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Abstract

Ernő Dohnányi, the world-renowned musician, was almost entirely forgotten during the decades between his emigration in 1944 and the change of political regime in Hungary: his name actually disappeared from public cultural knowledge. Though there may have been several explanations for the ignorance, it is not an exaggeration to state that the main reasons behind the tragic gap in his posthumous reception are of a political nature. It is widely known nowadays that during the settlements after World War II, Dohnányi – in his absence – was charged with intellectual collaboration with the Hungarian far right-wing regime. According to the present state of research, the charges were finally withdrawn as they were mostly ungrounded. Yet, the formerly adored artist and central personality in cultural life had become persona non grata for more than 40 years. After the political changes, his oeuvre seemed to be rehabilitated but without a thorough investigation of the charges and their background. This is why political prejudices are currently experienced simultaneously with a total bagatellization of the possible mistakes in his interwar activity. Thus, a systematic research into this subject has become very urgent. This study, which is intended to be a chapter of a full-length monograph on Dohnányi and politics (expected in 2023/24), was founded by the János Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and is one of the very first publications of this project in English. It aims to give a thorough description of the first two years of the official proceeding against Dohnányi at the different investigative levels such as the justificatory committees, public prosecutor, and government ministry.

Open access

Abstract

Vergil interweaves the varying meanings of amor, from not only a positive force, to aggressive desires and to all its varied aspects, making it both harsh, deceptive and cruel, and conversely something very special reflecting things most cherished and respected.

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Abstract

In the first seasons of the Royal Academy of Music in London, its directors saw George Frideric Handel as one among several composers whose style reflected expectations of what Italian opera in London should be like. At one point, Handel’s slightly older Italian contemporaries Giovanni Bononcini and Attilio Ariosti were in equal positions to compete for success. This paper will focus on Attilio Ariosti as the seemingly most moderate party in the rivalry between the three composers to see if the specificities of the centers he was active in affected his output in the realm of the vocal duet, a less common and somewhat less important constituent of dramatic vocal genres as opposed to the dominant arias. The examination of duets in some of Ariosti’s works written for Berlin, Vienna, and London, and some comparisons with the duets by both Bononcini and Handel will shed a light on these relationships affected by competition and rivalry.

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Abstract

Following the debut of Károly Szabados's ballet Vióra on March 14, 1891, the daily newspaper Pesti Hírlap called the date a glorious day not only for Hungarian music, but also for Hungarian genius and spirit in general, and treated the debut at the Hungarian Royal Opera House in Budapest as an allegory for spring: “It was as if the refreshing, revitalizing breaths of that traditional March breeze had blown across the hall of muses on Andrássy Road: such was the enthusiasm dominating the spectators' benches and the stage alike.” According to the newspaper, it was the long-anticipated victory of “the Hungarian genius, which some had begun to consider as almost alien to the Hungarian royal theater,” and it was all thanks to Géza Zichy (1849–1924), one of whose first acts as intendant was bringing this long neglected piece to the stage. In the context of Vióra's premiere, the “Hungarian genius” and the “Hungarian spirit” manifested on several levels, as it was the decision of a Hungarian intendant to present the evening-long ballet of a Hungarian author revolving around Hungarian themes; but this raises the question, why did a Hungarian ballet carry such significance at the time? What place does Károly Szabados, the author of the ballet, occupy in the history of Hungarian music, and how was the ballet and its music received by contemporaries in and out of the limelight? This study attempts to answer these questions by examining contemporary Hungarian and German news articles and music critiques published in Budapest.

Open access

Beporzók mint fontos ökológiai és gazdasági biztonsági tényezők

Pollinators as important ecological and economical safety factors

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki

Összefoglalás.

A növényi beporzást sok esetben segítik a beporzók, hozzájárulva a termés- és magképzéshez, szaporodáshoz. Ezzel a beporzók ökológiai és gazdasági értelemben is kiemelt fontosságú szerepet játszanak az emberek életében, környezeti, élelmezési, anyagi és egészségi biztonságuk vonatkozásában egyaránt. Az állati beporzás a zárvatermő virágos növények 87%-át érinti, ami a szárazföldi vegetációt alapjaiban meghatározza. Ebbe a körbe tartozik a termesztett növények háromnegyede is, így a mezőgazdasági termelésben játszott szerepük mind mennyiségi, mind minőségi értelemben kiemelkedő. Közvetlen kihatással vannak az emberi egészségre, létfontosságú vitaminok, ásványi anyagok biztosításával. A beporzók megőrzése, hanyatló trendjeik megállítása ezért az emberiség elemi érdeke, mind hazai, mind globális vonatkozásban.

Summary.

Pollinators, including wild and managed bees, hoverflies, diurnal and nocturnal butterflies, wasps, bugs, other insects, birds and mammals play an important role in the reproduction, seed and fruit production of most dicotyledonous plant species, including three-quarters of the cultivated plants. Through their pollination as an ecosystem service their ecological and economical importance is enormous, and has a key role in human safety regarding food, health, finances and the environment. Animal pollination can be only partially or essentially needed by a plant species to reach its optimal fruit or seed quality and quantity. The pollinator related wild plants are important elements of the terrestrial ecosystems, providing our environment safety through elemental material circles. However, the foraging and nesting resources they need are limited in managed ecosystems, such as intensive agricultural or industrial landscapes. Pollinators contribute to the production of the majority of cultivated plants at a certain extent, including such economically important crops like sunflower, oilseed rape, apple, cherry, water melon, etc. Their direct contribution to global food production seems to be low, only 5-8%, but this share in human diet ensures such nutrients, vitamins and minerals that are essential for health development and life. Furthermore, besides the physical health, pollinators play a key role in mental health as well by the provision of diverse and flowering environment, enjoyed by any outdoor activities. Unfortunately, populations of many wild pollinator species decline worldwide and high proportion of honeybee colonies are lost from time to time in several regions. The main drivers behind these declines are habitat loss and change caused mainly by agricultural intensification and urbanisation, climate change, invasion, pests and pathogens and pesticide use. To halt these declines overwhelming strategies are needed at local, national, regional and global level. The EU Pollinator Strategy and the Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets ambitious targets for pollinator conservation, initiating among others an EU level pollinator monitoring program, that is under test phase. These actions might have the chance to reverse the pollinator decline and maintain pollinators and pollination services, however, only in the case of real actions with joint effort of scientists, decision makers and the public.

Open access

Abstract

Constitutional identity appears as an increasingly frequent argument in the case law of constitutional courts in Europe. For many authors, it is a way to initiate dialogue with the European Union on equal terms. In this article, we argue that dialogue is not always a source of harmony, because the terms of the interaction are not exactly the same in Luxembourg and in the member states of the European Union. The Court of Justice of the European Union interprets the national identity of the member states in a way that is not always similar to the content given by the States to their constitutional identity. As a consequence, constitutional identity may allow the Member States to strengthen the specificity of their constitutional rules and, in turn, weaken the unity of European constitutionalism. Far from being an Esperanto, constitutional identity rather appears as the new legal Babel in Europe.

