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Abstract

Baricitinib (BRT) is a drug substance with potent anti-inflammatory activity indicated in rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, severe alopecia areata and recently for the treatment of Covid-19. Process impurities of the drug during its formulation are quite known, however studies regarding its degradation products (DPs) under stress conditions are limited. In this study, the drug was subjected to forced degradation under various degradation conditions, including acidic hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative and thermal, to determine its inherent stability. To this purpose, a novel HPLC method was developed for the determination of degradation impurities of BRT. Alkaline hydrolysis test showed a selectivity towards breaking C–C bonds. This resulted to five DPs formed by chain scission reactions occurred at the pyrrolo-pyrimidine group between C6–C10 and C8–C9. Also, the ethylsulfonyl-azetidin-ylidene group was subjected to C–C bond cleavage at C12–C15 and C16–C18. Degradation products were further characterized with the use of liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS).

Open access
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
Marianna I. Zhukovskaya
,
Inna V. Grushevaya
,
Alexander A. Miltsen
,
Oksana G. Selitskaya
,
Anna V. Shchenikova
,
Andrei N. Frolov
, and
Miklós Tóth

Abstract

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), relies on multimodal sensory information to find food, mates, mating and ovipositional grounds. Successful phytosanitary monitoring demands for the bait for the field traps to obtain the most reliable representation of pest abundance. Attraction to light and blend of key components of host plant odor, was tested both in the laboratory and field conditions. Ultraviolet light, which was the most effective in the wind tunnel experiments, was further tested in the field alone and in combination with bisexual lure. Bisexual lure, being attractive in the lab, as well as in the field, did not improve responses to ultraviolet in both experimental designs. All three baits attracted significantly more females than males in the field. Wind tunnel experiments revealed that ultraviolet elicited the shortest response latencies either alone or paired with the odor bait. The lack of synergistic effect between attractive light and odor stimuli is an important issue for pest monitoring. The possible reasons for the observed lack of synergy are the hierarchy of behavioral responses to different stimuli or the intensities of both stimuli are critically important for attractivity of combined stimulus and differ from separately presented ones.

Open access

A drónok szerepe a terrortámadásokban – A fenyegetés új dimenziója

Role of Drones in Terrorist Attacks – The New Dimension of Threat

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
István Sabjanics
and
Illés Horváth

Összefoglalás.

A dróntechnológia alapjainak katonai alkalmazása a II. világháború folyamán terjedt el, és hamarosan a koreai háború (1950–1953) kulcsfontosságú hírszerzési eszközévé vált. A 2000-es évekig az UAV-k (pilóta nélküli légi járművek) gyártásának és forgalmazásának monopóliuma kizárólag a hadiipar kezében volt, de a technológiában rejlő hatalmas lehetőségek gyorsan meghódították a civil szektort, és a gyártás önálló iparággá fejlődött. A piac robbanása alighanem forradalmasította a technológiát. Ennek következtében a drónok mérete csökkent, hatótávolságuk jelentősen megnövekedett. A piac által indikált technológiai fejlődés azonban nem csupán a laikus felhasználókat fogta meg, de az irreguláris, illetőleg a terrorista szervezetekre is komoly hatást gyakorolt. A technológiában rejlő potenciált hamar felismerték, így nemcsak integrálták, de kettős célok érdekében tovább is fejlesztették. 1990-től 2018-ig 14 olyan támadás történt, amelyben az elkövetők házilag, kereskedelmi forgalomban kapható alkatrészek felhasználásával készített UAV-t használtak. Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy megvilágítsa a drónok alkalmazásának lehetőségeit a terrorista csoportok körében, valamint, hogy rámutasson a lehetséges védelmi és biztonsági intézkedésekre.

Summary.

The military application of the fundamentals of drone technology spread during World War II (1939-1945) and soon became a key intelligence tool in the Korean War (1950-1953). Until the 2000s, the monopoly over the production and marketing of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) was held exclusively by the military industry, but the enormous potential of the technology quickly conquered the civilian sector, and manufacturing developed into an industry in its own right. The explosion of the market revolutionised the technology. It significantly reduced their size, increased their power capacity and, although there was also a significant change in rotor size, their power and range increased exponentially. At the same time, advances have also had a very positive impact on control: the ability to follow a person or object without direct pilot intervention, the ability to program an autonomous flight path on the user interface, the ability to return to the pilot in the event of signal loss, the ability to avoid obstacles in complex environments thanks to advanced optical sensors, and the cameras on some models with facial recognition technology. The use of drone technology by irregular organisations or terrorists dates back to the 1990s, and by 2018 there had been 14 terrorist attacks in which the perpetrators had used a homemade UAV using commercially available parts. The aim of this study is to shed light on the motivation of extremist groups and the potential for the use of drones. In addition, take stock of the possible ways of protection.

Open access

A nagy nyelvi modellek felsőoktatásra, valamint kis- és középvállalkozásokra gyakorolt hatásának értékelése adatvédelmi szempontból

Assessing the impact of large language models on higher education and SMEs from a data protection perspective

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
István Sabjanics

Összefoglalás.

Ez a tanulmány a mesterséges intelligencia és a nagy nyelvi modellek, különösen a ChatGPT hatásait vizsgálja a felsőoktatási környezetben, valamint a kis- és középvállalkozások tekintetében. A generatív mesterséges intelligencia felsőoktatási környezetben oktatási és kutatási szempontból egyaránt jelentős hatást gyakorolt, amely előirányozta az oktatás, különösen az oktatási és tanulási módszerek újragondolását. Fokozottabb és egyéni igényekhez igazított tanulási élményeket képes biztosítani a mesterséges intelligencia. A ChatGPT-hez hasonló nagy nyelvi modellek fejlődésének mértéke és gyors elterjedése forradalmasította a kommunikációt és az információfeldolgozást, lehetőséget teremtve az interaktívabb oktatási platformok bevezetésére. Ezzel párhuzamosan az üzleti szektor, különösen a kis- és középvállalkozások paradigmaváltáson mentek keresztül működésük hatékonyságának növelését és az ügyfélkapcsolati megoldásokat érintő innováció terén, amelynek alapja a mesterséges intelligencia alkalmazása. Ez a tanulmány azt vizsgálja, hogy ezek a szervezetek milyen módon használják a nagy nyelvi modelleket alkalmazó eszközöket a folyamataik racionalizálására, az ügyfélkapcsolatok javítására és a döntéshozatali képességek bővítésére. A tanulmány kitér a nagy nyelvi modellek felsőoktatási környezetben, valamint a kis- és középvállalkozások által történő biztonságos és jogszerű alkalmazását érintő etikai megfontolásokra és az esetlegesen felmerülő kockázatokra.

Summary.

This study investigates the impact of artificial intelligence and large language models, in particular ChatGPT, in higher education and small and medium-sized enterprises. Generative AI in higher education settings has had a significant impact from both an educational and a research perspective, which has foreseen a rethinking of education, in particular teaching and learning methods. AI can provide enhanced and personalised learning experiences. The scale and rapid spread of the development of large language models such as ChatGPT has revolutionised communication and information processing, opening the way for the introduction of more interactive educational platforms. At the same time, the business sector, in particular SMEs, has undergone a paradigm shift in terms of operational efficiency and innovation in customer relationship solutions based on the use of artificial intelligence. This paper examines how these organisations are using tools that apply high-level language models to streamline their processes, improve customer relationships and enhance decision-making capabilities. The study also addresses the ethical considerations and potential risks associated with the safe and legal use of large language models in higher education and by SMEs.

First, the study focuses on assessing the privacy risks and opportunities of using large language models in higher education, specifically and separately on teaching and research. In conclusion the study suggest, that large language models have the potential to bring positive changes in higher education, especially in the form of personalised or small group sessions in virtual classrooms, in parallel with classroom or hybrid teaching, applications that support individual preparation and learning and better presentation of the curriculum. It is essential, however, that taking over the administrative tasks of trainers does not justify, or even justify, human supervision of AI. It is the responsibility of higher education institutions to establish ethical rules for the use of AI, especially large language models, balancing technological and pedagogical aspects, which can perhaps best be summarised as development and not substitution. Various large language models can help, but they cannot replace the unique qualities that human teachers can bring to the learning experience. In conclusion regarding SMEs, the emergence and pace of development of large language models has such a significant impact on the competitiveness of a business that their introduction and the associated technological changeover of a business in a very short time will be almost a matter of course. Guidelines and recommendations from international organisations and various market surveillance and data protection authorities are useful to help SMEs to effectively increase their competitiveness while remaining fully compliant with the regulatory environment.

