline, colistin, and co-trimoxazole remained active antibiotics. All the strains harboured blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-1 genes. The strains hosted two high-molecular weight plasmids of 100 and 230 kb, respectively. According to the hybridization assay blaCTX-M-15 was located on the plasmid of 230 kb. The identical pulsotype verified the presence of outbreak.
Remarkable, that one of the food handlers has travelled recently to Pakistan, where ESBL-producing Shigella strains had been reported previously. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first outbreak caused by CTX-M-15-expressing S. flexneri in Spain and as well as in Europe.
This paper presents a nearly ten-year-long process of covering the history of social enterprise development in a small village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, Hungary. The paper covers the hermeneutical interpretation of the process, the role and relationship between the community and the social enterprise developer, the process of development work, and how university education complements this process. The case study provides insights into the theory of community planning, the methodology of social-enterprise development and the issue of empowerment.
Seedless barberry is a medicinal shrub and has been cultivated in Iran for more than two centuries. It is perishable with short shelf-life. Irradiation has shown to improve microbial safety and expands durability of raw fruits. Undoubtedly, current food processes undesirably affect bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. Fresh barberry fruit was harvested in Birjand city by methods including “cutting branches” and “collecting fallen fruit under shrubs”, which locally are known as “puffy barberry” and “jewel barberry”, respectively. Some of the fresh barberries were treated by osmotic solution and then they have been dried. Untreated dried fruit was processed by freezing. Osmotic and frozen treatments were packed in polyamide film. Some of the dried jewel/puffy barberries packed in polyamide film were irradiated at doses of 0, 3, 5, and 10 kGy. All samples were stored at 4 and 25 °C for 6 months. Effects of barberry types (puffy/jewel), processes, storage time and temperature on chemical, microbial, and pest characteristics of dried barberry fruit were evaluated. Puffy barberry gamma irradiated with 5 kGy after 6 months of storage at 4 °C showed acceptable properties. Irradiation and storage at 4 °C were reported as optimal processing and storage conditions for barberry fruit.
In the scope of this research, we aim to give an overview of the currently existing solutions for machine translation and we assess their performance on the English-Hungarian language pair. Hungarian is considered to be a challenging language for machine translation because it has a highly different grammatical structure and word ordering compared to English. We probed various machine translation systems from both academic and industrial applications. One key highlight of our work is that our models (Marian NMT, BART) performed significantly better than the solutions offered by most of the market-leader multinational companies. Finally, we fine-tuned different pre-finetuned models (mT5, mBART, M2M100) for English-Hungarian translation, which achieved state-of-the-art results in our test corpora.
This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effects of different protein coatings on maintaining the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. 308 brown table eggs from ISA Brown hens were used for four treatments: uncoated eggs, coated with rice protein concentrate – RPC, soy protein concentrate – SPC, and whey protein concentrate – WPC. Eggs started with Haugh Units (HU) of 82.01 and reduced in proportions of 28.75% (control), 12.82% (RPC), 12.90% (SPC), and 10.54% (WPC) on the last day of storage. Coated eggs showed smaller reductions (P < 0.0001) in this response. Protein coatings can effectively maintain the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. However, the WPC coating maintained the highest egg rate and the best yolk index for eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C.
Ancient classical culture usually links gambling (plays with knucklebones, dice, pawns) with divination and love's matters. It is noteworthy, to examine playing by knucklebones (Greek astragaloi). The connection between astragals, games and the erotic sphere clearly appears in Eros-Ganymede episode in the 3rd Book of Apollonius' Argonautica. A fragment of Callimachus also deals with knucklebones. Many Greek lyric and epigrammatic poets echo this topic. In sum, Apollonius allows us to discover a usual imagery: Eros as a player with knucklebones shows that Love masters the human life. It is thus an evident symbol of fate.
Kutatásunk témája az NCH Magyarország Kft. által forgalmazott baktériumos hígtrágyakezelési rendszer összehasonlító ökotoxikológiai vizsgálata. A kísérletet egy szarvasmarha borjúnevelő telepen végeztük 0–6 hónapos korcsoportú szekcióban. A tabletta formában rendelkezésünkre álló baktérium törzseket egy tartályban felszaporítottuk és hetente adagoltuk az aknában összegyűlő hígtrágyához. A kezelés célja volt, hogy a baktériumok elősegítsék a trágya homogenizációját, a szagcsökkentést és a szerves szennyeződések lebontását. Az ökotoxikológiai vizsgálatokat a trágyakezelés előtt, alatt és után, három mintavételi időben végeztük el.