Full access

Abstract

The performances of Ernő Dohnányi as pianist and conductor were preserved on numerous sound recordings. He was involved in the recording industry first in 1905, and his death was notoriously caused by a cold suffered in a recording studio in 1960. His interpretation is preserved on different audio media: piano rolls, 78rpm and Long Play discs, x-ray foils and reel-to-reel tapes. Although the number of his studio recordings, made for commercial purposes, is relatively small, the amount of live concert and home recordings, including the huge collection of unpublished recordings made in the USA between 1945 and 1960, expands it to a significant corpus of sound recordings. This article contains the complete discography of Ernő Dohnányi as a performer. The discography provides all available data of the studio and live recordings of Dohnányi, including the data of reissues (closing date: June 2022). It is preceded by an article in which Dohnányi's discography is analysed from several aspects. The analysis of the recorded repertoire sets the stage for further research on Dohnányi's interpretation; however, lost recordings are also reviewed. Dohnányi's controversial relationship to the technical media, and vice versa the recording firms changing interest in him as a performer, are also discussed in detail, involving several sources formerly unknown to Dohnányi research.

Open access
Imaging
Authors:
Zakaria Saied
,
Jeridi Cyrine
,
Nabli Fatma
,
Myriam Medini
,
Belal Samir
, and
Samia Ben Sassi

Abstract

A 44-year-old female patient with a history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers presented with rapid gait disturbance, headaches, dysphonia, dysphagia, and diplopia evolving for 3 weeks. On examination, spastic tetraparesis, cerebellar ataxia, and nerves palsies were noted. Pseudofolliculitis of the lower limbs and active buccal ulcers were identified. Cerebral MRI demonstrated T2-Flair hyperintense capsulothalamic lesion with midbrain and latero-protuberantial extension. The international criteria for the diagnosis of definite Neuro-Behçet’s disease (NBD) were met in our patient. Evolution under cyclophosphamide and intravenous methylprednisolone was favorable. The radiological findings in NBD are broad and challenging. Clinicians should be particularly suspicious of NBD in brain MRI with extensive lesions, involving the brainstem.

Open access

Abstract

In its ‘refugee quota decision’ of 2016 the ‘invented’ its competences of ultra vires, sovereignty and constitutional identity controls. The sword of constitutional identity (CI) has been forged against foreign – first of all – EU law. In the development of the new concept the interplay between the Government, the Government-dominated parliament and the Constitutional Court loyal to the Government seems to be evident. The textual analysis of the relevant HCC's decisions proves that the Hungarian Constitutional identity (HCI) contains legal acts in force – including the Fundamental Law (constitution) and the Founding treaties of the EU -, legal acts ‘not in force but valid’ and activities related to the fight for independence of the Hungarian State.

As far as the nature of the HCI is concerned, the article demonstrates the strong relationship with sovereignty control, and the ‘historical constitution’ and emphasises the HCC's statement according to which the CI is not created by the constitution, it is merely acknowledges it.

Given the large number of elements identified as part of the HCI, its openness to the inclusion of further elements, and the questionable nature of the HCI, the author submits that the concept is inappropriate for any meaningful constitutional review.

The HCC – at least until now – despite being invited to do so, has refused to use the sword against EU secondary law and the judgment of the European Court of Justice, and avoided overt constitutional conflict. However, this does not mean that the HCC is ready to enter into sincere dialogue with the court in Luxembourg.

Open access

Legende und Wirklichkeit •

Anmerkungen zu den frühesten Angaben zur Orgelgeschichte Siebenbürgens

Studia Musicologica
Author:
Pál Enyedi

Abstract

This study examines the earliest data of the history of the organ in Transylvania collected in the past one hundred and fifty years. A thorough examination proved that data, based on incomplete documentation, on erroneous hypotheses or conclusions, had been quite unprofessionally put into contexts to which they had no proven connection. Thus, legends regarding the first representation of an organ, the first organ, the earliest organ builders etc. appeared in the costume of historicity and were widely circulated among different authors.

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Abstract

This article offers a phenomenological description of Béla Bartók's Improvisation op. 20 no. 3, with a focus on temporality as experienced in listening. Such a description aims at understanding the structure of eventings, through which we encounter and experience, grasp and take up the work's Gestalt in time as a singular dynamic whole, which is its being as becoming, its presentation in its idea and form. As a result, what we hear, perceive and understand as we listen to the work is revealed as the unfolding of a complex network of intersecting eventings, the crossing of contrarily directed motions, interpenetration of intonations and gestures, circularities on different perceptual levels from delaying and returning notes, intonations, gestures and themes, to thematic repetition and variation, their recallings and cross-referencing. These micro-eventings yield eventings on a larger perceptual level that include ternarity, cyclicity in its broadest sense and a concentric concave-shaped contour. This is the work's Gestalt; the unique balance as ratio, correlation and interrelation, not equilibrium, of all these eventings and temporalities.

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Abstract

Purpose

The interaction of orexinergic neurons with the opioidergic system and their effects on morphine analgesia and tolerance have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of the orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor (OX1R and OX2R) agonist and antagonist on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats.

Material and methods

A total of 90 Wistar albino male rats weighing 180–220 g were used in the experiments. To induce morphine tolerance, rats were injected with a single dose of morphine (50 mg kg−1, s.c.) for 3 days. Morphine tolerance was assessed on day 4 in randomly selected rats by analgesia tests. In order to evaluate morphine tolerance situation, orexin-A, SB-334867, orexin-B and TCS OX2 29 were administered together with morphine for 3 days. The analgesic effects of orexin-A (10 μg kg−1), OXR1 antagonist SB-334867 (10 mg kg−1), OXR2 agonist orexin-B (15 μg kg−1), OXR2 antagonist TCS OX2 29 (0.5 mg kg−1) and morphine (5 mg kg−1) were measured at 15 or 30-min intervals by tail-flick and hot-plate antinociceptive tests.

Results

The results suggested that the combination of orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 and orexin-B with morphine significantly increased the analgesic effect compared to morphine-tolerant rats. In addition, administration of orexin-A and -B alone showed significant analgesic effects compared to the saline group. However, co-administration of orexin-A and -B with morphine did not increase the analgesic efficacy of morphine.

Conclusions

The results of this study demonstrated that co-administration of SB-334867 and orexin-B with morphine attenuated morphine tolerance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the details of the interaction between orexin receptors and the opioidergic system.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Bastien Perrot
,
Jean-Benoit Hardouin
,
Elsa Thiabaud
,
Anaïs Saillard
,
Marie Grall-Bronnec
, and
Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated pre-existing high-levels of physician stress and burnout1. In order to help treat frontline colleagues who were diagnosed with acute stress disorder, we chose a non-psychedelic, ketamine micro-dose treatment strategy for symptom management.

Methods

We provided care virtually, and all patients were prescribed sublingual ketamine once daily. Each patient was evaluated using the NIH-PROMIS CAT assessments for stress, depression, anxiety, and PTSD via a remote, HIPAA compliant patient self-reporting platform. Progress was tracked and assessed against a baseline value obtained prior to the start of treatment. Patient progress was evaluated at a 4–6-week interval. Patients did not report any significant side effects to the treatment regimen.

Results

100% (25/25) of patients experienced improved anxiety, 92% (23/25) experienced improved stress, 96% (24/25) experienced improved PTSD, and 91% (20/22) experienced improved depression.

Conclusions

While we cannot draw definitive conclusions from the association demonstrated by this data, we believe these results demonstrate that further research into the efficacy of daily, short-term ketamine micro-doses for treatment of acute stress disorder is warranted.