Open access

Abstract

The abscopal effect, a rare phenomenon in cancer treatment, involves tumor regression in a distant location from the targeted therapy. This case focuses on a 74-year-old woman with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Despite prior treatments, she experienced pulmonary nodule progression and hemoptysis. Bland particle embolization was performed on the right bronchial artery branches supplying lung metastases, leading to significant reductions in size, number, and metabolic activity of the right-sided nodules and decreased metabolic activity of the untreated left-sided nodules, without additional cancer-related treatments. The abscopal effect has been observed with various interventional oncologic procedures, indicating a potential role in stimulating the immune response and altering the tumor microenvironment. Further investigation is needed to understand bland embolization's immunomodulatory effects and implications for triggering the abscopal effect.

Open access

Abstract

Several researchers have highlighted the need to strengthen school-based career education in Hungary. After reviewing the international literature on similar programs, this study reports on the impact of an innovative, multi-method career education course. It aimed to support Hungarian high school (ISCED 344) students in grades 10–11 in making decisions on further education and career choices, and in dealing with related uncertainties and difficulties, mainly through developing career management competence. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group of 92 students showed significantly better results on half of the 20 career orientation variables assessed six months after the end of the intervention of 12 three-quarter-hour sessions, with low effect sizes compared to the pre-intervention assessment, and the 96-student control group. In addition to a self-developed questionnaire, the CDDQ Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire; and the CFI Career Factors Inventory were used. The effectiveness of the intervention was independent of factors such as gender, age, academic performance, and parental education. The study concludes with the suggestion that an enhanced version of the course could be an officially recommended supplementary career education program in Hungarian high schools.

Open access

Abstract

This paper explores the theme of the homecoming (nostos) by examining the homecomings of the Scythians in Book Four of The Histories of Herodotus from two different approaches, the philological and historical. As Herodotus makes clear, for Scythians, such as the famous traveler Anacharsis and the Scythian king Scyles, returning home could be deadly. From the philological approach, which emphasizes the literary nature of the Scythian logos, this pattern of thematic repetitions of denied homecomings serves to emphasize the hostile nature of Scythia for outsiders and thus to increase the tension surrounding the outcome of the larger narrative of Book Four, which describes the disastrous military campaign of the Persian king Darius I in Scythia. However, from the historical approach, which regards the account of Herodotus as a historical source that provides valuable testimony when combined with other sources of evidence, it becomes clear that these stories of impossible homecomings also reflect the conditions at the Greek frontier of the Scythian world and for Scythians like Anacharsis and Scyles who adopted foreign customs, especially Greek religious practices, namely that in this region marked by competition and conflict, including religious conflict, adopting foreign customs meant it was not possible to return home again.

Restricted access

Abstract

The purpose of this essay is to compare the story of Er in Plato's Republic's tenth book with the concept of antarābhava in the Vedic World and the ancient schools of Buddhism. First, the story of Er, a warrior who was believed to have died in battle and returned to life shortly before his body was burnt on the pyre, will be told. Er describes the vision he had before returning to life: he saw the actions and fate of the disembodied souls in the state and stage before their reincarnation. Next, the Indian doctrine of antarābhava, the intermediate state between death and rebirth, according to the Vedic religion and ancient schools of Buddhism, will be discussed. Finally, we will say a few concluding words to make a historical-religious comparison between the two in order to better understand both these doctrines and visions of the afterlife.

Restricted access

Abstract

Drama in Education (DiE) has been a well-known teaching technique for an active learning approach for students. It utilizes different forms of conventions to enhance a student's learning experience in the classroom, offering alternatives instead of the traditional teaching approaches. Drama can encourage students to learn and think critically and improve public speaking, communication, and confidence. The article portrays the use of drama activities in STEAM education by depicting the benefits and challenges. This study uses a qualitative approach to collect data, including relevant literature, descriptions of drama activities, and observation. The findings display that drama in STEAM education can improve and stimulate students' learning and knowledge in a particular subject. This study aimed to view 19 higher education students' perspectives of drama activities in STEAM. Two activities were completed during this pilot study and observations were made throughout the process. Furthermore, drama in STEAM stimulated the students, were more enthusiastic about exploring, examining and learning, socializing with their groupmates, and the confidence to perform.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Impaired inhibitory control accompanied by enhanced craving is hallmark of addiction. This study investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on response inhibition and craving in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We examined the brain changes after tDCS and their correlation with clinical variables.

Methods

Twenty-four males with IGD were allocated randomly to an active or sham tDCS group, and data from 22 participants were included for analysis. Participants self-administered bilateral tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for 10 sessions. Stop-signal tasks were conducted to measure response inhibition and participants were asked about their cravings for Internet gaming at baseline and post-tDCS. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at pre- and post-tDCS, and group differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes from the bilateral DLPFC and nucleus accumbens were examined. We explored the relationship between changes in the rsFC and behavioral variables in the active tDCS group.

Results

A significant group-by-time interaction was observed in response inhibition. After tDCS, only the active group showed a decrease in the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). Although craving decreased, there were no significant group-by-time interactions or group main effects. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) showed group differences in post- versus pre-tDCS rsFC from the right DLPFC. The rsFC between the ACC and left middle frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with the SSRT.

Discussion and conclusion

Our study provides preliminary evidence that bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC improves inhibitory control and could serve as a therapeutic approach for IGD.

Open access

Abstract

The predictive maintenance of permeant magnet synchronous motor is highly required as this kind of motor has been commonly employed in electric vehicles, industrial systems, and other applications owing to its high power density output, as well as the regenerative operation characteristics during braking and deceleration driving conditions. One of the most important causes of PMSM failure is the stator short and drive switches failure. These problems have attracted more attention in the field of deep learning for fault detection purposes in the early stages, to avoid any system breakdown, and to decrease the risk and price of maintenance. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of detecting the electrical faults in PMSM by generating our data which includes current signals that have been analyzed and preprocessed by applying Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to select the reliable features this conversion will be used to train ResNet 50. The evaluation metrics have shown that ResNet 50 achieves an accuracy of 100% for the classification of faults.

Open access

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect and mechanism of the total alkaloids of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (DENA) against cholesterol esterase (CE). DENA was characterised by SEM, 1H NMR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The inhibitory effect and mechanism of DENA against CE were investigated through fluorescence chromatography, circular dichroism, and molecular docking. DENA inhibited CE activity (IC50 = 1.08 ± 0.09 mg mL−1), characterised by a non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, DENA induced a fluorescence quenching in CE, causing a blue shift in the λmax. This coincided with a transition in the secondary structure of CE from a layered to a helical structure by circular dichroism, indicating a significant reduction in its stability. Moreover, molecular docking confirmed that DENA binds to amino acid residues in the enzyme through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, leading to structural changes and reduced enzyme activity. These results suggest DENA has the potential to lower blood lipid levels by inhibiting CE activity.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background and aims

Since the inclusion of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) in the International Classification of Diseases (11th ed.), there has been little effort placed into developing clinical recommendations for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients with this condition. Thus, we develop preliminary clinical recommendations for mental health professionals working with LGBQ clients who may be struggling with CSBD.

Methods

The present paper synthesizes the CSBD literature with advances in LGBQ-affirming care to develop assessment and treatment recommendations. These recommendations are discussed within the context of minority stress theory, which provides an empirically supported explanation for how anti-LGBQ stigma may contribute to the development of mental health conditions in LGBQ populations.

Results

Assessment recommendations are designed to assist mental health professionals in distinguishing aspects of an LGBQ client's sociocultural context from CSBD symptomology, given recent concerns that these constructs may be wrongly conflated and result in misdiagnosis. The treatment recommendations consist of broadly applicable, evidence-based principles that can be leveraged by mental health professionals of various theoretical orientations to provide LGBQ-affirming treatment for CSBD.

Discussion and Conclusions

The present article provides theoretically and empirically supported recommendations for mental health professionals who want to provide LGBQ-affirming care for CSBD. Given the preliminary nature of these recommendations, future research is needed to investigate their clinical applicability and efficacy.

Open access

Abstract

This study explores the major types and main interpersonal functions of meishi (没事, literally ‘I'm fine’) by Chinese females in romantic conversation through analyzing collected posts from Sina Microblog. Results show that meishi by Chinese females in the context of romantic relationships primarily manifests the attributes of “expressive” and “assertive” (“insincere assertive” in particular), with specific functions to express comfort (expressive), to implicitly express negative feelings (expressive), and to avoid self-disclosure of negative emotion (insincere assertive). We hold that Chinese women's use of meishi is not only a realization of gendered discourse but also has a practical function as it detects the sincerity and attentiveness of their male counterparts.