A kutatásunk eredményeként elmondhatjuk, hogy a hígtrágyakezelés során a beltartalmi értékek jelentősen növekedtek, főként a nitrogénformák, a biológiai oxigénigény és a szárazanyagtartalom. Az ösztrogén hatás megléte számottevő maradt a kezelés végére is. A fitotoxicitási vizsgálat alapján mindegyik növény, szár- és gyökérnövekedésére pozitív hatással volt a trágyakezelés. A talajtoxicitási teszt eredménye bizonyította, hogy magasabb hígítás mellett veszti el a kezeletlen hígtrágya az érzékeny baktériumok élettevékenységére is kiterjedő gátló hatását. A békalencse vizsgálat során összességében elmondható, hogy 150× hígítás fölött megszűnik a hígtrágya gátló hatása mindhárom alkalommal vett minta esetében. Az alga növekedésgátlására a hígtrágya stagnáló-gátló tendenciát mutatott a kezelés alatt.
Eredményeink alapján arra a következtetésre jutottunk, hogy a vizsgált hígtrágyakezelési módszer a homogenitás, szagtalanítás és a szerves anyagok bontása során eredményes volt. Azonban javasolt magasabb hígítási arányban vagy magas talajvíztartalom mellett kijuttatni a földekre. A hormonhatású anyagok eltávolítására vonatkozólag további vizsgálatok szükségesek, melyek alapján majd javaslatokat lehet kidolgozni a gazdák számára.
One of the most important NLP tasks for the industry today is to produce an extract from longer text documents. This task is one of the hottest topics for the researchers and they have created some solutions for English. There are two types of the text summarization called extractive and abstractive. The goal of the first task is to find the relevant sentences from the text, while the second one should generate the extraction based on the original text. In this research I have built the first solutions for Hungarian text summarization systems both for extractive and abstractive subtasks. Different kinds of neural transformer-based methods were used and evaluated. I present in this publication the first Hungarian abstractive summarization tool based on mBART and mT5 models, which gained state-of-the-art results.
In this work, production of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) herbal tea was studied. Purple basil is a medicinal and aromatic herb with many health benefits; it is commonly used for seasoning foods. Semi-shade and tray drying methods were used for drying purple basil for tea production. Physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of samples were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents of samples increased with drying processes and were between 9.55 and 14.18 mg GAE/g. Colour values decreased with drying. Volatile composition of samples was determined using the SPME/GC-MS system. 2-Propenoic acid, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), and eugenol were the predominant volatile compounds in all samples. In sensory evaluation, samples produced by tray drying with added citric acid had the highest general acceptance. In conclusion, purple basil was evaluated as a suitable plant for herbal tea production due to its easy preparation, pleasant flavour and colour.
Enterococcus spp. were isolated from sausage and yogurt line production. The genomic assay was performed by PCR, and distinct enterococci (n = 28) were identified. Testing revealed that 10.7% of the isolates had a resistant phenotype, 7.1% were resistant to erythromycin (Enterococcus faecium) and 3.5% were resistant to tetracycline (Enterococcus gallinarum). Enterococci cells and biofilm formation in 24 well polystyrene plates and the effect of sanitisation procedures in these biofilms were determined. The sanitisers were chlorinated alkaline H (CAH), chlorinated alkaline A (CAA), quaternary ammonium D (QAD), quaternary ammonium M (QAM), chlorine dioxide (CD), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peracetic acid (PA). A total of 7 isolates (25%) moderately and the others poorly formed biofilms. The best reduction results were 61 and 55% of the cells with the CAH sanitiser in BHI and water, respectively. The PAA, SH, and CD sanitisers showed low efficiency on Enterococcus planctonics, and the other had an effect on cell growth. The sanitisers CAH, QAD, QAM, PAA, and SH showed efficiency in reducing the cell viability of Enterococcus in biofilms, and values obtained from CAA and CD suggested low biofilm removal capacity. Enterococcus spp. form biofilms and have become a problem in the food industry.
In a lesser known mythological tradition Eros is the son of Iris and Zephyros. His mother, Iris, belongs to a lineage of winged beings who are connected to a pre-cosmic dimension that precedes the historical reality ruled and guaranteed by Zeus. His father, Zephyros, is a wind and also a winged being whose story is linked to the birth of other superhuman beings who contribute to the foundation of a reality not yet fully established. Equally, Eros is a primordial superhuman being, whose nature at a mythical level is that of preceding the foundation of the cosmos. The purpose of this work is to investigate – through the meanders of mythological heritage – which elements of the narratives referring to these characters are relevant to classical Greek culture.