Open access

Abstract

Folk art and applied folk art have been constantly shaped by cultural and political actors, as well as social and economic processes and the local society affected by them. In the context of these changes, the definitions of authentic, original, and genuine were given a new interpretation, which can be examined in different contexts. The question of authenticity in material folk art arose shortly after the birth of the concept of folk art and the “discovery” of folk art, and has accompanied the history of the revival of material folk art. Nevertheless, although discourses on the subject have been ongoing for a long time in the fields of folklore, theoretical works dealing with material folk art have not paid much attention to the issue of authenticity. The study first describes the contexts through which the issue of authenticity was articulated in artifact production inspired by folk art. The changed social conditions during the 20th century have also generated, and are still generating, new legal dilemmas in the field of artifact production at both community and individual levels, such as the extent to which folk art is individual or community-owned (taking into account the narrower and wider community), and the copyright of an authentic folk artist or craftsman or a creator recognized as a folk artisan. The questions lead to the evolution of the definition of authenticity and point out, among other things, the role that the issue of authenticity plays in the process of the heritagization of folk art.

Open access

A Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív (READ) magyar nyelvű adaptációja

Hungarian adaptation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Kitti Kóródi
,
Erzsébet Szél
, and
Éva Szabó

Háttér és célkitűzések

A tanulmány célja a Hjemdal és munkatársai (2006) által kidolgozott Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív hazai adaptációja, amely alkalmas serdülők és fiatal felnőttek személyes és környezeti erőforrásainak mérésére.

Módszer

Magyar középiskolásokból és egyetemistákból (M = 18,85 év, SD = 2,39) álló mintán (Nközépiskolás = 490; Negyetemista = 593) ellenőriztük a kérdőív szerkezetét, belső megbízhatóságát, konstruktív validitását, illetve a reziliencia kapcsolatát demográfiai és pszichológiai jellegű változókkal.

Eredmények

A feltáró és megerősítő faktorelemzés szerint az ötfaktoros struktúra jellemző a kérdőívre, amelyet a célorientáció, a családi összetartás, a szociális kompetencia, a társas támogatottság és a magabiztosság alskálák alkotnak. A reziliencia kérdőíven a nemek között a társas támogatás és a magabiztosság alskálán találtunk különbséget, az életkor tekintetében pedig szintén a társas támogatás alskálán különböztek a 15–18 évesek és a 18–24 évesek pontszámai. Az észlelt társas támogatás pozitív irányú összefüggést mutatott a rezilienciával, a problémaviselkedés megjelenése azonban negatív irányút, ami alátámasztotta a Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív konstruktív validitását.

Következtetések

Az eredmények alapján kialakított 28 tételes kérdőív alkalmasnak bizonyult a serdülők és fiatal felnőtt rezilienciájának felmérésére, illetve azon belül a környezeti és személyes erőforrások elkülönítésére. A Cronbach-alfa-mutatók alapján minden alskála és a teljes skála belső megbízhatósága megfelelő mértékű. A kérdőív emiatt alkalmas lehet további feltáró kutatásokban való alkalmazásra.

Open access

Abstract

Sex differences in jealousy are a well-established research finding that suggests men (relative to women) will find the sexual components of an infidelity more distressing, whereas women (relative to men) will find the emotional components of an infidelity more distressing. This study uses a relatively novel sample of participants (individuals who engage in consensual non-monogamy) to test both cultural and evolutionary influences on jealousy. In our study using hypothetical scenarios, we found that men (relative to women) were more upset about the sexual components of the infidelity and that women (relative to men) were more upset about the emotional components of the infidelity. This occurred in both samples to the same magnitude suggesting that the differences between the men and women may be driven by evolutionary influences. Additionally, we found a main effect of relationship type such that participants who engaged in consensual non-monogamy had lower levels of jealousy overall. As such, this study provides relatively unique evidence for the ultimate origins of sex differences in jealousy.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors:
Gábor A. Fülöp
,
Álmos Gógl
,
Bálint Lakatos
,
Nóra Sydó
,
Emese Csulak
,
Bianka Mester
,
Szabolcs Tóth
,
Árpád Petrov
,
Vivien Klaudia Nagy
,
Gergo Merkely
, and
Béla Merkely

Abstract

Background

Organization of mass sport events in the COVID-19 era is utterly complicated. Containments measures, required to avoid a virus outbreak, force athletes to compete under circumstances they never experienced before, most likely having a deleterious effect on their performance.

Purpose

We aimed to design a so-called athlete-friendly bubble system for the International Swimming League 2020 event, which is strict enough to avoid a COVID-19 outbreak, but still provides a supportive environment for the athletes.

Methods

To avoid the feeling of imprisonment, athletes were permitted to spend a certain amount of time in the parks surrounding the hotels. Such alleviations were possible to apply with strict adherence to the hygienic and social distancing protocols and regular COVID-19 testing. Evaluation of every COVID-19 positive case was key, and if prolonged PCR positivity or false positive PCR result was identified, the unnecessary quarantine was planned to be lifted. Return to play protocol (RTP) was planned, in case of a COVID-19 infection of an athlete inside the bubble. To test, if the athlete-friendly system provided a supportive environment, we evaluated athlete performance.

Results

11,480 PCR tests were performed for 1,421 individuals. 63 COVID-19 positive cases were detected, of which 5 turned out to be clinically insignificant, either because of prolonged PCR positivity or because of a false positive result. 93.1% of the positive cases were detected in the local crew, while no athlete got infected inside the bubble, as the two infected athletes were tested positive upon arrival. RTP was provided for two athletes. 85% of the athletes showed improvement during the bubble and 8 world records were broken.

Conclusion

The applied protocol proved to be effective, as no athlete got infected inside the bubble, moreover, the athlete-friendly system supported the athletes to improve their performance.

Open access

Abstract

Many of the drafts and notes of Ernő Szücs Tárkány are in manuscript, and they can offer valuable clues for European legal ethnography. One of them is a manuscript by Tárkány Szücs, both in Hungarian and English, in the Archives of the Institute of Ethnology of the Research Centre for the Humanities, dated 1982 and titled Administering Justice — without State Courts, which has been awaiting publication for forty years. This study is an important milestone, as it demonstrates, based on a broad international perspective, that even in a field that was monopolized by the state very early on, such as administering justice, legal customs have survived to a great extent; and that legal ethnographic approaches make it possible to arrive at valid conclusions of practical importance through an expert comparison of legal phenomena that are distinct in time and space but have common characteristics. The English-language version of the study is being published verbatim (first publication).