Restricted access

Abstract

The first person singular indefinite or non-definite of Hungarian verbs that end in -ik shows variation between the regular -k suffix and the -m suffix, used otherwise in the definite. This variation is systematic and subject to metalinguistic awareness. Our study relies on previous quantitative work, a frequency dictionary compiled from the new Hungarian Webcorpus, as well as a forced-choice elicitation experiment to assess the role of word frequency, word length, derivational endings, and across-form similarity in shaping this variation. We find that first person singular indefinite variation is largely defined by natural categories: verbs that look similar will also show a similar preference to -k/-m. This pattern is attested in the webcorpus as well as in participant responses in the elicitation task.

Open access

Abstract

A gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to determine the concentrations of latanoprost (LP) and latanoprost free acid (LPA) in aqueous solutions. It is novel due to a combination of its simplicity, speed, and detection capability in aqueous solutions for both active drug (LPA) and prodrug (LP). This method is applicable for the research and development of novel drug delivery devices and quality control assays for experimental and commercial laboratory settings, as it allows for a high sample throughput. Samples were chromatographed across a C18 + 2.7 µm 4.6 × 7.5 mm reversed-phase column with gradient elution using a mobile phase of aqueous acetic acid (pH 3.1) and acetonitrile with 0.1% acetic acid. UV spectrophotometry was used to monitor the eluents at 210 nm. Drug concentrations from 1.0 to 150 μg mL−1 were tested, with good linearity observed across the range. LPA had a signature peak at approximately 4.82 min (SD < 0.08) and LP at 9.27 min (SD < 0.07). For both drug and pro-drug, LOD and LOQ were 1.0 and 2.5 μg mL−1, respectively. This assay which accurately measures both prodrug and drug in a single injection, has significant applicability in determining the release kinetics of novel LP drug delivery systems.

Open access

Abstract

Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis and it is generally recognised as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The study aimed to determine the presence of nisin-resistant Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, and Listeria spp. in 157 raw milk and 125 cheese samples. As a result of the isolation procedure, a total of 282 bacterial strains were isolated. 83/282 strains showed resistance to 300 ppm nisin concentration and they were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The two most common species were Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. In both raw milk and cheese samples, nisin-resistant Listeria could not be detected. Generally, enterococci (59/65) showed higher biofilm formation ability than staphylococci (13/18). 38% (25/65) of enterococci and 88% (16/18) of staphylococci were determined to have protease activity in at least one of Skim Milk Agar, Casein Agar, or Milk Agar. In addition, the most common antibiotic resistance in nisin-resistant enterococci was against chloramphenicol. This study revealed that nisin-resistant staphylococci and enterococci are present in raw milk and cheese. In addition, the presence of some virulence factors such as biofilm production, protease activity, and antibiotic resistance in resistant isolates needs to be drawn attention to. Consumption of nisin-resistant microorganisms with virulence factors through food is a food safety risk.

Restricted access

Az első hazai tapasztalatok összegzése kromoszomális microarray-analízis és teljesexom-szekvenálás módszerekkel a magzati diagnosztikában

Summary of the first Hungarian experiences with prenatal chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Henriett Pikó
,
Anett Illés
,
Sándor Nagy
,
Artúr Beke
,
Kristóf Árvai
,
Tibor Elekes
,
Emese Horváth
,
Miklós Ferenczy
,
Péter Mosonyi
,
Valéria Lukács
,
Valéria Klujber
,
Olga Török
,
Zsuzsanna Kiss
,
Erika Tardy
,
Zsolt Tidrenczel
,
Bálint Tobiás
,
Bernadett Balla
,
Péter Lakatos
,
János Kósa
, and
István Takács

Bevezetés: Az elmúlt évtized egyik jelentős technológiai újdonsága az ún. ’high-throughput’ molekuláris genetikai vizsgálati módszerek – mint a kromoszomális microarray-analízis (chromosomal microarray analysis, CMA) és a teljesexom-szekvenálás (whole-exome sequencing, WES) – elterjedése a praenatalis diagnosztikában. Célkitűzés: Az elmúlt 5 évben munkacsoportunk több mint 252 praenatalis vizsgálatot végzett hazai laboratóriumi háttérrel, amelyek indikációját különböző súlyosságú strukturális magzati ultrahangeltérések képezték. A klasszikus citogenetikai vizsgálatok eredményétől függően végeztük el a nagy felbontású CMA- és WES-analíziseket a praenatalis diagnosztika érdekében. Módszer: A CMA-vizsgálatokat a „GeneChip System 3000 Instrument” platformmal végeztük az SNP-alapú komparatív hibridizálás módszerével. Az általunk elvégzett újgenerációs szekvenálás során a teljes humán exom szekvenciájának meghatározása IonTorrent és Illumina platformokkal történt. Eredmények: Összesen 252 magzati CMA-vizsgálatot végeztünk, és 42%-ban mutattunk ki valamilyen hiányt vagy többletet, ebből 22%-ban igazoltunk kóros eltérést. 42 esetben végeztünk WES-t, amelyből 9 esetben (21,4%) azonosítottunk kóros eltérést az öröklésmenetet támogató, a magzati fenotípussal feltételezhetően összefüggésben lévő, a ClinVar adatbázis vagy az ACMG-klasszifikáció alapján. Megbeszélés: Tekintettel arra, hogy a magzati fenotípus értékelése közvetett, a praenatalis CMA- és WES-elemzésnek elsősorban a magzati ultrahangvizsgálat során azonosítható strukturális anomáliákkal összefüggő génekre, kromoszomális régiókra kell korlátozódnia. A szülők vizsgálata mind a CMA-, mind a WES-analízisek során kiemelt jelentőséggel bír, főleg azokban az esetekben, amelyeknél a kapott eltérés nem hozható egyértelmű összefüggésbe az ultrahangeltérésekkel. Következtetés: Fontos meghatározni azokat a paramétereket, amelyek alapján a magzati mintában talált kópiaszám-eltéréseket és WES-vizsgálattal igazolt variánsokat a leletben közöljük (figyelembe véve a nemzetközi ajánlásokat). Ezek alapján a praenatalis klinikai genetikai tanácsadáskor sokkal használhatóbb információk adhatók. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(14): 523–530.

Open access

Dohányzó várandósok elsődleges védőnői állapotfelmérése az alapellátásban

Tobacco smoking primary survey of pregnant women in the maternity and child health service

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Ildikó Rákóczi
,
Péter Balázs
, and
Kristie L. Foley

Bevezetés: A várandósok dohányzása számos szülészeti és neonatológiai szövődményt okozhat. Megelőzésükre szervezetileg kiváló lehetőség a gondozásba vételkor a dohányzói status védőnői felmérése, majd a háziorvosokkal együtt a várandósok támogatása a dohányzás szünetelése vagy a leszokás érdekében. Célkitűzés: Egy mintaszerű rendszer felépítésére Nyíregyházán modellkísérletet végeztünk a városi védőnői hálózatban 2019. október 1. és 2021. március 31. között, gondozásra jelentkezett várandósok körében. Módszer: Papíralapú kérdőíveink kitöltését a védőnők végezték a gondozásba vételkor a várandósok válaszai alapján. A legfőbb biometriai, szociodemográfiai és családtervezési adatokon (9 kérdés) túl a dohányzási (cigarettázási) szokásokat, a környezeti dohányfüstártalmat és a dohányzás ártalmasságának ismeretét vizsgáltuk (9 kérdés). A statisztikai vizsgálatot frekvencia- és kereszttáblás elemzéssel végeztük. Szignifikánsnak fogadtuk el az eredményeket p<0,05 értékkel. Eredmények: A gondozásba vett összes várandós (n = 1761) közül 1548 (87,9%) válaszolt a kérdéseinkre. Mintánk átlagéletkora 30,2 év (min./max.: 15/48) volt, gondozásba vételük átlagosan a várandósság 10,8. hetében (min./max.: 6/34) történt. Jelentős volt a magasabb fokú iskolai végzettséggel (középfokú 46,0%, felsőfokú 42,8%) rendelkezők aránya. A roma nemzetiség aránya 4,2% volt. Tervezett volt a várandósság 88,5%-ban. Soha nem dohányzott 46,5%. Dohányzói anamnézise volt 53,5%-nak. A teljes mintából 10,1% folytatta a dohányzást, de 42,5% korábbi dohányos azt állította, hogy aktuálisan nem cigarettázik. A férjek/élettársak (n = 1493) részéről 30,3%-ban fordult elő környezeti dohányfüstártalom. Minden várandós (98,9%) tisztában volt a dohányzás magzatkárosító hatásával. Következtetés: Nagyvárosi környezetben a magasabb szintű iskolai végzettség hozzájárult a dohányzás magzatkárosító hatásának ismeretéhez. A várandósság alatt tovább folytatott dohányzásban a romák szignifikánsan hátrányosabb helyzetben voltak a nem romákkal szemben. Másodlagos dohányfüstártalom szempontjából nagyon kedvezőtlen volt a férj/élettárs dohányzásának csaknem egyharmados aránya. Az alapellátás a legegyszerűbben a védőnők révén érheti el a dohányzás által különösen veszélyeztetett populációt. Részükre a bemutatott módszerrel a háziorvos és a védőnő az adatok alapján célzottan végezheti a dohányzással kapcsolatban az alapellátás kompetenciájába tartozó szünetelés/leszokás támogatást. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(14): 545–552.