Bevezetés: A csípő-, valamint térdízületi arthrosis gyakori
megbetegedésnek számít. Számos terápiás lehetőség érhető el hazánkban.
Célkitűzés: A komplex konzervatív gyógykezelés
eredményességének vizsgálata csípő-, valamint térdízületi arthrosisos betegek
esetén. Módszer: Saját készítésű kérdőív mellett alkalmaztuk a
vizuális analóg skálát, a Functional Independence Measure, a Barthel-index,
illetve az SF-36 kérdőíveket. Ezenkívül ízületi mozgástartományt mértünk. A
vizsgálati csoport tagjai többféle fizioterápiás kezelést (gyógyvíz, gyógytorna,
klasszikus svéd masszázs, Bemer-kezelés, pakolás, fizikoterápia) vettek igénybe.
Eredmények: A vizuális analóg skála és a Barthel-index
eredményei szignifikánsan változtak a két mérés között. A Functional
Independence Measure esetén nem találtunk szignifikáns eltérést a két csoport
adatainak értékelése során. Az egészségi állapot felmérésekor mind a fizikális
egészség, mind a mentális egészség dimenziójában javulást figyelhettünk meg a
vizsgálati csoportnál. Az ízületi mozgástartomány vizsgálata során a vizsgálati
csoportnál a bal térd passzív extenziójának kivételével javulást figyelhettünk
meg a résztvevők adatainak elemzésekor. Következtetés: A 3
hetes komplex konzervatív terápia megfelelő kezelési lehetőség lehet a
funkcióképesség és az egészségi állapot javítására csípő-, valamint térdízületi
arthrosis esetén. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(48): 1917–1922.
A diabetes mellitus heterogén etiopatogenezisű és klinikai viselkedésű kórforma.
Egyes eseteinek pontos típusba sorolása, „klasszifikációja” meghatározó
jelentőségű az optimális kezelésválasztás tekintetében. A tipizálás azonban a
rendelkezésre álló, egyre szélesedő eszközpark és a rohamosan bővülő ismeretek
ellenére még mindig nem teljesen megoldott. Ezért újabb ajánlások születnek a
csoportba sorolás pontosítására. A közlemény áttekinti a nemzetközi konszenzus
alapján, az Egészségügyi Világszervezet (WHO) koordinálásával 1965 és 2019
között született klasszifikációs irányelveket, valamint az újabb vizsgálatok,
megfigyelések alapján született javaslatokat. Megállapítja, hogy a napi
gyakorlat számára továbbra is a WHO hatályos útmutatása a legorientálóbb,
hozzátéve, hogy bizonytalan besorolású esetekben elengedhetetlen a betegek
követése és a vizsgálatok szükség szerinti ismétlése mindaddig, amíg az adott
kórforma természete nem tisztázódik. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(48): 1909–1916.
Bevezetés: Míg a legtöbb országban jobbára nem változtak
(esetleg csökkentek) a szuicid ráták az első járványévben (azaz 2020-ban), addig
hazánkban a befejezett öngyilkosságok száma szignifikánsan emelkedett.
Célkitűzés: Tanulmányunkban azt vizsgáltuk, hogy a hazai
szuicid rátának a pandémia kitörése utáni kedvezőtlen fordulata folytatódott-e a
második járványévben is. Módszer: Prais–Winsten-regresszió
segítségével megszakított idősorelemzést alkalmaztunk, kontrollálva az
autoregresszív hatás mellett az idő- és a szezonális hatásokat is, hogy
megbecsüljük a pandémia hatását a 2020-as és 2021-es hazai férfi-, női és a
teljes népesség szuicid rátájára. Eredmények: A járvány első
évében az öngyilkossági ráta szignifikáns növekedését tapasztaltuk a férfiaknál
és a népesség egészénél. 2021-ben a férfi- és a teljes népességben megfigyelt
esetszámok meghaladták ugyan a járvány előtti év esetszámait, ám a regressziós
becslés szerint a ráta növekedése a férfiaknál nem tért el szignifikánsan a
járvány előtti évek szintjétől, és csak 10%-on bizonyult szignifikánsnak a
teljes populáció esetében. Megbeszélés és következtetés: Az
első két járványév adatainak vizsgálata alapján megállapítható, hogy a
pandémiának az öngyilkosságra gyakorolt kedvezőtlen hatása 2021-re a teljes
populáción belül mérséklődött, míg a férfiaknál eltűnt. Nyitott kérdés, hogy ez
a kedvező fordulat tartósnak bizonyul-e a jövőben. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(48):
Bevezetés: A Leber-féle congenitalis amaurosis az örökletes
ideghártya-dystrophiák csoportjába tartozó, genetikailag igazolható olyan
kórkép, mely már fiatalkorban jelentős látásromláshoz vezet. A betegség először
a látótér koncentrikus beszűkülését, idővel pedig a centrális látás elvesztését
okozza. A voretigén neparvovec (Luxturna®, Novartis Pharmaceuticals
AG, Bázel, Svájc) terápia révén az RPE65-gén mutációja következtében kialakuló
ideghártya-dystrophia az első olyan szemészeti kórkép, mely esetén lehetőség van
génterápia alkalmazására. Célkitűzés: Az RPE65 biallelikus
génmutáció miatt voretigén neparvovec génterápiában elsőként részesült magyar
betegek kezelési eredményeinek bemutatása. Módszer: Genetikai
vizsgálattal igazoltan RPE65 biallelikus génmutációban szenvedő két betegünk
egy-egy szemén voretigén neparvovec génterápiában részesült. A kezelést
megelőzően, valamint az utánkövetés időszakában vizsgáltuk a legjobb korrigált
látásélességet, a centrális retinavastagságot, a látótérszűkület mértékét,
valamint elektrofiziológiai vizsgálatokat végeztünk.