Restricted access

Abstract

In this paper, advanced DC-Link (DCL) based reversing voltage type Multilevel Inverter (MLI) topologies by compensating the difficulties in the conventional MLIs are reviewed. These topologies consist of less switching components and driver circuits when compared with conventional MLIs predominantly in higher levels. Consequently, installation area, total cost and hardware difficulties are reduced by increasing the voltage levels. The unipolar based Pulse Width Modulation Schemes (PWMS) will improve DCL inverters performance. This paper presents unipolar Multi-Reference (MR) based sine and space vector PWMS with single triangular carrier wave for generating required levels in output voltage. Comparison between UMR sine and space vector PWMS for DCL inverter topologies is presented in terms of Fundamental Output Voltage (FOV) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The research tries to establish the survey analysis for single-phase 7-level DCL based reversing voltage type MLI topologies with UMR based sine and space vector PWMs. Finally, to confirm the feasibility of proposed DCL-MLIs in terms of FOV and THD the simulation results are incorporated. Further, the prototype model is developed for single-phase 7-level DCL inverter with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based UMR sine and space vector PWMS to authenticate simulation results. The efficiency of the proposed cascaded MLI achieves the value of 99.003%.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

The hallucinogenic drug psilocybin is being widely tested in humans for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Psilocybin and other psychedelics are proposed to work through serotonin 2a (5-HT2a) receptors, which are tightly linked to immune function. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a single dose of psilocybin on a panel of cytokines, chemokines, and peptides in the short term (24 h) and long term (seven days) in female rats.

Methods

Female rats were given a dose of psilocybin (20 mg kg−1, i.p.} or a dose of synthetic interstitial fluid. At 24 h, the control group and one group of rats were anesthetized, and blood was withdrawn by intracardiac puncture. In a third group of rats, blood was withdrawn after seven days. Serum was analyzed by a separate lab (Eve Laboratories, Calgary, Canada) for 27 immunomodulators.

Results

Serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, IP-10, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, and leptin were significantly increased compared to controls after 24 h and were increased further after 7 days. Most of the other assays showed this same pattern of increase, although not statistically significant.

Conclusions

Psilocybin induces the release of multiple immune factors, consistent with a generalized activation of the immune system, which can persist for at least seven days after a single dose. These findings may relate to the mechanism of action. The implications of these findings require additional research to determine how these finding relate to the clinical effects of psilocybin.

Open access

Abstract

In 1967, Ernő Tárkány Szücs published his article summarizing the results and tasks of European legal ethnography in the columns of Ethnologica Europeana in Paris (under the title Results and Task of Legal Ethnology in Europe). With this, he revived an important tradition of Hungarian legal ethnography: Károly Tagányi published his summary of international research history in German in 1922 (Lebende Rechtsgewohnheiten und ihre Sammlung in Ungarn. Ungarische Bibliothek. Für das Ungarische Institut an der Universität Berlin. Erste Reihe. Vereinigung wissenschaftlicher Verleger. Berlin und Leipzig). At the time of the publication of Ernő Tárkány Szücs's article, he was working as a ministerial official, but in Hungarian academic life he took a backseat. At the same time, however, he was in constant contact with several European representatives of legal folklore. As soon as he had the opportunity, Tárkány Szücs opened up to international scholarship, and became not only an active participant but also a prime mover of the international discourse on legal folk custom research. His recognition was indicated by the fact that throughout Europe, not only his studies published in various world languages but also his papers exclusively in Hungarian were often cited. Although the science policy in his country was not able to integrate the specifically interdisciplinary scientific research of Ernő Tárkány Szücs, or only haltingly, his international recognition was unquestionable all along.

Open access

Abstract

Ernő Tárkány Szücs (1921–1984) was a researcher who created a synthesis of Hungarian legal ethnography, a mediator of his results for European legal ethnographic research, and his scientific work is still an essential part of Hungarian research history. During the most intensive period (1939–1948) of Hungarian legal folklore research — which was delayed compared to European legal customs research — he became a lawyer and a researcher of Hungarian legal ethnography along with legal history professor György Bónis from Kolozsvár (nowdays Cluj-Napoca). Although in the next phase of his life (1950–1975), during the decades of socialism in Hungary, as a practicing lawyer, he could not professionally engage in legal ethnographic research, when he finally had the opportunity to do so in 1975 in the Ethnographic Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he presented a series of results of Hungarian legal ethnography. One of the most important of these was the publication of a monograph (Tárkány Szücs 1981), which is still considered to be the fundamental work of Hungarian legal ethnography, the conceptual and methodological foundation of the research field, the summary of research findings and at the same time its legitimation. Although the institutionalization of legal ethnographic research had not yet taken place at that time, Hungarian ethnography recognized Ernő Tárkány Szücs's research on legal folk customs as a “one-man” research field. During his research career, Tárkány Szücs continued to take an active role in international scientific life. He always considered it his task to make the findings of European legal ethnography known throughout Hungary, as well as to publish the findings of Hungarian legal ethnographic research in international scientific forums. The 2021 jubilee professional programs and publications of the Tárkány Szücs Ernő Legal Cultural Historical and Legal Ethnographical Research Group — an interdisciplinary research workshop established in 2011 with the aim of processing and enriching his research legacy and publications — were an opportunity to publish new research findings and formulate the ongoing tasks of Hungarian legal ethnography, beyond the evaluation of his research career and Hungarian legal ethnography from the dogmatic and methodological perspective.

Open access

Abstract

In the Káli Basin in the Balaton Uplands, four of the eight settlements bordering each other (Balatonhenye, Köveskál, Kővágóörs, Monoszló) were inhabited by petty nobles belonging to the gentry, living in curial villages, with a great deal of autonomy, self-governance, and within the framework of their established legal norms and legal customs. They lost most of their privileges in the mid-19th century, but some of their old and new legal customs survived until the mid-20th century. The study reviews part of their extensive living conditions, essentially from the last third of the 18th century. The way of life in this region, known for high-quality grapes and livestock, has changed a lot in the more than 200 years. The study describes each typical component of this life in view of the provisions of established law, customary law, and legal customs. Considering legal distinctions, it addresses secular and ecclesiastical administration, legal relationships regarding vineyards, certain work customs, succession laws, and the vestiges of petty nobility that survived into the 20th century. The role of certain legal customs contrary or complementary to the laws (contra legem, praeter legem) is also mentioned. The study provides a brief overview, or at least a taste, of the special (petty noble) legal folklore of the Káli Basin, which is rich in legal customs.

Open access

Abstract

The retention behaviour of scopolamine (hyoscine) and its related compounds (norhyoscine, atropine, homatropine, and noratropine) was investigated on the silica-based HPLC stationary phase. The retention of investigated tropane alkaloids was interpreted by using the Soczewiński-Wachtmeister equation. A high correlation between the retention parameter (log k) and lipophilicity (log P) (R = 0.9923) confirms the significant influence of hydrophobic interactions on the retention behaviour of the aforementioned compounds. It was found that by increasing the acetonitrile fraction, a decrease in retention of the more polar epoxide derivatives (scopolamine, norhyoscine) and an increase in retention of the more lipophilic derivatives (atropine, noratropine, homatropine) is obtained. The best separation of the tropane alkaloids was achieved by a simple procedure that involved a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 40 mM ammonium acetate/0.05% TEA, pH 6.5; 50:50 v/v. Selected conditions were assumed for the determination of scopolamine hydrochloride in the eye drops (Scopolamini hydrobromidum 0.25%). The method was validated and it was found as selective, sensitive, precise, accurate, and robust for the further qualitative analysis of the scopolamine-related compounds.