Open access

Egy büntetlenül maradt gyermekbántalmazás tanulságai

Lessons of an unpunished child abuse

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Gábor Simon
,
Miklós Angyal
,
Katalin Dérczy
, and
Veronika Heckmann

Magyarországon évente kb. 2000–2500, fizikailag bántalmazott gyermek kerül a gyermekjóléti szolgálatok látókörébe, a felderítetlen esetek száma azonban ennek a többszöröse is lehet. A testi sérüléssel vagy súlyos elhanyagolással járó eseteket gyakran az egészségügyi szolgáltatók látják elsőként, illetve sokszor egyedüliként. Az egészségügyi dolgozók jelzési hajlandósága kicsi, jelentési kötelezettségüknek gyakran nem tesznek eleget. Esetbemutatásunkkal – a jelentési kötelezettség elmulasztásának következményein túl – a jelzés prevenciós szerepére szeretnénk felhívni a figyelmet. A másfél éves leánygyermeket nevelőanyja vitte a helyi fogorvosi rendelőbe eszméletlen állapotban, étel félrenyelésére hivatkozva. A gyermeknél állapotromlást követően újraélesztés vált szükségessé, azután kórházi felvételre került sor. Ápolása alatt a gyermek végig agyhalálnak megfelelő állapotban volt. Felvételekor kétoldali homloktáji és többszörös mellkasi haematomát rögzítettek, a CT-vizsgálat agyödémát, valamint kétszeres koponyacsonttörést írt le. A gyermek az ápolása 6. napján elhunyt. Az esetnek a hatóság felé történő jelzése sem a gyermek ellátása során, sem a halál bekövetkeztekor nem történt meg. A kórboncolás során a két, különböző keletkezési idejű koponyacsonttörés mellett kemény burok alatti vérzés igazolódott. Az esetet követően 9 évvel történt meg a bejelentés a hatóság felé. A nyomozás megállapította, hogy a kislány halálához idegen kezű fejsérülés vezetett, melyet a nevelőszülők kiskorú fiúgyermeke okozott, aki azonban az elkövetéskori életkora miatt nem volt büntethető. A nevelőanya tekintetében felmerülő bűncselekmény az eljárás idejére elévült, így a nevelőanya büntetőjogi felelősségre vonása is elmaradt. Az eset rávilágít arra, hogy más szakterületeken is szükséges lenne az igazságügyi orvostani ismeretek erősítése, a legideálisabb megoldást azonban kétségtelenül a klinikai igazságügyi orvostannak a hazai klinikai gyakorlatba történő bevezetése jelenthetné. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(14): 553–559.

Open access

Klinikai táplálás az intenzív osztályon: az EuroPN-vizsgálat magyarországi eredményei

Artificial nutrition in intensive care: Hungarian results of the EuroPN study

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Ákos Csomós
,
László Klicsu
,
István László
,
Ilona Bobek
,
Ágnes Sárkány
, and
Béla Gál

Bevezetés: A kritikus állapotú betegek mesterséges táplálásának jelentősége jól ismert, hiányában a folyamatos fehérjelebontás miatt romlik a sebgyógyulás, valamint emelkedik a lélegeztetőgépen töltött napok száma. Célkitűzés: A korábban publikált EuroPN nemzetközi vizsgálat célja az volt, hogy európai összehasonlításban felmérje a részt vevő intenzív osztályok aktuális táplálási gyakorlatát, és megvizsgálja a kalória-, illetve fehérjebevitel hatását a lélegeztetőgépről való leszoktatásban és a 90 napos halálozásban. A jelen kézirat a vizsgálatban részt vevő magyarországi osztályok eredményeit elemzi. Módszer: Vizsgálatunkba azokat a betegeket vontuk be, akiket legalább 5 napja kezeltek az intenzív osztályon. A klinikai és a táplálási adatokat napokra bontva gyűjtöttük az intenzív osztályos felvételt követő első 5 napban retrospektíven, majd azt követően maximum 15 napon át (vagy az elbocsátás/elhalálozás napjáig) prospektíven. A betegkimeneteli adatokat a 15., a 30. és a 90. napon rögzítettük. Eredmények: Magyarországról 6 intenzív osztályról összesen 111 beteget vontunk be a vizsgálatba. A kumulatív kalória- és fehérjebevitel tekintetében a magyarországi betegek nagyobb arányban kapták meg az ESPEN-célértékeket: kalória esetében az előírt kalória 92%-át (95% CI 68; 118) sikerült biztosítani (vs. 83% Európában [95% CI 59; 107]); fehérje esetében pedig még jelentősebb a különbség: Magyarországon 83% (95%CI 57; 121), ezzel szemben Európában 65% (95% CI 41; 91) volt a bevitel és az ESPEN-célérték aránya. Megbeszélés és következtetés: A nemzetközi EuroPN-adatelemzésben a nagyobb kumulatív kalória- és fehérjebevitel csökkentette a lélegeztetőgépről való leszoktatás időtartamát. A magyarországi betegek esetében gyorsabban értük el ezeket a célértékeket, köszönhetően annak, hogy a kiegészítő parenteralis táplálást nagyobb arányban alkalmaztuk. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(14): 531–537.

Open access

Lehetne-e csökkenteni az enyhe koponyasérültek sürgősségi koponya-CT-vizsgálatainak számát?

Could the head CT scans be reduced for patients with minor head injury in the emergency practice?

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Alexandra Viczei
,
István Lapis
,
Gergő Kiss
,
Árpád Solti
, and
György Szeifert

Bevezetés: A koponya- és agysérüléseket (craniocerebralis traumák) nemzetközileg elfogadott standardok alapján osztályozzuk, gyakoriságuk és megoszlásuk országonként eltérő. Magyarországon 100 000 lakosra évente átlagosan 2000 koponyasérülés jut, s ezeknek legfeljebb a negyede jár kórházi felvétellel. Az elrendelt sürgős CT-vizsgálatok száma az Egyesült Államokban és hazánkban is a duplájára nőtt az elmúlt 20–30 évben. A készült koponya-CT-k közel 90%-a bizonyult negatívnak. Az enyhe fejsérülést vagy agyrázkódást szenvedett betegek rövid ideig tartó eszméletvesztésről, átmeneti fejfájásról, retrograd amnesiáról vagy dezorientációról számolnak be, a GCS (Glasgow-i Coma Skála) szerinti 13–15-ös értékű tudatállapot mellett. Fizikális vizsgálat után ezek a betegek sürgősségi osztályon való megfigyelést követően elbocsáthatók lehetnek, mivel az eddigi gyakorlat alapján az elvégzett koponya-CT-vizsgálat kóros eltéréseket nem igazolt. Célkitűzés: A CT nem hatékony használata jelentősen növeli a betegek felesleges sugárterhelését, valamint az egészségügyi ellátás költségeit is. Ezek mérséklésére többféle, külföldön már jól bevált szabályozási rendszer van érvényben, amelyek azonban hazánkban még nem váltak rutinszerűen alkalmazhatóvá. Saját beteganyagunk adatainak áttekintésével azt vizsgáltuk, hogy szükséges volt-e minden esetben a koponya-CT-vizsgálat. Módszer: Megvizsgáltuk a Békés Vármegyei Központi Kórház Sürgősségi Osztályán jelentkező koponyasérült betegek ellátási gyakorlatát. Eredmények: Retrospektív elemzésünk alapján a Kanadai Koponya CT Szabályt alkalmazva a sürgős koponya-CT-vizsgálatok száma kb. 70%-kal lett volna csökkenthető. Következtetés: A külföldön már alkalmazott standard rendszerek hazai használatával lehetőség nyílna az enyhe fejsérültek ellátási hatékonyságának javítására a magyarországi sürgősségi betegellátó osztályokon is. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(14): 538–544.