Eredmények: A kezelés hatására mind a legjobb korrigált
látásélesség (a testvérpár idősebb tagjánál +3, a fiatalabb testvérnél +10
betű), mind a látótérszűkület mértéke javulást mutatott mindkét beteg esetében.
A látásfunkciók változása jelentős életminőség-javulást eredményezett betegeink
mindennapi életében. Következtetés: Betegeink posztoperatív
eredményei korrelálnak a klinikai vizsgálatok eredményeivel. Orv Hetil. 2022;
A coronariabetegség diagnosztikájában az elmúlt évtizedekben egyre fontosabb
szerep jut a koronarográfia során használt invazív funkcionális
vizsgálómódszereknek. A hagyományos, csak anatómiai értékekkel számoló
koronarográfiás vizsgálat nem nyújt információt arról, hogy az intermedier
laesiók okoznak-e vérellátási zavart, illetve gyakran nem áll rendelkezésre a
vizsgálat előtt elvégzett, ischaemiát igazoló és lokalizáló, megfelelő
szenzitivitású és specificitású noninvazív vizsgálómódszer. Számos tanulmány
rávilágított a funkcionális invazív vizsgálómódszerek használata során szerzett
klinikai előnyökre. Revascularisatio hiányában a koszorúér-betegség funkcionális
súlyossága fordított arányban áll a nemkívánatos cardiovascularis eseményekkel.
Lényeges pontja a szív vérellátásának javításakor azoknak az eltéréseknek a
kiválasztása, amelyek az ischaemiáért a leginkább okolhatók. A diffúz betegség
és többszörös szűkületek invazív funkcionális vizsgálata egyelőre még nincs
teljes mértékben tisztázva. A klinikai vizsgálatokkal igazolt módszereken túl új
eljárásokat dolgoztak ki az utóbbi időben, mint például a ’pullback pressure
gradient’ alkalmazása vagy az ’instantaneous wave-free ratio intensity’. Így
lehetőség nyílhat az adott coronarián belül a funkcionálisan súlyos, az éren
belüli ischaemiáért, illetve tünetekért elsősorban felelős laesiók
kiválasztására és revascularisatiójára vagy diffúz betegség, egyértelműen nem
kijelölhető laesio esetén a gyógyszeres kezelés optimalizálására. Orv Hetil.
2022; 163(48): 1902–1908.
Theories posit that the combination of external (e.g. cue exposure) and internal (e.g. attention biases) factors contributes to the development of game craving. Nevertheless, whether different components of attentional biases (namely, engagement bias and disengagement bias) play separate roles on game craving has not been fully elucidated. We aimed to examine the associations between two facets of attentional biases and game craving dynamics under a daily life setting.
Participants (110 regular internet game players) accomplished the modified attentional assessment task in the laboratory, after which they entered a 10-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to collect data on their momentary game craving and occurrence of game-related events at five different time points per day.
We found that occurrence of game-related events was significantly associated with increased game craving. Moreover, attentional disengagement bias, instead of engagement bias, bore on the occasional level variations of game craving as moderating variables. Specifically, attentional disengagement bias, not engagement bias, was associated with a greater increase in game craving immediately after encountering a game-related event; however, neither attentional engagement bias nor disengagement bias was associated with the craving maintenance after a relatively long period.