Open access

Abstract

Artistic behavior as aesthetically enhancing activities is conceptualized as a functionally autonomous activity within the evolved human behavioral repertoire. Accordingly, it should be intrinsically motivated, and it might also be expected to be temporally stable and domain specific. Preferential freely-pursued activities reflect intrinsic motivation and offer a valuable measure of artistic motivation. We used a large decades-long real-life public Brazilian data set from university applications to test these ideas. We analysed data on extra-class activities from 674.699 late-adolescents applying for university courses between 1987 and 2004, mostly between 17 and 19 years of age; approximately half men and half women. We found that 27% of individuals reported that Artistic/cultural activities were the leisure-time activity they participated in most frequently, and 32% reported they spent the longest period of free-time doing Artistic-activities (theater/cinema, music, dance, art-craft/plastic arts). Interestingly, from this whole sample, only less than 3% actually applied for artistic careers, which suggests that the prevalence of prioritizing artistic activities is higher than commonly assumed and includes not only professional artists, but also many hobbyists, amateurs and dedicated fans. Further, artistic careers applicants prioritize art almost three times more than the total of applicants, suggesting its specificity. After controlling for inconsistency of answer options during the period, prioritizing both Artistic/cultural and Artistic-activities remained temporally stable, as predicted. Despite limitations, overall results supported the hypotheses that artistic behavior is more intrinsically motivated, domain specific, and temporally stable. This plausibly demonstrates that artistic propensity has at least partly an evolved nature.

Open access

Chalcocondyles Latinus •

Konrad Clauser's translation of Chalkokondyles

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Tamás Mészáros

Abstract

Zurich scholar Konrad Clauser's translation of Chalkokondyles was printed in 1556 at Oporinus' publishing house in Basel. The present paper reconstructs the circumstances of the formation of that translation, provides a detailed account of the publication, attempts to establish which manuscript may have served as the basis for the translation, and presents an outline of the immediate reception of the translation.

Open access

Abstract

Aim

This study examines narratives describing complex psychedelic experiences after smoking N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

Methods

The narrative accounts examined here were gathered from a variety of online sites and analyzed in order to discover themes, categories and patterns in the phenomenon of the resulting psychedelic experiences.

Results

Subjects reported seeing complex and unusual visual and synesthetic phenomena, leaving this world and entering into extraordinary places, encounters with a variety of strange entities, interactions with unusual objects and a wide variety of powerful feelings. The general categories of Places, Objects, Entities and Feelings were found in the phenomena experienced by people who smoked N,N-Dimethyltryptamine. These provided a framework within which more detailed subcategories were found and the range of most frequent to least frequent experiences were identified.

Discussion

While DMT experiences are commonly described by people smoking N,N-dimethyltryptamine as indescribable, unique to everyone and taking place in a single domain called Hyperspace or the Hyperdimension, this research found distinct subcategories of frequently visited Places as well as frequently encountered Entities, Objects and Feelings. From these a more comprehensive understanding can be developed of the unusual and profound experiences resulting from inhalation of N,N,-Dimethyltryptamine.

Open access

Innovatív genomikai és élettani kutatások az angol telivér állomány versenyteljesítményének fokozása érdekében

Innovative genomic and physiological studies to improve the competitive performance of Thoroughbreds

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Judit Kis
,
Dávid Mezőszentgyörgyi
,
Attila Zsolnai
,
László Rózsa
,
Ferenc Husvéth
, and
István Anton

Összefoglalás.

Célkitűzés: Miosztatin (MSTN) genotípusok összefüggés-vizsgálata izomfejlődéssel és cardiovascularis paraméterekkel angol telivérekben.

Módszer: Három, MSTN-genotipizált csoportban echokardiográfiát és izomultrahangot végeztünk. Adatainkat SPSS 15.0 szoftverrel elemeztük.

Eredmények: A C/C csoport mért izomvastagságai 22,08 (p = 0,004) és 12,24 (p < 0,001) %-kal; a cardiovascularis rendszeré 6,33 (p = 0,015), 6,03 (p = 0,011) és 6,72 (p = 0,014) %-kal magasabb volt, mint a T/T genotípusnál. Pearson-féle R: anconeus pólyahossz r = 0,460; triceps r = 0,590; aorta Valsalva-öböl diasztolé r = 0,423, szisztolé r = 0,450, billentyűk síkjában szisztolé r = 0,462.

Következtetések: Az eredmények hozzájárulnak a galopplovak hatékony tréningmódszereinek kidolgozásához, így jelentősen befolyásolható eredményességük.

Summary.

Background: The myostatin gene (MSTN; g.66493737) C/T polymorphism has great influence on the development of the muscles and the rates between the types of muscle fibers as well as cardiovascular performance in thoroughbred horses. Consequently MSTN gene decisively determines the optimal race distance and racing ability in thoroughbreds through the muscle development regulation. A more detailed understanding of these genetic attributions and their associations leads us to be able to maximise the athletic potential of thoroughbreds.

Objective: In this paper the relationships were investigated between the MSTN genotypes and muscle development or the main cardiovascular parameters which affect or define the cardiac performance of thoroughbreds.

Methods: Ultrasonography and echocardiography was performed on each individual selected for our study. Sixty-six thoroughbreds were applied in each measurement (22 of each genotype, C/C, C/T and T/T). All of them participated at different races or were trained at the same time in Hungary. A portable MyLab™ ultrasound system (Alfa-Vet, Animal Healthcare Ltd.) was used for the measurements. To investigate the development of the candidate muscles the size of the anconaeous and triceps brachii muscles were used as indicators. The length of the mentioned muscles was given by the size of the total length of the muscle fascia (m. fasciae anconeus and m. fasciae triceps brachii). Thickness was measured at the largest anatomical diameter of the muscles. To characterize the cardiovascular system, the diameter of the Valsalva sinus of the aorta was measured at the end of diastole and systole, respectively, as well as the diameter of the aorta in the plane of the semilunar valves. The data were analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. Homogeneity of variance between groups was checked with Levene’s test and multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the correlations between the measured variables and the myostatin genotypes.

Results According to our measurements relationship was detected between individual myostatin genotypes, muscular development and cardiovascular parameters of the thoroughbreds. The muscle thickness and fascicle length of group C/C of MSTN showed significant differences compared to group T/T. Aortic diameter at the sinus of Valsalva (end-diastole and end-systole) and aortic diameter at the valve (end-systole) also indicated significant differences between C/C and T/T genotypes too. The thickness of the two muscles (anconaeous and triceps brachii) in the group C/C was 2.08 (p=0.004) and 12.24 (p<0.001) % higher; and of the parameters of cardiovascular system were 6.33 (p=0.015), 6.03 (p=0.011) and 6.72 (p=0.014) % greater, respectively, than in the T/T genotypes.

Conclusions: The results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of MSTN genetic variations on phenotypes, which help to develop new, effective training methods for racehorses in order to prepare them for their best race distance according to their genotypes. Thus, the competitive performance and racing ability of thoroughbreds can be improved significantly.

Open access

Abstract

In this study, we report the systematic approach for characterization of two major degradant impurities, which are not listed in any compendia and were formed during the stability studies of Dihydroergotamine mesylate injection (DHE). An ion-pair UPLC chromatographic method was developed to quantify the related substances present in the DHE injection drug product. The same was used to monitor the impurity profiling during its stability. The two unknown impurities were observed at RRT about 0.08 (Impurity-1) and RRT about 0.80 (Impurity-5) and found to be significantly increasing on stability. Forced degradation studies revealed the nature of the impurity and conditions required for enriching them. A Mass compatible HPLC method was developed to quantify only these two impurities using 25% ammonia and formic acid in water. Their mass numbers were identified using LC MS/MS with triple quadruple mass spectrometer coupled with a HPLC. These two impurities were then isolated from enriched products using preparative HPLC. These impurities were then characterized using Mass and NMR analysis along with Q-TOF elemental analysis.