Open access

Abstract

There are no high mountains in Hungary, but in winter several montane species visit from the Alps and the Carpathians. Here, we used data from an internet database and a detailed literature review to investigate the spatial and temporal occurrence of four altitudinal migrant species in Hungary. Two of these species, Wallcreeper and Alpine Accentor, nest only in the Alps and Carpathians, while White-throated Dipper and Grey Wagtail breed in the mountainous areas of Hungary as well. The first individuals of Wallcreepers typically arrive in early October, but some birds migrate further south. In spring, it is considered rare in early April and exceptionally rare later on. The Alpine Accentor occurs in Hungary in a similar period as the Wallcreeper, but the birds do not leave the mountaineous areas in winter. Both species are found in anthropogenic environments, but the Wallcreeper is more often found on urban buildings and in lowlands. The White-throated Dipper has been recorded for a total of 10 times in lower regions during the coldest winter months, perhaps driven by the freezing of mountain streams. The Grey Wagtail is most often found in lowlands in mid-March and in September–October. It is typically found along rivers, and often overwinters along thermal waters.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Dusty Rose Miller
,
Jordan Taylor Jacobs
,
Alan Rockefeller
,
Harte Singer
,
Ian M. Bollinger
,
James Conway
,
Jason C. Slot
, and
David E. Cliffel

Abstract

Psilocybe zapotecorum is a strongly blue-bruising psilocybin mushroom used by indigenous groups in southeastern Mexico and beyond. While this species has a rich history of ceremonial use, research into its chemistry and genetics has been limited. Herein, we report on mushroom morphology, cultivation parameters, chemical profile, and the full genome sequence of P. zapotecorum. First, we detail growth and cloning methods that are simple, and reproducible. In combination with high resolution microscopic analysis, the strain was identified by DNA barcoding, confirming the field identification. Full genome sequencing reveals the architecture of the psilocybin gene cluster in P. zapotecorum, and can serve as a reference genome for Psilocybe clade I. Characterization of the tryptamine profile revealed a psilocybin concentration of 17.9 ± 1.7 mg/g, with a range of 10.6–25.7 mg/g (n = 7), and similar tryptamines (psilocin, baeocystin, norbaeocystin, norpsilocin, aeruginascin, and 4-HO-tryptamine) in lesser concentrations for a combined tryptamine concentration of 22.5 ± 3.2 mg/g. These results show P. zapotecorum to be a potent and chemically variable Psilocybe mushroom. Chemical profiling, genetic analysis, and cultivation assist in demystifying these mushrooms. As clinical studies with psilocybin gain traction, understanding the diversity of Psilocybe expands the conversation beyond the molecule.

Open access

Abstract

Psychological flexibility has been proposed as a core process of change when psychedelics are used for therapeutic purposes, but to date empirical outcomes have only documented changes on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), a very general measure of psychological flexibility. This pilot study measured outcomes from psilocybin administered in a retreat setting across a range of measures assessing aspects of psychological flexibility. Nine participants attended a 7-day psilocybin retreat and completed measures at baseline, 2-, and 6-month follow up. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in cognitive defusion (Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire), valued living (Valuing Questionnaire), and Self-Compassion (Self-Compassion Scale), as well as a trend towards increased overall psychological flexibility (AAQ). Other outcome and process measures included measures related to acute effects of the psilocybin, belief in oneness, social safeness, mental health, burnout and emotion expressivity. These results offer preliminary evidence that therapeutic benefits obtained from psilocybin experiences may be linked to changes in psychological flexibility.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Ádám Kerek
,
Ábel Szabó
,
Krisztián Bányai
,
Eszter Kaszab
,
Krisztina Bali
,
Márton Papp
,
László Kovács
, and
Ákos Jerzsele

Abstract

The authors aimed to investigate eight strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains from Hungarian layer flocks for antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG), using metagenomic methods. The strains were isolated from cloacal swabs of healthy adult layers. This study employed shotgun sequencing-based genetic and bioinformatic analysis along with determining phenotypic minimum inhibitory concentrations. A total of 59 ARGs were identified in the eight E. coli isolates, carrying ARGs against 15 groups of antibiotics. Among these, 28 ARGs were identified as transferable. Specifically, four ARGs were plasmid-derived, 18 ARGs were phage-derived and an additional six ARGs were predicted to be mobile, contributing to their mobility and potential spread between bacteria.

Open access

Assessing Novel Fiber Reinforcement Against Conventional Mix by Using Both Natural and Synthetic Fibers in Concrete with Statistical Performance Analysis

A természetes és szintetikus szálak felhasználásával készülő szálerősítésű és a hagyományos beton keverékek összehasonlítása, értékelése és statisztikai elemzése

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Vijayan Selvam
and
Tholkapiyan Muniyandi

This research investigates the effect of incorporating innovative human hair fibers (HHF) and polypropylene fibers (PPF) into concrete, which has been observed to enhance the material’s strength characteristics. These fibers augment the concrete’s tensile strength and resilience, fortifying it against cracks and elevating its overall endurance. This research delves into the impact of reinforcing concrete specimens with human hair and polypropylene fibers. These specimens are employed in cube, cylinder and flexural beam tests. Both fresh and hardened properties, such as compaction factor and slump, and compressive, split-tensile, and flexural strength at varying curing periods (28 days and 90 days) and the ratios (1%, 2%, and 3%) are considered by weight of cement. Specifically, the 3% polypropylene fiber concrete mix exhibited the highest average compressive strength at both 28 and 90 days, while the 2% polypropylene fiber mix showed the highest split-tensile strength. Flexural strength results followed a similar trend. Results show that 3% HHF addition leads to notable improvements in concrete strength properties, albeit not as significant as with polypropylene fibers. Statistical analysis, including independent samples Kruskal–Wallis tests, was conducted to compare the distributions of strength values across different groups. The statistical analysis indicates significant differences in strength distributions across groups, with p-values below the significance level of 0.05. This underscores HHF’s potential as a sustainable alternative in construction applications, contributing to enhanced concrete strength.

Restricted access

Abstract

Proteus mirabilis is a common enteric bacterium in livestock and humans. The increase and spread of the antimicrobial resistant P. mirabilis is considered alarming worldwide. Transmission mainly occurs through consumption of contaminated poultry products. We investigated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence markers in broiler chicken-originated P. mirabilis isolates from 380 fecal samples. Phenotypic AMR test was performed against seventeen different antimicrobials. Genotypic AMR test was performed to detect sixteen different AMR genes. The samples were also tested for the presence of eight different virulence genes and biofilm formation. P. mirabilis was isolated in 11% of the samples, with significantly high multidrug-resistant (MDR) prevalence (63%). All isolates were resistant to tetracycline (100%). The combined disc method indicated that all isolates were of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, which was compatible with the high bla TEM prevalence (95%). This was associated with bla TEM being responsible for more than 80% of ampicillin resistance in enteric pathogens. The absence of phenotypically carbapenem-resistant isolates was compatible with the very low prevalences of bla OXA (2%) and bla NDM (0%). All isolates were positive for pmfA, atfA, hpmA, and zapA (100%) virulence genes, while biofilm formation rate (85%) indicated high adherence abilities of the isolates.

Restricted access

Abstract

Feeding costs of farmed insects may be reduced by applying alternative nitrogen sources such as urea that can partly substitute true proteins. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different nitrogen sources on body weight (BW) and survival rate (SR) of the Jamaican field cricket (JFC, Gryllus assimilis), the house cricket (HC, Acheta domesticus), yellow mealworm larvae (YM, Tenebrio molitor) and superworm larvae (SW, Zophobas morio). Crickets were either housed individually or in groups, and larvae were group-housed. Six isonitrogenous feeds composed of 3.52% nitrogen were designed for all four insect species using four independent replicates with micellar casein: urea proportions of 100–0%, 75–25%, 50–50%, 25–75%, 0–100% and 100% extracted soybean meal. All selected insect species were able to utilise urea. However, urea as the only nitrogen source resulted in low final BW. In the HC, the JFC, and the YM on nitrogen basis urea can replace 25% of micellar casein without having any negative effects on BW and SR in comparison to the 100% micellar casein group. In the SW, a 25% urea level did not have a significant effect on final BW, but SR decreased significantly.

Open access

Abstract

This study aimed to prepare water-in-oil-type gelled protein emulsions. Sorghum, chickpea, and barley proteins were extracted from the seed flours with an alkaline procedure, and 2% protein solutions were used as an aqueous phase with Span 20 emulsifier to create sunflower oil emulsion gels. Prepared gels were analysed for main physicochemical properties, polymorphism, and rheology. Results showed that stable emulsion gels were creamy-greenish in colour and had mechanical stability. They included β and β′ type fat crystals. Rheological analyses indicated that they were soft-gel-like preparates, having certain levels of structural recovery ability after shear. These emulsion gels could be spreadable-fat-like products or shortening alternatives in processed foods. They might provide an extra advantage due to plant protein content. Food application studies are anticipated in future studies.