Discussion and conclusions
The present study highlights the specific attentional processes involved in game craving dynamics, which could be crucial for designing interventions for attentional bias modification (ABM) in Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) populations.
Internet use has become an important part of daily living. However, for a minority it may become problematic. Moreover, problematic use of the Internet/smartphone (PUIS) has been associated with low physical activity. The present study investigated the temporal associations between three types of PUIS (i.e., problematic smartphone use [PSPU], problematic social media use [PSMU] and problematic gaming [PG]) and physical activity among Taiwanese university students.
A six-month longitudinal survey study comprising three time points for assessments was conducted. From the original 974 participants, a total of 452 completed all three waves of an online survey comprising the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) assessing physical activity level, Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) assessing PSPU, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) assessing PSMU, and Internet Gaming Disorder Short Form (IGDS9-SF) assessing PG.
The linear mixed effects model found positive temporal associations of PSMU and PG with physical activity level (PSMU: B = 85.88, SE = 26.24; P = 0.001; PG: B = 36.81, SE = 15.17; P = 0.02). PSPU was not associated with physical activity level (B = 40.54, SE = 22.99; P = 0.08). Additionally, the prevalence rates were 44.4% for at-risk/PSPU, 24.6% for at-risk/PSMU, and 12.3% for at-risk/PG.
Discussion and Conclusions
PSMU and PG unexpectedly demonstrated correlations with higher physical activity level. The nature of these relationships warrants additional investigation into the underlying mechanisms in order to promote healthy lifestyles among university students.
This article is about Ildiko Enyedi's film “Testről és lélekről”. It proposes a semiotic analyse. Its thematic frame is a theory of the fantastic literature and film and refers to Tzvetan Todorov (part 1). Following Roand Barthes “S/Z” it discusses the codes in the film, the sequences and spaces in the film (part 2). In the next part the composition of the film comes into play (e. g. repetition, analogy). The fourth part is dedicated to the uncanny and fantastic element that are created by a lack of knowledge about the world in the and the figures of the movy. The article refers to Freud's “Traumdeutung”. Part 5 analyses the funktion of silence in the film on several levels (level of narrating, communication of the figures in the film). The film is seen in a post-romantic tradition which is in-written in “classical modernism”.
In this paper, three new species of the alycaeid genus Dicharax Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1900 are described, namely Dicharax floridus n. sp., Dicharax spatiosus n. sp. (Both from Shan State, Myanmar) and Dicharax kosztarabi n. sp. (from Thailand). All three new species are known from their holotypes.
Accumulating evidence suggests brain structural and functional alterations in Internet Use Disorder (IUD). However, conclusions are strongly limited due to the retrospective case-control design of the studies, small samples, and the focus on general rather than symptom-specific approaches.
We here employed a dimensional multi-methodical MRI-neuroimaging design in a final sample of n = 203 subjects to examine associations between levels of IUD and its symptom-dimensions (loss of control/time management, craving/social problems) with brain structure, resting state and task-based (pain empathy, affective go/no-go) brain function.
Although the present sample covered the entire range of IUD, including normal, problematic as well as pathological levels, general IUD symptom load was not associated with brain structural or functional alterations. However, the symptom-dimensions exhibited opposing associations with the intrinsic and structural organization of the brain, such that loss of control/time management exhibited negative associations with intrinsic striatal networks and hippocampal volume, while craving/social problems exhibited a positive association with intrinsic striatal networks and caudate volume.
Our findings provided the first evidence for IUD symptom-domain specific associations with progressive alterations in the intrinsic structural and functional organization of the brain, particularly of striatal systems involved in reward, habitual and cognitive control processes.
The bark of Eucommia ulmoides and the roots of Achyranthes bidentata are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, and their pairing appears in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas as a recognized compatible unit. However, the changes and interactions of the main components of these two formulas when paired remain unclear, and there is currently no standard or method for their quality control and assessment of pharmacological effects.
An optimized ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous identification of 10 components in E. ulmoides and A. bidentata using in vitro and in vivo models. Tributyltin methacrylate was the internal standard solution, and the blood samples were treated by an organic solvent precipitation method. Gradient elution was conducted on a C18 column at 25 °C with 0.1% formic acid water:acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min−1. Dynamic multiple response monitoring was performed in negative-ion mode using an Agilent Jet Stream electrospray ionization ion source.