Open access

Supercritical CO2 injection in moderate-tight hydrocarbon reservoirs, a preliminary case study

Szuperkritikus szén-dioxid besajtolása kis áteresztőképességű szénhidrogén tárolók esetén – előzetes esettanulmány.

Rezervoár szimuláció CO2 besajtolására és tárolására
Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Gábor Pál Veres

Summary.

The research deals with the investigation of one alternative of carbon-dioxide utilization – underground storage – from a petroleum geoscience point of view. The basic assumptions and the results of the laboratory studies to be carried out later are based on a specific hydrocarbon field in Hungary. The previously measured and studied geological and petrophysical parameters of the reservoir (porosity, permeability, saturation, capacity, etc.) will be restudied and specified, based on the results of the new concept of laboratory experiments.

By defining these parameters, a 3D geological model, a “Dynamic model” will be created to understand the effect of carbon-dioxide injection on the dynamic behavior of a moderate-tight sandstone reservoir. Based on the results of the dynamic model, the storage capacity will be defined. The carbon-dioxide injection laboratory experiments will contribute to understanding these underground geo-chemical reactions (e.g. carbonation ability, compositional variation) and flow characteristics.

Összefoglalás.

Korunk egyik legmeghatározóbb problémája az üvegházhatású gázok, különösen a szén-dioxid kibocsátásának csökkentése. Alapvetően két fő ágra oszlanak ezen törekvések: egyrészt a kibocsátásért felelős technológiák optimalizálására/„zöldítésére”, másrészt a már kibocsátott szén-dioxid hasznosítására (CCU), illetve befogására és letárolására (CCS). A kutatás a szén-dioxid hasznosítás egyik alternatívájával, a föld alatti letárolás lehetőségének vizsgálatával foglalkozik földtudományi aspektusból.

A kézirat alap felvetései és a későbbiekben magmintákon elvégzendő laborkísérletek eredményei egy konkrét, Magyarországon található szénhidrogén mezőre vonatkoznak. Emiatt más szén-dioxid tárolására alkalmas földtani képződmény (sókaverna, széntelep, illetve sósvizes aquifer) vizsgálatára a tanulmány nem tér ki. A laborkísérletek eredményeinek segítségével az előzetesen a mérnöki gyakorlatban használt és ismert tárolói paraméterek (porozitás, permeabilitás, kapacitás, telítettség stb.) kerülnek pontosításra. Az elvégzendő labormérések: higany besajtolásos porozitás vizsgálat, centrifugális kapilláris nyomásgörbe és relatív permeabilitási görbék meghatározása, röntgendiffrakciós anyagvizsgálat. Ezen paraméterek ismeretében egy pontosított földtani modell kerül megalkotásra.

A kutatás első fázisában a már meglévő, ipari gyakorlatban alkalmazott kőzetvizsgálati módszerek kerültek felülvizsgálatra, és egy új szemléletű, az eddigi módszereket pontosító eljárás került kidolgozásra a hazai geológiai formációkra vonatkoztatva. A későbbiekben a kőzetmintákon végzett tárolói paramétereket szimuláló szén-dioxid besajtolási kísérletek a föld alatti reakciók (pl. karbonátosodási képesség) és az áramlástani sajátosságok megértéséhez és modellezéséhez is hozzájárulhatnak. Feltételezhetően a föld alatti reakcióknak köszönhetően egy, a korábbi becslésektől eltérő tárolótérfogatot lehet meghatározni.

Megállapításra került, hogy a szén-dioxid szuperkritikus állapotban besajtolva, rétegvízzel rendelkező zárt rétegekben egybefüggő „csóvaként” vándorol a porózus kőzeteken keresztül, amely a gravitációs szegregáció következtében vertikálisan kitágul a fedőkőzet alatt. Az oldalirányú szén-dioxid expanzió folyamatát a folyadékok csapdázódása korlátozza. Ezért a többfázisú áramlás és csapdázódás alapos vizsgálata elengedhetetlen a tárolókapacitás pontos meghatározásának érdekében.

A szén-dioxid besajtolhatóságát és a tárolási kapacitást nagymértékben befolyásolja a szén-dioxiddal telített sóoldat relatív permeabilitása, amely erősen függ a kőzet heterogenitásától. Miljkovic (2006) sóoldattal telített homokkő minták szimulációs méréseit hasonlította össze, amelyek csak a heterogenitás tekintetében tértek el egymástól. Megmutatta, hogy a kis strukturálatlan heterogenitás, úgy tűnik, nem befolyásolja jelentősen a CO2 telítettségét és ennek következtében a tárolási kapacitást. Ezzel ellentétben Kuo és társai (2011) kimutatták, hogy a telítési profilt erősen befolyásolja a mag heterogenitása, és nagy injektálási sebességre van szükség ahhoz, hogy a heterogén közeg relatív állandó telítettségét elérje a homogénhez képest. Hozzájuk hasonlóan Shi és társai (2009) heterogén homokkő magokon szimulálták a szén-dioxiddal telített sóoldat elvezetését és beszívódását. Kimutatták, hogy a porozitás változása szignifikáns hatással volt a CO2 migrációs mintázatára alacsony kiszorítási sebesség mellett és ez fokozatosan eltűnik az injektálási sebesség növelésével.

Fontos célkitűzésként jelenik meg a kutatásokban ezen tézisek vizsgálata, valamint a többfázisú áramlási kísérletek elvégzése a magyarországi CCS potenciális jelöltjeként számon tartott tároló magmintáin. A víz-gáz elvezetési relatív permeabilitási vizsgálatok szimulált tározókörülmények között szintén fontos új információkat fognak szolgáltatni, melyek lehetőséget teremtenek a CO2 front végső eloszlásának meghatározására, valamint javaslattételre a tárolási kapacitás pontosítására és a geokémiai változásokra az adott tárolórétegekre jellemző heterogenitás függvényében.

Open access

Abstract

Personal data can be transferred to third countries without any additional measures by achieving the European Commission's adequacy decisions if the third country's data protection level is deemed essentially equal. Only a few countries have obtained this decision, and the United States is no longer one of them, since the European Court of Justice ruled in the Schrems II case that the Privacy Shield Decision could not provide ‘essentially equivalent’ protection for personal data to that provided by European Union legislation, and hence was invalid. This article will discuss what the term ‘essentially equivalent’ means and what it covers. Finally, it will examine and attempt to answer the question of whether the United States will ever reach the mentioned adequate level by comparing the examples of two adequate countries, the United Kingdom and Japan.

Open access

Proud to share that this year, Zsolt Demetrovics , founding editor-in-chief of our open access Q1 title, Journal of Behavioural Addictions , was ranked as a Highly Cited Researcher in the field of Psychiatry and Psychology by Clarivate.

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Summary

Human cysticercosis is caused by the ingestion of eggs of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) (1). The ingested eggs evolve into onconspheres that cross the intestinal mucous membrane, distributing themselves to the muscles, making man their intermediate host (3).

The condition of rare systemic infestation is known as disseminated cysticercosis.