Restricted access

Abstract

The impact of the Russian-Ukrainian war on energy prices contributed significantly to European price increases in 2022. The study aims to find a linkage between the performance of 24 EU countries during the energy inflation crisis and their preparedness, vulnerability or exposure. The verified hypotheses reflect on the role of initial conditions of countries and the one-year impact of energy inflation on their economic performance. The two-step analysis first creates six clusters of countries based on their energy, trade, financial and political vulnerability, and preparedness indicators. The second step is to explore the shifts of clusters in expectations on macroeconomic indicators. Specific patterns of country groups are explored in the value and evolution of wartime indicators of inflation, GDP growth, consumer and business confidence, as well as FX volatility. The exploration concludes that the entry variables of clustering are relevant, and the EU countries can be segmented by dependency, energy, financial, and political aspects. Thus, it is possible to verify the distance in risk and exposure among EU economies. The impact variables demonstrated that the extent of the inflationary effect depended on the initial conditions. In addition, the research identified protective short-term factors against energy inflation originating in a trade and war context.

Open access

Abstract

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are a critical life-threatening challenge which necessitates the urgency to trigger life-saving treatment in a timely manner. This study aimed to evaluate the time required for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) directly from blood culture bottles to optimize empirical treatment of BSI, especially in pediatric and infant patients, using a cost-effective method. This study included 419 Gram-negative bacteria, of which Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were the most common CPE causing BSI in pediatric and neonatal patients. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance of the selected isolates (45 K. pneumoniae and 9 E. coli) were determined by VITEK-2 Compact system and PCR, respectively. BACT/ALERT bottles were spiked with isolates. Finally, colorimetric RESIST-BC assay and Vitek-2 compact system were evaluated for the rapid detection of carbapenem-resistant bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles. All selected isolates were phenotypically resistant to carbapenems. PCR showed that bla NDM and bla OXA-48 were present in all isolates, bla VIM was present in 44.4%, while bla KPC and bla IMP were entirely absent. The RESIST-BC kit showed good agreement with PCR for bla NDM and bla OXA-48, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity, but not with bla VIM. These findings point out that RESIST-BC assay demonstrated an exceptionally short detection time for CPE, completing all cases within the first hour after the blood culture bottles flagged positive. It is also superior in providing a clue for clinicians on antibiotic combinations that can be administered, depending on the type of β-lactamases detected, promptly and efficiently, with low expenses.

Restricted access
Animal Taxonomy and Ecology
Authors:
Norbek Kh. Bekchanov
,
Maxim V. Nabozhenko
,
Muzaffar Kh. Bekchanov
, and
Khudaybergan U. Bekchanov

Abstract

The Central Asian genus Dengitha Reitter, 1887 is briefly reviewed. The following new synonymy is proposed: Dengitha crystallina Semenow, 1896 = Dengitha symmetrica G.S. Medvedev, 1964 syn. nov.; Dengitha lutea Reitter, 1887 = Dengitha hyalina Semenow, 1896 resyn. Lectotype is designated for D. crystallina. In total, two species of the genus are distributed in Central Asia, occurring on weakly fixed sands with Haloxylon or dunes without vegetation in the Karakum and Kyzylkum deserts. Dengitha crystallina is widely distributed in Turkmenistan (western, central and north Karakum), Uzbekistan (Ustyurt plateau, Kyzylkum) and Kazakhstan (Kyzylkum); Dengitha lutea is known only from the eastern Karakum (Turkmenistan) and Sundukli deserts near the Amudarya River (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan).

Open access

Abstract

Chimetopon camerunensis Schmidt, 1910 from Equatorial Africa along with Oronoqua orellana Gnezdilov et Bartlett, 2020 and Sarnus rhomboidalis Fennah, 1965 from South America are included in the molecular analysis of the family Issidae for the first time. DNA of Ch. camerunensis was extracted from an old dry specimen collected more than 50 years ago. Based on our analysis, the tribe Chimetopini Gnezdilov, 2017 is nested within the subfamily Hysteropterinae, showing close relationships to North African and southern European genera Falcidius Stål, 1866 and Numidius Gnezdilov, Guglielmino et D'Urso, 2003. Additionally, we confirm the monophyly of the tribe Thioniini Melichar, 1906 and its position as a sister group to the tribe Issini Spinola, 1839 within the subfamily Issinae Spinola, 1839.

Open access

Abstract

Urbanization has resulted in changes in bird life histories, and some species have successfully adapted to urban environments, resulting in synurbization. Nest site selection in urban areas challenges cavity nesters because natural nest sites are often replaced by artificial holes. This study was conducted to identify the nest site selection and nest characteristics of the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) living in an urban environment. This species inhabits artificial structures and tree holes around human settlements. We surveyed nests of tree sparrows on the Chonnam National University campus, located in Gwangju, Republic of Korea, during the first clutch from March to May 2020. We categorized nest types into natural and artificial nest sites. The tree sparrows selected natural nest sites such as woodpecker's holes and cracks in trees, and selected artificial nest sites which included holes in concrete buildings, under roofs, and in steel frames and nesting boxes. No significant differences were found in breeding schedules and reproductive success between birds nesting in artificial and natural holes. The results suggest that tree sparrows can successfully adapt to an urban environment by selecting nest sites regardless of nest hole type, and can reproduce successfully when nesting in both natural and artificial holes.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Salvatore Parrillo
,
Ippolito De Amicis
,
Roberta Bucci
,
Jasmine Hattab
,
Domenico Robbe
, and
Augusto Carluccio

Abstract

Placental abnormalities more frequently occur during pregnancy of somatic cell clones and may lead to pregnancy loss or dystocia. Adventitious placentation, or diffuse semi-placenta, is determined by the development of areas of accessory placentation between the cotyledons due to the abnormal growth of placentomes.

After a full-term pregnancy, a 3-year-old Jersey heifer was referred for dystocia which resulted in the delivery of a dead calf. The cause of dystocia was found to be foetal malposition, while the placenta was physiologically expelled after dystocia resolution.

Grossly, cotyledons appeared reduced in size and number in one placental horn, while the surface of the other horn was covered with microplacentomes. Numerous villous structures without trophoblastic coating were highlighted after histopathology. The dominant sign was an inflammatory reaction. The findings were consistent with inter-cotyledonal placentitis, which led to adventitial placentation.

Diffuse semi-placenta compensates for the inadequate development of placentomes and may occur as a congenital or acquired defect. The outcome depends on its severity: in the worst scenario, pregnancy may not proceed beyond midterm and may be complicated by hydrallantois. In the case under examination, the dimensions of the cotyledons (from 2 to 10 cm) allowed for the natural course of pregnancy.

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Abstract

Background and aims

First responders such as firefighters and police officers often experience traumatic events as part of their work. As a result, they are more likely to have mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety compared to the general population. Psychedelic-assisted therapy has emerged as a promising avenue to alleviate these issues, but little is currently known about first responders' interest in, and barriers to, these treatments. Here, we aimed to document first responders' attitudes towards LSD-assisted therapy and previous use of psychoactive drugs.

Methods

We recruited 102 participants through mailing lists of first responders' unions. Respondents were typically male firefighters in western Canada; others were police officers, paramedics, and military personnel across Canada and the United States. They were asked about their attitudes towards LSD- and marijuana-assisted therapies, previous psychiatric diagnoses, psychosocial impairments, and substance use.

Results

Respondents showed higher rates of distress and illicit drug use compared to the general population. Of those who sought professional treatment, a minority reported that the treatment had helped them. The respondents were generally interested in taking part in therapy or research involving LSD or marijuana. The setting (e.g., at home vs. a clinic), therapist presence, and drug dose were commonly reported to influence this participation.