In negative-ion detection mode, eucommiol exhibited a good response, and the isomers ginsenoside Ro and achyranthoside C could also be well separated. The developed method accurately detected the five components with a low blood content. Compared to controls, the levels of ginsenoside Ro, chikusetsusaponin Ⅳa, and achyranthoside C increased; the contents of geniposidic acid and pinoresinol diglucoside were unchanged; and the levels of eucommiol, geniposide, β-ecdysterone, genipin, and achyranthoside D decreased in vitro. In vivo, the contents of geniposidic acid, geniposide, pinoresinol diglucoside, and β-ecdysterone were reduced; the contents of eucommiol and ginsenoside Ro were unchanged; and those of achyranthoside D, chikusetsusaponin Ⅳa, and achyranthoside C increased compared to the corresponding levels in the internal control.
A method for the quality control of the E. ulmoides-A. bidentata drug pair was established for the first time and the main components in 10 drug pairs could be determined simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. These findings show that the E. ulmoides and A. bidentata drug pair cause a compositional change, providing new ideas for the development of this combination to improve clinical efficacy.
Oleogels have been extensively investigated in the food processing in recent years, and they have become one of the healthier alternative. The possibility of constructing oleogel material in a manner similar to hydrocolloid gel has now been gradually becoming a reality. In this regard, this review provides coverage of the latest developments and applications of oleogels in terms of preparation strategies, physicochemical properties, health aspects, and potential food applications. Both solid fat content and crystallisation behaviour are discussed for oleogels fabricated by gelators and under different conditions. Oleogels could replace hydrogenated vegetable oils in food product, reduce the fatty acid content, and be used to prepare food products such as meat, ice-cream, chocolate, bread, and biscuits with desirable properties. The aims were to assess the formation mechanism, construction methods of oleogels and the advance on the application of oleogel structures in the food field, as well as the further exploration of oleogels and in complex food systems in the future.
We aim to explore whether ongoing digital innovations in Premier League clubs may substantiate a prospective change in their business model and potentially lead to a solution to the financial sustainability issue in professional football. Our exploratory study is to identify ongoing digital innovations and what changes can be foreseen in future years. The empirical analysis is based on information collected from club webpages, their selected social media pages, and top sports business journals. Our results indicate that despite the numerous digital innovations already implemented in the clubs, their utilisation has not reached a level to justify a more complex business model innovation. However, several changes indicate that such a fundamental transformation will likely happen in the foreseeable future. Our work's scholarly contribution is exploring a novel field of study concentrating on the digitally focused business model innovations of professional clubs, unlike most football business model analyses that focus on leagues. We have concluded that clubs can and should apply business innovations to look for more financially sustainable operations, even without necessarily waiting for changes to be made in the generic competitive structure they perform in.
In this paper, we argue that the very convincing performance of recent deep-neural-model-based NLP applications has demonstrated that the distributionalist approach to language description has proven to be more successful than the earlier subtle rule-based models created by the generative school. The now ubiquitous neural models can naturally handle ambiguity and achieve human-like linguistic performance with most of their training consisting only of noisy raw linguistic data without any multimodal grounding or external supervision refuting Chomsky's argument that some generic neural architecture cannot arrive at the linguistic performance exhibited by humans given the limited input available to children. In addition, we demonstrate in experiments with Hungarian as the target language that the shared internal representations in multilingually trained versions of these models make them able to transfer specific linguistic skills, including structured annotation skills, from one language to another remarkably efficiently.
Effect of microwave drying on milling, cooking, and microstructure characteristic of paddy rice in comparison to hot air drying was assessed in the present study. Results revealed that modified microwave drying significantly (P < 0.05) affected the milling quality of paddy. Raw paddy had head rice recovery of 49.63%, while after microwave drying, the head rice recovery increased by 6.73% in comparison to hot air drying. Microwave drying brought significant changes in the colour characteristic of rice as it had total colour change of 13.50 in comparison to 10.93 by hot air drying. Cooking time and water uptake ratio after microwave drying increased to 31.46 min and 3.16%, in comparison to 27.05 min and 2.65% for hot air dried samples, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope images revealed that both hot air and microwave dried rice had a coarse surface and large starch particles, while starch structure was more damaged in hot air drying, however, agglomeration of protein-starch matrix was more uniform in microwave dried samples due to modification of the microwave applicator that prevented thermal decomposition. It was recommended that paddy may be dried using a modified microwave applicator with a shorter duration and a better quality.
Although the name of Ferenc Hunyadi is known in Hungarian literary history mainly for his Hungarian-language historical song about the peril of Troy, there also exist more than five thousand lines of Latin poetry by him which have not been collected or published since the 16th century. Another eleven of his poems are known from a manuscript written by a Unitarian pastor in the early 17th century. A further, one-distich poem was recorded by István Szamosközy. The date of composition of his poems in manuscript can be placed roughly between the end of 1586 and 1599. In addition to these, there is also a manuscript kept in Oxford in which Hunyadi gives prescriptions for febrile diseases. As a starting point for further research, this paper summarises what is currently known about Hunyadi and his works.