Open access

Abstract

The European Union, while acknowledging the pitfalls of problematic consumer markets, seems largely unwilling to deviate from an inflexible standard of consumer behaviour based on the ideal of the average consumer as a reasonably well-informed and observant market participant. The article aims to contrast this high consumer standard with the alternatives offered by the vulnerable consumer concept. The first part of the article deals with the notion of the average consumer as defined in European Union law and its interpretation by the European Court of Justice, particularly in cases concerning problematic markets. This is followed by a brief analysis of two potential interpretations of consumer vulnerability developed in the consumer protection literature. The final chapter examines in more detail the appearance of a singular major exception to the average consumer concept within the European Union consumer protection regime: the narrow scope of consumers acknowledged as ‘particularly vulnerable.’

Open access
Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Vladimir Dobričić
,
Jelena Savić
,
Tihomir Tomašič
,
Martina Durcik
,
Nace Zidar
,
Lucija Peterlin Mašič
,
Janez Ilaš
,
Danijel Kikelj
, and
Olivera Čudina

Abstract

Bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control the topological state of DNA during replication and represent important antibacterial drug targets. To be successful as drug candidates, newly synthesized compounds must possess optimal lipophilicity, which enables efficient delivery to the site of action. In this study, retention behavior of twenty-three previously synthesized dual DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV inhibitors was tested in RP-HPLC system, consisting of C8 column and acetonitrile/phosphate buffer (pH 5.5 and pH 7.4) mobile phase. logD was calculated at both pH values and the best correlation with logD was obtained for retention parameter φ0, indicating that this RP-HPLC system could be used as an alternative to the shake-flask determination of lipophilicity. Subsequent QSRR analysis revealed that intrinsic lipophilicity (logP) and molecular weight (bcutm13) have a positive, while solubility (bcutp3) has a negative influence on this retention parameter.

Open access

Abstract

Since the Maastricht Treaty, two questions remain: what is the EU, and is there such as thing as an EU identity? Because of its specific nature, and in view of the political accession criteria, it seems there is an EU political identity. Consequently, the purpose of this article is to evaluate whether this EU political identity has had an impact on Member States' constitutional identity: because they were the latest countries to accede to the EU, but also because they were under a specific monitoring process, Bulgaria and Romania are the best examples of an EU influence, but only of a limited one.

Full access

Abstract

By a broad-range PCR, we detected a novel herpesvirus (HV) in the specimen of a wels catfish (Silurus glanis) presenting disseminated, carp pox-like dermal lesions all over its body. The sequence analysis of the 463-bp PCR product from the viral DNA polymerase gene indicated the presence of a hitherto unknown virus, a putative member of the family Alloherpesviridae in the sample. Another PCR, targeting the terminase gene of fish HVs, provided an additional genomic fragment of over 1,000 bp. Surprisingly, the sequence of a co-amplified, off-target PCR product revealed its origin from a putative gene homologous to ORF87 and ORF45 of cyprinid HVs and anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1), respectively. With specific primers, designed according to the genomic maps of the cyprinid and anguillid HVs, a genomic fragment of 15 kb was also amplified and sequenced by primer walking. In phylogeny inferences, based on several genes, the putative wels catfish HV clustered closest to various cyprinid HVs or to AngHV-1. The novel virus, named as silurid herpesvirus 2, represents a distinct species in the genus Cyprinivirus. However, its association with the skin disease remains unclear.

Open access

A 18F-FDG-PET/CT helye az ismeretlen eredetű láz diagnosztikai algoritmusában

Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in fever of unknown origin

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Emőke Šteňová
,
Pavol Povinec
,
Lenka Tarabčáková
,
Zoltán Szekanecz
, and
Szilvia Szamosi

Az ismeretlen eredetű láz gyakori differenciáldiagnosztikai probléma az orvostudományban. A kórkép első definiálása óta eltelt több mint 60 év, és a diagnosztikai eljárások állandó fejlődése és tökéletesítése ellenére továbbra is kihívást jelent a kezelőorvos számára a differenciáldiagnosztika és a megfelelő terápia megválasztása. Az orvosi szakirodalom legalább 200 betegséget tart számon, amely ismeretlen eredetű lázzal manifesztálódhat, és ezek igen széles klinikai spektrumot ölelnek fel. A hospitalizációt igénylő betegek esetében hozzávetőlegesen 1,5–3%-ban van jelen ismeretlen eredetű láz. Az elmúlt évtizedekben többször változott nemcsak az ismeretlen eredetű láz definíciója, de az ajánlott kivizsgálási protokoll is. A pozitronemissziós tomográfia a legmodernebb képalkotó eljárások közé tartozik, s nagyban hozzájárul a bonyolult esetek összefüggéseinek feltárásához és a helyes diagnózis felállításához. A jelen közlemény célja, hogy átfogó képet nyújtson az ismeretlen eredetű lázat kiváltó betegségekről, a leggyakrabban használt diagnosztikai algoritmusokról, valamint rávilágít a pozitronemissziós tomográfia fontos szerepére e betegségek okainak feltárásában. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(49): 1935–1942.

Open access

Az ischaemiás stroke kockázati tényezői a dystrophia myotonica 1-es típusában

Risk factors for ischaemic stroke in myotonic dystrophy type 1

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Dávid Varga
,
Brigitta Perecz
,
Andrea Sípos
,
Dalma Jedlicska
, and
Endre Pál

Bevezetés: A dystrophia myotonica a leggyakoribb felnőttkori, autoszomális domináns módon öröklődő izombetegségek csoportjába tartozik. Mindkét klinikai altípusának jellemzője a ’splicing’ mechanizmus zavara okán kialakult, kiterjedt mRNS- és következményes fehérje-funkciózavar. Mindez multiszisztémás betegség megjelenését idézi elő, az izomérintettségen túl szürke hályog, szívritmuszavar, csökkent légzési kapacitás, szénhidrát- és zsíranyagcsere-zavar, endokrinológiai eltérések és kognitív deficit kialakulásával. Több tanulmány említi a dystrophia myotonica 1-es típusában megfigyelhető nagyobb stroke-kockázatot. Célkitűzés: Vizsgálatunkban a Klinikánk gondozásában álló, a dystrophia myotonica 1-es típusában szenvedő 31 beteg részletes vizsgálatát végeztük el az ischaemiás stroke kockázati tényezőinek feltérképezése céljából. Módszer: A betegek kórtörténetének részletes áttekintését a Klinikánk laboratóriumában végzett vizsgálatok, valamint arteria (a.) carotis ultrahangvizsgálat követte. Eredmények: Betegeinknél atherogen dyslipidaemia, normális a. carotis intima és media vastagság volt azonosítható, ugyanakkor nagy arányban igazolódott supraventricularis szívritmuszavar. Megbeszélés: A nemzetközi irodalmi adatokkal egybehangzóan ezen vizsgálat is támogathatja azt a feltevést, mely szerint a dystrophia myotonica 1-es típusában észlelhető nagyobb ischaemiás stroke rizikó hátterében a leginkább releváns kockázati tényező a supraventricularis ritmuszavar (pitvarfibrilláció és ’flutter’) lehet. Következtetés: A dystrophia myotonica 1-es típusában szenvedő betegpopuláció hosszmetszeti követése során kiemelt figyelmet kell fordítanunk a kardiológiai gondozásra is. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(49): 1962–1966.