Conclusions

First responders may particularly benefit from psychedelic therapy given their high interest in psychedelic drugs and high rates of treatment-relevant disorders. Better understanding the needs of this population will help inform future clinical trials and psychedelic therapies.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel
,
Sergio Estrada-Martínez
,
Agar Ramos-Nevarez
,
Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix
,
Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto
,
Gustavo Alexis Alvarado-Félix
,
Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola
, and
Leandro Saenz-Soto

Abstract

Abdominal pain has been rarely reported in individuals infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The aim of this study was to determine the association between T. gondii infection and abdominal pain. Two hundred and ninety-nine patients with abdominal pain (cases) and 299 age- and gender-matched people without abdominal pain (controls) were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Twenty-four (8.0%) of the 299 cases and 12 (4.0%) of the 299 controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.02–4.25; P = 0.03). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in women with frequent abdominal pain than in women without this clinical feature (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.06–4.96; P = 0.02). Twelve (4.0%) of the 299 cases and 7 (2.3%) of the 299 controls had high (>150 IU mL−1) anti-T. gondii IgG antibody levels (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 0.67–4.49; P = 0.24). Seven (29.2%) of the 24 cases with anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 3 (25.0%) of the 12 controls with anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were positive to anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.25–5.97; P = 1.00). Results suggest an association between T. gondii infection and frequent abdominal pain. Further research to confirm this association should be conducted.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Interest in psychedelic research has grown significantly in recent years and the naturally derived substance psilocybin, in combination with therapy, has shown promising results as a treatment for a range of psychiatric conditions. However, the negative effects and risks of psilocybin-assisted treatment are not well-established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential negative effects of psilocybin-assisted psychological interventions in both the short and long term.

Method

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight psychedelic treatment providers and facilitators. Their content was thematically interpreted.

Results

Three themes of short-term negative effects were identified. They included negative reactions to psilocybin dosing sessions, undesirable processes in the therapeutic relationship, and difficult self-experiences. Four themes of long-term negative effects were identified. They included destabilization of the client, difficulties adapting to life post-treatment, complications in the treatment relationship, and undesirable outcomes.

Conclusions

These results highlight the multifaceted challenges clients may face, emphasizing the need for thorough pre-intervention assessment and post-intervention support. The findings both confirm previous research and highlight new aspects that can contribute to increased safety and be relevant for clinical implementation. Further rigorous research is needed to ensure safety, establish ethical guidelines, and optimize the positive effects of these experimental medicines. Integrating various research approaches and types of measurements will be vital to further our understanding of negative effects of psychedelic-assisted therapy.

Open access

Dr. Sándor Tamás 90 éves

Dr. Tamás Sándor is 90 years old

Magyar Sebészet
Author:
István Sugár
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A felnőttkori invaginatiók sebészeti vonatkozásai

Esetismertetés és irodalmi áttekintés

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
László Bor
,
Géza Telek
,
Balázs Kesserű
,
Fanni Fülöp
,
Renáta Juhász
,
Viktória Sági
, and
Ferenc Ender

A felnőttkori invaginatiók ritkák, klinikai megjelenésük eltér a gyerekkori formáktól. Klinikumuk igen változatos, gyakran atípusos, jellemző, hogy egy klinikai sejtés nyomán gondolni kell az invaginatio lehetőségére. A kiegészítő vizsgálatok közül kiemelkedő szerep jut a computer tomográfiának (CT), ami magas érzékenységgel és fajlagossággal képes kimutatni a béltraktus invaginatióját. Gyógyításuk az esetek legnagyobb részében sebészi, sokszor csak a műtét során lehetséges felismerni a kiváltó okot. Esetismertetésünkben egy rendkívül ritka, felnőttkori, passage-zavart okozó colo-colicus, a bal colonfelet érintő, a colon-flexura lienalis-descendens határra lokalizált invaginatio klinikai jellemzőit, diagnosztikáját és definitív megoldásaként a laparoscoposan asszisztált bal oldali haemicolectomia műtéti megoldását mutatjuk be. Munkánkban összefoglaljuk a felnőttkori invaginatiókra vonatkozó kórélettani fogalmakat, diagnosztikai lehetőségeket, a leggyakoribb kiváltó tényezőket és terápiás lehetőségeket.

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Abstract

Background and Aims

Despite increasing public acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community and psychedelic medicines, published accounts of queer psychedelia are limited. Specifically, the queer nature of psychedelics and the parallels between narratives of being queer and of psychedelic experiences, are lacking. This report brings queer experiences of psychedelia out of the metaphorical closet and argues for the development of Queer Affirming models of Psychedelic Assisted Psychotherapy (QA-PAP).

Methods

This knowledge report examines the extant psychedelic literature as it relates to queerness, and positions it against reports of rising anti-2SLGBTQ+ sentiments, and legislation aimed at dismantling civil liberties.

Results

Specifically in Canada, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom, the current socio-political climate fosters increasingly positive attitudes towards psychedelic medicine, while recently won 2SLGBTQ+ civil rights are under attack. The convergence of these trends means the psychedelic community must guard against repetition of mistakes made during the first wave of psychedelic research.

Conclusions

Including queer narratives within psychedelic research is integral to the equitable, safe, effective and accessible implementation of emerging modalities of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapies (PAP), and to ensure that ethical standards protect patients from sexual and gender based violence.

Open access

Megaoesophagust okozó achalasia cardiae: „a kezdetektől a megoldásig”

Achalasia cardiae causing megaesophagus: “From the beginnings to the resolution”

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
Barbara Galiger
,
Ferenc Ender
,
Ágnes Bohák
,
Géza Telek
, and
Attila Vörös

Achalasia cardiae miatt az első oesophago-cardia myotomiát több mint száz évvel ezelőtt Ernst Heller német sebész végezte. Az achalasiás betegek a mai napig ettől a beavatkozástól várják panaszaik megszűnését. Az achalasia napjainkban is chronikus, progresszív betegség, aminek oki kezelését nem ismerjük, a gyógyítására, a panaszok enyhítésére gyógyszeres (calcium csatorna blokkolók stb.), endoscopos (botulinum toxin inj., ballonos tágítás, per oralis endoscopos myotomiát [POEM]) és sebészi (laparoscopos, thoracoscopos myotomia) kezeléseket váltakozó sikerrel alkalmazunk.

A betegség progresszivitása miatt a betegek 5%-ánál a nyelésképtelenségig fokozódó dysphagia, megaoesophagus alakul ki, megoldására műtéti beavatkozás válik szükségessé. A működésképtelen nyelőcső eltávolítása és pótlása kiterjedt, nem elhanyagolható morbiditással és mortalitással járó beavatkozás. Közleményünkben egy 45 éves nőbeteg kórtörténetét, az általunk alkalmazott műtéti beavatkozást ismertetjük. A beteg a műtét óta panaszmentes.

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Metasztatizáló tumor képét adó disszeminált tuberkulózis Clostridium difficile okozta toxicus megacolonnal szövődött esete: a diagnózis nehézségei

A case of disseminated tuberculosis presenting as a metastasizing tumor, complicated by toxic megacolon caused by Clostridium difficile: Difficulties in diagnosis

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
Géza Telek
,
Csaba Polányi
,
Fanni Fülöp
,
Hai Anh Thu Nguyen
,
Krisztián Kónya
,
Ilona Bobek
,
Edit Babarczi
, and
Ferenc Ender

A mára ritkán előforduló tuberkulózis (tbc) extrapulmonális manifesztációi előrehaladott rosszindulatú daganatok képét utánozhatják, jelentős diagnosztikus dilemmákat okozva. A tbc igazolása gyakorta bonyolult, komplex vizsgálatokat igényel. Egy fiatal vietnámi nőbeteg esetét ismertetjük, aki idült hasi fájdalom, fogyás, fejfájás, bal oldali hemiparesis miatt jelentkezett kórházunkban. Az urgens vizsgálatok hasi folyadékgyülemek, lymphadenopathia és peritonealis carcinosis képe mellett az uterushoz asszociált ökölnyi kismedencei térfoglaló képletet, intracranialisan agyödémát és metastaticusnak tűnő gócokat ábrázoltak. Neurológiai, belgyógyászati, majd pulmonológiai klinikai vizsgálatok és kezelések során először disszeminált gynaecologiai tumor, majd meningealis-, miliaris tüdő- és kiterjedt hasüregi-kismedencei érintettséggel járó tbc gyanúja fogalmazódott meg. Bár mycobactérium jelenléte nem volt igazolható, antituberculoticus- és komplex antibiotikus terápiát alkalmaztak. Ennek szövődményeként Clostridium difficile okozta enterocolitis alakult ki. Átmeneti állapotrosszabbodás miatti intenzív osztályos kezelést követően a beteget visszahelyezték kórházunk belgyógyászatára. Itt toxicus megacolon, acut peritonitis alakult ki, emiatt sürgős műtétet végeztünk.