This study focused on the characterization of 19 hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, that were identified from 26 hypermucosal strains. In order to identify hypermucoviscous strains of K. pneumoniae, the string test was applied. This phenotype is known in the literature as one of the virulence factors of this species together with the production of biofilm and other hypervirulence factor genes such as: rmpA, rmpA2, iucA, iroB, peg-344. We also investigated presence of magA gene that correlates with the hyper-production of capsule of K1 serotype. Of the strains under study, 13 out of 19 harboured at least one virulence factor.
Sequence type (ST) was determined in order to identify known high-risk clones or new emerging high-risk clones and their variability in a single clinical setting. Important STs found among these strains were ST65 and ST29. Carbapenem resistance was also investigated and 4 out of 19 strains harboured at least a carbapenemase: one strain harboured a KPC enzyme alone, one strain carried a KPC and an OXA-48 like, one strain produced OXA-48-like alone, and the last strain harboured two metallo-β-lactamases (VIM-1 and NDM-5) plus OXA-48-like. In particular, this latter strain belongs to ST383, which was recently reported in Northern Italy as a hypervirulent and XDR strain.
The global spread of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae is an important epidemiological issue that should be considered in diagnostic and therapeutic managements of patients with K. pneumoniae infections.
Oceans and marine resources represent an invaluable source of life and well-being for humanity. Despite their contribution, oceans are constantly affected by human activities such as overfishing, shipping, and resource extraction, thus jeopardizing the viability of marine ecosystems. Periodically, a series of global initiatives led by the United Nations have sought to reverse these negative effects and safeguard sustainable ocean use. The United Nation's Law of the Sea (1982, UNCLOS) is a prominent undertaking in this direction, as it has created the legal framework for sustainable ocean governance. Norway, an ocean nation, has been a strong supporter of this international treaty, but also of the recent sustainable development goals (SDGs), which have typically complemented UNCLOS in the global quest for ocean sustainability. In this context, this paper delves into and posits the synergies and interactions between UNCLOS and SDGs and describes the related shifts in Norway's ocean governance regime.
Hungarian has a prolific system of complex predicate formation combining a separable preverb and a verb. These combinations can enter a wide range of constructions, with the preverb preserving its separability to some extent, depending on the construction in question. The primary concern of this paper is to advance the investigation of these phenomena by presenting PrevDistro (Preverb Distributions), an open-access dataset containing more than 41.5 million corpus occurrences of 49 preverb construction types. The paper gives a detailed introduction to PrevDistro, including design considerations, methodology and the resulting dataset's main characteristics.
Nowadays, it is quite common in linguistics to base research on data instead of introspection. There are countless corpora – both raw and linguistically annotated – available to us which provide essential data needed. Corpora are large in most cases, ranging from several million words to some billion words in size, clearly not suitable to investigate word by word by close reading. Basically, there are two ways to retrieve data from them: (1) through a query interface or (2) directly by automatic text processing. Here we present principles on how to soundly and effectively collect linguistic data from corpora by querying i.e. without knowledge of programming to directly manipulate the data. What is worth thinking about, which tools to use, what to do by default and how to solve problematic cases. In sum, how to obtain correct and complete data from corpora to do linguistic research.
We developed and validated a sensitive, heart-cutting, two-dimensional liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC‒MS/MS) method to determine the concentration of mometasone furoate in human plasma after nasal spray administration. Isotopically labeled mometasone furoate-13C,d6 was used as an internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were prepared using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. With this 2D-LC strategy, the analytes were trapped in the first dimension (1D) column, and only judiciously selected portions of the 1D effluent were transferred to the second dimension (2D) column for further separation to obtain high-resolution information. MS/MS quantification was performed in positive ionization mode via multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). This analytical method was fully validated according to related regulatory guidance, and the results showed that the method is robust and sensitive enough for pharmacokinetic investigation of mometasone furoate with satisfactory linearity from 0.25 to 30 pg mL−1. This method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence (BE) study of mometasone furoate aqueous nasal sprays in healthy volunteers.
