Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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Abstract

Analyzing the capacity of a signalized circular intersection is an essential aspect of traffic flow management. With the increased number of vehicles at the intersection, it is preferable to examine ways to increase capacity without altering the existing geometric features. A signalized circular intersection on the national highway in Győr, Hungary, between 47° 40′ 43.7988″ N and 17° 39′ 37.6668″ E is chosen and analyzed for capacity enhancement. The survey is conducted using 360-degree cameras. The PTV Vissim software is then used to construct a model based on the current and projected vehicle counts, as well as the current and proposed options. The result shows that it is possible to increase the capacity of signalized circular intersections without altering the geometric features.

Open access

Abstract

The current work discusses optimizing the structural design of reinforced high strength concrete rectangular sections under design loads. Using a least-cost design criterion and minimal design variables, an analytical approach to the problem is devised. A nonlinear mathematical programming format for the formulation of the problem is among the things that are demonstrated. To demonstrate how the formulation can be used in line with the ACI 318-08 standard, several typical cases are given. The outcomes are compared to those obtained from existing design practice. The ideal solution demonstrates unequivocally that significant reductions in the anticipated absolute costs of the building materials to be employed are possible and without making significant changes, this method may be expanded to address other portions.

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Abstract

This study evaluates future changes in M-day minimum and maximum discharges in selected river basins of Slovakia, which have been divided into four groups, i.e., western, central, northern, and eastern Slovakia. Four types of data were available for the analysis, i.e., observed mean daily discharges, modeled mean daily discharges using the rainfall-runoff model, and simulated mean daily discharges according to the climate scenarios. The Indicators of Hydrological Alteration program was used to estimate the M-day discharges.

The results revealed an increase in the M-day minimum discharges in northern Slovakia. Eastern and Western Slovakia show a decrease in M-day minimum discharges and an increase in m-daily maximum discharges by 2100.

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Abstract

Under the background of modernization, the continuation and development of historical and artistic values of ancient villages are faced with many difficulties, and corresponding theories are needed to guide practice. Taking Baojing Village in China as an example, this paper studies and expounds on the strategies for the protection and development of ancient villages, establishes a coordination mechanism for all parties and provides experience for the difficulties faced by this field. In the past, most Chinese ancient village literature studies focused on the characteristic value, formation, and evolution of historical and cultural villages. However, the research on the integration and utilization of resources in historical and cultural villages still needs to be further deepened.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Jana Budajova
,
Silvia Vilcekova
,
Eva Kridlova Burdova
,
Katarina Harcarova
, and
Peter Mesaros

Abstract

This paper deals with life cycle analysis of three wooden houses in terms of environmental impact indicators, construction, and operational costs. At the same time, indoor environmental quality of the houses is investigated. From the results achieved, it can be concluded that wooden house 3 shows the lowest emissions of CO2e/m2.year compared to other houses. Based on overall investigation wooden house 1 is the most advantageous. Concrete structures and mineral wool have the highest share of global warming potential. On the contrary wooden house 3 has the largest life cycle costs. Results of indoor environmental quality show that the permissible limits of the measured physical and chemical factors are not exceeded during the measurement.

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Abstract

Due to significant industrialization, many countries have adopted the practice of industrial symbiosis, which involves utilizing the waste produced by one industry as a resource for another industry. The utilization of spent foundry sand (SFS), which is derived from the metal casting industry, poses a significant risk to both the environment and living organisms as a result of the existence of inorganic and organic substances. Nevertheless, this waste material can serve as a valuable resource for the construction sector. The utilization of SFS is significantly restricted due to insufficient comprehension of its concrete performance, despite its extensive range of applications. It is imperative to comprehend the behavior of spent foundry sand in concrete, particularly in relation to achieving a structure that is both strength-efficient and durable. The current study explores the usability of M-sand and spent foundry sand in self-compacting concrete. Reference concrete was produced by replacing river sand with 100% M-sand. M-sand was substituted with spent foundry sand in ratios ranging from 0 to 30%. Compared to the reference mix, SCC's mechanical and durability properties with 20% SFS were better. In comparison to the reference mix, SCC containing 20% SFS had higher mechanical and durability characteristics at 3, 7, 28 days, and 28 days, respectively. With 20% SFS, replacement showed better mechanical properties at all curing ages and better durability performance at 28 days of the curing period.

Open access

Abstract

The driver's eye height from the ground, as what drivers can see on the road, is essential for their safety and for avoiding road hazards. Using the statistical analysis of vehicles sample, the statistical parameters of the measured set of values were determined. A one-sample t-test was done to check whether the measured sample differs from the driver's eye height value specified in the Hungarian design guidelines. A new range of driver's eye height has been found, which is considered an update to the current value and might be applied in the upcoming road design. Parallel with the eye-height analysis, sight distances at vertical crest curves were modeled by AutoCAD Civil 3D. The minimum radiuses of the crest curves were defined for human eye height and for sensors of autonomous vehicles.

Open access

Abstract

This paper deals with the issue of spatial modeling of façade frame scaffolding, with the focus on developing a methodology for modeling subfloor components. A laboratory experiment on a standard scaffold base assembly consisting of two spans is described. Load tests were carried out, and additional measuring points were added to the measuring apparatus compared to the standard procedure. The nonlinear stiffness of the numerical models was derived from the measured value. Furthermore, planar models of the scaffold subfloors were created and validated against experiments. Finally, the paper proposes scaffold stiffness in the horizontal direction (perpendicular to the façade and parallel to the façade) that can be used in a full spatial member of the scaffold model.

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Abstract

Control of OHS risks in the mining industry has been attracting increasing attention in recent years. Because of their great diversity in a complex system, hazards can be difficult to identify and classify, especially when system components interact. Risk cannot be managed successfully without comprehensive investigation of all its aspects. A coherent and integrated classification for identifying and categorizing all hazards is currently lacking in mining. We propose an integrated system classification of OHS hazards in mining based on our review of 44 studies retrieved using PRISMA. Considering Canadian and international standards, regulations and conventions, new hazard categories are proposed and hazard prevention is discussed from 12 perspectives: physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, accident and psychosocial risks, as well as policy, legislation, management, design, geography, and uncertainty, with reference to each of the four phases of a typical mine life cycle, the hazards were shown in a portrait. This paper provides suitable categories based on rational data for creating a portrait in order to OHS hazards prevention in life cycle activity in mine.

Open access

Abstract

This paper aims to recognize the effect of material waste on cost increase in Palestinian construction projects. The study used questionnaire survey to achieve its objectives. The target population of the study are constructors and consultants involved in construction projects. The study also predicts the effect of cost overrun on material waste in some construction activities, namely: ceramic and brick works. The collected data were analyzed using statistical analyses. The study has established that among the various factors that affect cost overrun, experience in the line of work, conflicts among project participants, payments delay, and political situation are the key factors. While the analysis revealed that the main material waste factors are: poor site management, using untrained labors, rework due to workers' mistakes, selecting the lowest bidder contractor/subcontractor, and frequent change orders. Data from 55 building projects constructed in the West Bank between 2015 and 2020 were collected to test the relation between material waste and cost increase. Two mathematical models were developed: Model (l) links cost increase and waste in ceramic works. It indicates that if waste increases by 1%, the cost will increase by 1.07%. Model (2) links between cost increase and material waste in brick works. It tells that if waste increases by 1%, cost will increase by 1.25%. R square of value >0.7, for both models, indicates a strong linear relation between cost increase and material waste. This is the first study that predicts the effect of material waste on cost increase in Palestinian construction sector. The study encourages different parties related to construction projects to manage factors of cost overrun and material waste to enhance the sector of construction.

Open access