A hasüregben granulomatosus peritonitis encapsulans, extrém tágult, megrepedt taeniájú colon, hyperaemiás vékonybéltraktus, tuboovarialis tályogok voltak láthatók. Oncotomiát követően salpingo-oophorectomiát és subtotalis colectomiát végeztünk, Brooke szerinti ileostomát készítettünk. Az intenzív osztályos, majd infektológiai kezelésnek köszönhetően a beteg reconvalescentiája sikeres volt, kielégítő állapotban emittálták. A specimenek valós idejű PCR-vizsgálata során Mycobacterium DNS nem volt detektálható, végül a hasüregi váladék és granulomák mikroszkópos vizsgálatával sikerült saválló pálcákat identifikálni.

Az eset kapcsán áttekintjük az extrapulmonális tbc diagnosztikus lehetőségeit és terápiás nehézségeit.

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The rice plant is sensitive to soil salinity. Calcium (Ca) acts as an ameliorative agent that helps plants induce salt tolerance. This study was carried out with a comparison of the ameliorative effect of calcium on salt-stressed rice seedlings, the determination of the role of salt-responsive protein groups, and the analysis of their genetic expressions in 21-day-old rice seedlings of ten locally cultivable varieties of West Bengal. For this study, 15-day-old seedlings were treated with 200 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions along with 10 mM of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) treatment. The determination of the relationship between the salt-responsive proteins and the analysis of the gene expression of those corresponding proteins were not carried out earlier on the selected ten locally cultivable rice varieties of West Bengal. The NaCl crystals were visible on the abaxial leaf surface of salt-stressed rice seedlings. The superoxide dismutase activity was increased in rice varieties, and a similar result was also expressed with calcium treatment. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection spectral result gave strong evidence for the presence of several salt-tolerant proteins and their genetic expression. STRING database results have suggested that the calcium treatment, coupled with the expression of the CBL4 protein, has regulated the P5CR protein of proline biosynthesis for better salt tolerance and osmotic protection. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis analysis showed that salt-tolerant varieties, Chinsurah_nona_1, and Jarava had high calcium signaling mechanisms and osmo-protection abilities.

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A negatív nyomással végzett sebkezelés (NPWT) alkalmazása potenciálisan letális állapotokban

The application of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in potentially lethal conditions

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
László Bor
,
Vivien Koleszár
,
Géza Telek
,
Csaba Polányi
,
Judit Erdős
,
András Rácz
,
Tamás Varga
,
Artúr Seli
,
Zsolt Révész
, and
Ferenc Ender

Bemutatásra kerülő esetünkben egy 47 éves, generalizált septicus állapotú férfi beteg komplex terápiás megoldást igénylő kezelését ismertetjük, negatív nyomásterápia segítségével (NPWT). A páciens kezeletlen diabéteszes láb szindróma talaján kialakult szepszis, fasciitis necrotisans klinikai-radiomorfológiai képével került osztályunkra, akinél sürgősséggel feltárást, az alsó végtag valamennyi kompartmentjét érintő fasciotomiát végeztünk, NPWT-kezelést indítottunk. Kezelése során a beteg állapotát súlyosbító szövődmények léptek fel: Curling-fekély, toxicus epidermalis necrolysis (TEN). A fascitis kapcsán kialakult kb. 6% TBSA (total body surface area) kiterjedésű hámhiányt a TEN-szindróma további epidermális állományvesztéssel tovább súlyosbította. Állapotstabilizálást, kezdeti lokalis kontroll biztosítását követően a hámhiányos felület csökkentése érdekében a sebeket szűkítettük, a feltisztult sebalapok fedése 1:3 arányban hálósított félvastag bőr transzplantációjával történt. Az NPWT-kezelést a transzplantációt követően is folytattuk. A beteg három hónapos intenzív osztályos és sebészeti kezelést követően sebészi szempontból meggyógyult. A negatív nyomásterápia korai – a kórlefolyásnak megfelelő – adekvát üzemmódban és fedési technikával történő alkalmazása a végtagvesztéssel és életveszéllyel járó nagy fokú hámhiány esetében hatékony eszköznek bizonyult. A multidiszciplináris terápiának köszönhetően betegünk sebészeti alapbetegségét sikeresen gyógyítottuk, azonban az évtizedes tartamú kezeletlen cukorbetegsége, SARS-Covid peumoniája, a relabáló septicus állapota során fellépő szövődmények következtében felépülni már nem tudott.

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Recidív, kizáródott, felnőttkori Bochdalek-sérv műtéti megoldása

Treatment of recurrent incarcerated Bochdalek hernia in an adult

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
Balázs Cséfalvay
,
Csaba Polányi
,
Géza Telek
,
Balázs Kesserű
,
Diána Szeleczky
,
Attila Vörös
, and
Ferenc Ender

Az igen ritka felnőttkori nem hiatális, azaz nem paraoesophagealis típusú transdiaphragmaticus sérveket – a veleszületett rekeszizom defektusok mintájára – általánosan Bochdalek, ill. Larey-Morgagni-sérveknek nevezik. Etiológia tekintetében a nem diagnosztizált és kezelt veleszületett eredet, a traumás kontúziós-szakadásos, az iatrogen, ill. a recidív típus említendő meg.

Esetismertetésünkben egy felnőttkori recidív, kizáródott Bochdalek-sérv sikeres műtéti ellátását ismertetjük. A 23 éves férfi beteg kórelőzményében 11 éves korában bal oldali Bochdalek-sérv miatt végzett thoracoscopos rekeszizom sutura szerepel. Epigastrialis fájdalmak, hányinger, hányás, akut hasi megbetegedés klinikai tünetei miatt jelentkezett Intézetünkben. Az elvégzett sürgős mellkasi és hasi CT-vizsgálat a bal mellüregben elhelyezkedő, kizáródott, vékonybélkacsokat tartalmazó Bochdalek-sérvet igazolt. Sürgős laparotomia során az életképesnek bizonyult sérvtartalmat (a vékonybéltraktus 2/3 része, a colon flexura lienalisa és a pancreas farok) a hasüregbe reponáltuk, a sérvkaput direkt suturával zártuk, és szövetszeparáló sebészi hálóval fedtük, valamint a mellüreget draináltuk. A postoperatív szak eseménytelenül zajlott. Kontroll-CT-vizsgálat a reconstruált rekeszizom és pleuro-peritonealis rétegek folytonosságát mutatta. A 10. posztoperatív napon panaszmentesen bocsátottuk otthonába.

Megbeszélés: Mint minden kizáródott sérv esetében, a diagnózis mihamarabbi felállítása és az időben elvégzett műtét kulcsfontosságú. A mellkasi drenázs szükségességét minden esetnél körültekintően mérlegelni kell. A műtét után a mell- és hasüregben kialakult új anatómiai viszonyok miatt cardialis és respiratoricus szövődmények alakulhatnak ki. Álláspontunk szerint a betegség ritkasága miatt centrumban kezelendő. Ezen ritka állapot sikeres gyógyítása többszakmás együttműködésen alapul, melynek meghatározó eleme a helyesen megválasztott rekeszi felszínt helyreállító műtéti technika alkalmazása.

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Abstract

As there are few data available, we aimed to assess the development of the cardiorespiratory system of young female athletes following a two-year training program (2y-TP) and explore the game position-specific changes.

Methods

Before and after the 2y-TP body compositions of young elite female handball players (age: 14.2 ± 0.5 years, n = 33) were investigated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The morphological changes of the heart were assessed by echocardiography, and cardiorespiratory values were investigated by spiroergometry.

Results

Compared to initial values, after the 2y-TP, significant increases were found in body mass (by 8.8%), skeletal muscle mass (by 7.7%), and body fat (by 11.3%), power (by 7.8%), VO2 (by 10.6%), VCO2 (by 8.3%), oxygen pulse (by 13.8%), ventilation (by 13.4%), tidal volume (by 13.7%), left ventricular mass (by 24.8%), stroke volume (by 21.2%), and stroke volume normalized to the body surface (by 16.4%). Heart rate decreased (by 2.9%), whereas respiratory frequency, load time, relative power, and relative VO2 did not change. During the test, the goalkeepers run for a shorter time than the wing players at the initial time point and after the 2y-TP. Also, the maximum heart rate did not change in goalkeepers, whereas it decreased in wing players after the 2y-TP. Thus, the goalkeepers had a higher initial VO2 value at VO2peak than wing players, and differences, which were maintained after the 2y-TP, as well. In contrast, in goalkeepers, the relative VO2 at the VO2peak was initially lower than in wing players, which remained lower after the 2y-TP, as well.

Conclusions

In adolescent female handball players, the 2y-TP significantly improved skeletal muscle mass, which corresponded to significant improvements of cardiorespiratory function, which were more accentuated in wing players, compared to goalkeepers, likely due to the different loads during trainings and matches.

Open access