With the increase of international sports events in Hungary, their number, size, coverage, required investments, social impacts, the number of stakeholders, and people's involvement have also grown, while social support has bottomed out. How can we achieve social support? What are the factors that determine the perception of the residents of the organising city, thus, their social support? This question is answered by analysing the case of the European Youth Olympic Festival in Győr. The empirical research used quantitative methods, obtaining residents' opinions of international sports events before and after the event. The paper shows that a general positive opinion of international sports events is positively correlated with high levels of both spectator and participation sports consumption. Also, those who are personally satisfied with their quality of life generally support the organisation of international sports events and think positively of their impact. The level of satisfaction with life is correlated with satisfaction with the city and a positive opinion of its services. The regression model shows that personal involvement (e.g., interest, participation, and volunteering) is positively related to the evaluation of the impacts of sports events.
The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC, proposed by Levesque, Davis & Morgenstern 2012) is considered to be the novel Turing Test to examine machine intelligence. Winograd schema questions require the resolution of anaphora with the help of world knowledge and commonsense reasoning. Anaphora resolution is itself an important and difficult issue in natural language processing, therefore, many other datasets have been created to address this issue. In this paper we look into the Winograd schemata and other Winograd-like datasets and the translations of the schemata to other languages, such as Chinese, French and Portuguese. We present the Hungarian translation of the original Winograd schemata and a parallel corpus of all the translations of the schemata currently available. We also adapted some other anaphora resolution datasets to Hungarian. We aim to discuss the challenges we faced during the translation/adaption process.
A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) helps the user stay continuously informed about blood glucose levels and reach the right target range. This study aimed to compare glycemic control and mental health of adults with type 1 diabetes with or without CGM and to examine their experiences using it.
Patients were included in the survey, whether or not they had used a CGM. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health, problems with disease management, hypoglycemia attitudes and behavior, as well as glucose monitoring satisfaction.
277 people participated in the study. CGM users (61.3%) had a more favorable glycemic control than those who were not. No differences were observed between the 2 groups in mental health and in response to hypoglycemic events; however, users reported more disease-related problems. CGM users reported they felt more open and free about diabetes, however, the pain and skin irritation caused by the device was disturbing and it was difficult to cope emotionally with the constant thought and worrying about diabetes.
CGM did not show clear satisfaction among users, however, less fear of hypoglycemia, fewer depression symptomology and improved glycemic control indicate better clinical status, which is one of the most important goals of disease management.
Recognition of Hungarian conversational telephone speech is challenging due to the informal style and morphological richness of the language. Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) can provide remedy for the high perplexity of the task; however, their high complexity makes them very difficult to apply in the first (single) pass of an online system. Recent studies showed that a considerable part of the knowledge of NNLMs can be transferred to traditional n-grams by using neural text generation based data augmentation. Data augmentation with NNLMs works well for isolating languages; however, we show that it causes a vocabulary explosion in a morphologically rich language. Therefore, we propose a new, morphology aware neural text augmentation method, where we retokenize the generated text into statistically derived subwords. We compare the performance of word-based and subword-based data augmentation techniques with recurrent and Transformer language models and show that subword-based methods can significantly improve the Word Error Rate (WER) while greatly reducing vocabulary size and memory requirements. Combining subword-based modeling and neural language model-based data augmentation, we were able to achieve 11% relative WER reduction and preserve real-time operation of our conversational telephone speech recognition system. Finally, we also demonstrate that subword-based neural text augmentation outperforms the word-based approach not only in terms of overall WER but also in recognition of Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV) words.
This study aimed to develop and characterise emulgels based on aqueous γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (γ-CD-MOF) solutions with sunflower oil in the presence of Tween 20, 40, and 60 emulsifiers. The main physical, structural, and rheological properties of γ-CD-MOF emulgels were investigated. The emulgels prepared with 5% and 10% γ-CD-MOF were durable. The X-ray diffraction patterns proved the existence of β polymorph type lipid crystals. The rheological analyses showed that the gel strength increased with increased γ-CD-MOF concentration, and thixotropic behaviour was observed depending on the gel strength at 10 °C. In addition, the samples were heat resistant proved by rheological temperature ramp tests. Finally, addition of the emulsifiers did not cause any change in the centrifuge stability and colour properties of the emulgels. These samples could be used to prepare different emulsion type food products.
To study the feasibility of evaluating the quality characteristics of banana based on the browning area. The texture characteristics, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, relative conductivity, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities in banana peels were detected during storage. A linear model was made by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression between the banana browning area and characteristic indices. The results showed that the changes in the physiological characteristics of bananas were significantly different during different storage periods. The main factors that affected the banana browning area were relative conductivity, PAL, TSS, and MDA, indicating that lipid peroxidation, respiration, and metabolism of phenylpropanoids had significant influence on the banana browning area during storage. Thus, it is feasible to predict banana quality based on changes in browning area, which could be a rapid and non-destructive detection of banana quality during storage.