Open access

A digitális technológia kínálta új lehetőségek a melanoma malignum szűrésében.

Szakirodalmi áttekintés

New opportunities offered by digital technology in melanoma malignum screening.

A literature review
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Szabolcs Farkas-Ráduly
,
Marcell Csanádi
,
Tamás Ágh
,
Orsolya Szász
,
Zoltán Vokó
, and
György Széles

Bevezetés: A kelet- és közép-európai régióban – Csehországot és Szlovákiát követve – Magyarországon a harmadik legmagasabb a melanoma malignum incidenciája. A melanomaszűrés és -diagnosztika hatékonyságának javítására az elmúlt években számos technológiai fejlesztés történt: az egyik ilyen, széles körben ismertté vált technológia az integrált automatizált teljestest-feltérképezés és digitális dermatoszkópia. Célkitűzés: A jelen célzott irodalomkutatás célja, hogy bemutassa a teljestest-anyajegyvizsgálatra kifejlesztett új digitális technológiákban rejlő lehetőségeket a melanomaszűrésre vonatkozóan. Módszer: A melanomaszűrésre és teljestest-anyajegyvizsgálatra alkalmas szűrési technológiára vonatkozó információk összegyűjtésére célzott irodalomkutatást végeztünk. Publikusan elérhető online adatbázisokban kerestünk szakmai irányelveket és ajánlásokat, valamint tudományos közleményeket. Eredmények: Irodalomkeresésünk során 15 nemzetközi irányelvet és ajánlást azonosítottunk, melyek a melanoma malignum szűrését és korai felismerését összegezték. Melanomaszűréssel foglalkozó hazai irányelvet nem azonosítottunk. A digitális dermatoszkóp és a teljestest-anyajegyvizsgálatra alkalmas szűrési technológia eredményességére vonatkozóan 2 klinikai, 5 megfigyeléses vizsgálatot és 8 összefoglaló közleményt elemeztünk. 10 nemzetközi vizsgálatot elemeztünk, melyek a gépi tanulási algoritmusok kiegészítő szerepét vizsgálták a melanomaszűrésben. Megbeszélés: A digitális dermatoszkópia és a teljes testről készült fényképfelvételek elősegítik a rosszindulatúvá váló képletek vagy az új melanoma azonosítását magas kockázatnak kitett személyekben. Nem áll rendelkezésre megbízható adat a melanomaszűrő-programoknak a daganat okozta halálozásra kifejtett hatásáról, így a korlátozott bizonyítékok miatt a populációs szintű melanomaszűrést a nemzetközi irányelvek nem ajánlják. Következtetés: Megállapítható, hogy a nemzetközi irányelvek kiemelik a teljes testről készült fényképfelvételek és a szekvenciális digitális dermatoszkópos képalkotó eljárások szerepét a melanoma emelkedett kockázatának kitett személyek szűrésében. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(49): 1943–1951.

Open access

A malignus eredetű dysphagia palliatív kezelésére használt merev és öntáguló sztentek eredményeinek összehasonlító vizsgálata

Comparison of outcome of rigid and self-expanding stents for palliation of malignant dysphagia

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Ákos Balázs
,
Tamás Vass
,
István Hritz
,
Miklós Horváth
,
Veronika Papp
, and
Attila Szijártó

Bevezetés: A nyelőcső malignus szűkületeinek palliatív kezelésére 1984 és 2019 között 1005 merev protézist és 423 öntáguló sztentet ültettünk be. Célkitűzés: Tanulmányunk célja a két protézisfajta kezelési eredményeinek összehasonlítása volt. Módszer: Retrospektív elemzés során összehasonlítottuk a két betegcsoport jellemzőit, kezelési eredményeit a technikai sikeresség, a szövődmények, az életminőség alakulása és a túlélés vonatkozásában. Eredmények: Az átlagéletkorok, az anamnézisidők, a testsúlycsökkenés értéke, a tumoros folyamat előrehaladottságának összehasonlítása azt igazolja, hogy a sztenttel történő palliáció több rosszabb állapotú beteg kezelését tette lehetővé. A szövődmények száma a sztenttel kezelt betegcsoportban szignifikánsan magasabb: 29,3%/20,9% volt. A szövődmények ellátására endoszkópos intervenciót végeztünk, a merev protéziseknél 68,6%-ban, a sztenttel kezelteknél 53,2%-ban. A dysphagia és a betegek életminőségének lényeges javulása volt észlelhető a merev protézissel kezelteknél 97%-ban, a sztenttel kezelteknél 91,3%-ban. A túlélési idő a sztenttel kezelt betegcsoportban szignifikánsan rövidebb, 4,3/5,4 hónap volt. Következtetés: Az öntáguló sztentek alkalmazása a malignus szűkületek palliatív kezelésében a lehetőségek bővülésével lényeges változásokat hozott a mindennapi gyakorlatban. A kezelési eredményeket az öntáguló sztentek szélesebb körű használata nem javította annyival, mint amennyivel a betegcsoport rosszabb állapota rontotta. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(49): 1952–1961.

Open access

A vena cava superior szindrómához társuló kétoldali zárt zugú glaucoma

Superior vena cava syndrome associated with bilateral angle closure glaucoma

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Ágnes Elekes
and
Péter Vámosi

A vena cava superior szindróma a vena cava superior részleges vagy teljes elzáródásából adódó tünetegyüttes. Az esetek többségében tüdőtumorok és lymphoma miatt másodlagosan alakul ki. A fej, a nyak, a felső végtag ödémája, tág vénák, dyspnoe jellemzi. Szemészeti elváltozások a szindrómához kapcsolódóan ritkán fordulnak elő: a szemhéjak duzzanatát, a kötőhártya chemosisát és suffusióját írták le korábban, egy esetben megemelkedett episcleralis nyomásról is beszámoltak. 57 éves nőbetegünk vena cava superior szindrómáját sztentbehelyezéssel oldották meg, kissejtes tüdőtumorát kemoterápiával kezelték. A szindróma részeként kétoldali, négy hónapos anamnézisű homályos látásra panaszkodott. Vizsgálata során kétoldali zárt zugot, mindkét oldalon 60 Hgmm-es szemnyomást és súlyos látáskárosodást találtunk. A jobb szemen goniosynechiolysissel egybekötött szürkehályog-műtétet végeztünk, ezáltal jelentős szemnyomás-csökkentést értünk el, és sikerült megőrizni a maradék látóélességet. A bal szemen Nd:YAG lézeres iridotomia után antiglaucomás cseppkezelést indítottunk a fájdalom csökkentésére. A phacoemulsificatiót követően a jobb szemen az elülső csarnok morfológiája jelentősen javult, amit elülsőszegmens-optikaikoherenciatomográfiával számszerűsíteni is lehetett. A szemészeti paraméterek az alapbetegség kezelése alatt stabilak maradtak. Jelen közleményünk célja, hogy felhívja a figyelmet a vena cava superior szindróma szemészeti tüneteire, valamint szeretnénk bemutatni azt a szindrómával esetenként együtt járó rapid, súlyos látásromlást okozó szemészeti állapotot, melyet tudomásunk szerint korábban még nem írtak le. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(49): 1967–1971.

Open access