Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is to propose a model for estimating the hysteresis damping ratio of moment steel frames and compare them with the results obtained using direct displacement-based design. In this study, different models of steel bending frames were examined by using several type of analysis to obtain this ratio. Thirty-steel frame models with 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 floors and 3 and 6 bay with 6 m span length were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the equivalent damping ratio at the level of safety based on Jacobsen and Jennings, and the values of the equivalent damping relationships according to FEMA-440 vary from the empirical formula proposed in displacement-based design-2012. Therefore, in the ductility domain the exponential relationship form was more consistent with the results used. A new formula was proposed to calculate the hysteresis damping ratio, and it is more accurate than the empirical formula proposed in displacement-based design-2012.

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Abstract

Expansive unsaturated soils present challenges in construction due to their moisture-induced behavior. This study proposes empirical equations to estimate the maximum wetting depth over time. Laboratory experiments and numerical analyses using SEEP/W software investigate wetting depth considering time and sand content in coastal and inland regions. Results reveal the significant influence of sand content on maximum soil moisture depth, emphasizing a recommended content above 30% to mitigate heave. The equations offer practical tools for assessing wetting depth, accounting for temporal and spatial variations. This research highlights the importance of wetting depth in addressing soil-related concerns and provides a foundation for further exploration of related factors.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Myroslav Malovanyy
,
Roman Paraniak
,
Ivan Tymchuk
,
Volodymyr Zhuk
,
Iryna Ablieieva
,
Mariia Korbut
,
Yurii Dziurakh
, and
Yustyna Zhylishchych

Abstract

Promising method for disposal the pine wood waste through extrusion pelleting using sulphate soap as a natural binder is considered in the article. Prior to pelleting, the wood waste requires drying to a water content of no more than 10%. Analysis of pine wood waste drying in filtration mode yielded optimal parameters: a 20 mm layer thickness, temperature of 135 °C, and drying time of 3,900 s. The optimal content of sulphate soap binder was determined to be about 20%, resulting in reduced coke residue, increased volatile components, higher calorific value, and enhanced static strength. This binder facilitates formation of pellets at lower pressures, increases calorific value, and acts as a lubricant, reducing friction and associated energy costs.

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Abstract

This work proposes an extended numerical scheme based on the finite volume method that is intended to solve a new morphodynamic model with porosity. The St-Venant equations and the Exner equation are coupled in this model, accounting for the variation of the porosity function ϕ ( x , y ) . In the morphodynamic system, the Jacobian matrix's sign is taken into account when reconstructing the numerical fluxes using an improved Roe's approach to assure correct numerical computations.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Firas F. Qader
,
Barhm Mohamad
,
Adnan M. Hussein
, and
Suad H. Danook

Abstract

Forced convection heat transfer was studied in a horizontally heated circular pipe with constant heat flux. Porous medium was created using 1 and 3 mm stainless-steel balls (porosity: 0.3690 and 0.3912). Reynolds numbers ranged from 3,200 to 6,500 based on pipe diameter, with heat flux rates of 6,250 and 12,500 W m−2. ANSYS Fluent simulated a 51.4 mm diameter, 5 mm thick, 304 mm long stainless-steel pipe. Results showed increased turbulence and eddy formation. Analysis revealed higher convective heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, and Nusselt number with increasing Reynolds number. Nusselt number also increased with 1–3 mm ball diameter. 6% porosity increase reduced pressure drop by 84.4%. Nusselt number rose by 46.7% (Reynolds 3,200–6,500) and 4.36% (heat flux 6,250–12,500 W m−2).

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Abstract

The influence of utilizing waste concrete aggregates on the flexural behavior of external reinforced concrete beams has been studied. Seven mixtures were prepared for this investigation where the concrete mixtures had different waste concrete percentages and admixtures. Also, seven beams were modeled by Ansys program and the properties of the seven mixtures have been used in the models to study their effects. It was found that using waste concrete aggregates has decreased the load bearing capacity and concrete ductility. It was found that the beam bearing capacity was decreased by 10.7% when using only waste concrete. Using admixtures have enhanced the concrete properties where the load capacity of beams has been increased by 39% when using silica fume and superplasticizer and the load capacity has increased by 44.6% when multi-admixtures have been used. Besides, it was found that using additives has enhanced the beam ductility significantly.

Open access

Abstract

This article aims at investigating rework cost, factors and effects in residential building projects in the West Bank – Palestine. Questionnaire survey is used to collect and rank the main factors and effects of rework from consultants' and constructors' point of view. Respondents show that more than 80% of the projects completed with rework cost of value greater than 5% of the total project cost. Overall, respondents' view concludes that the top rework factors include: mistakes in design, unskilled labors, unqualified subcontractors, non-conformance with required specifications, and bid awarding policy. Respondents indicate that the main effects of rework are cost overrun, project time extension, material waste excess and profit reduction. Spearman correlation test concludes a good correlation between contractors and consultants in ranking of rework factors and effects. Data collected from 47 residential projects reveal a high rework impact on cost overrun in construction projects. The results of this study would be helpful for researchers and professionals to guide their efforts to minimize rework in construction projects and to improve projects outcomes in term of cost, time and quality.

Open access

Abstract

The present study aims to determine the effects of blending cementitious materials on the mechanical and durability properties of high-performance concrete (HPC). Densified silica fume and fine-grounded metakaolin are used as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). A total of 16 mixes containing both binary and ternary blending of SCMs were chosen for w/b ratios of 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. The hardened properties tested for the HPC mixes were compressive strength at 7, 28, and 90 days, flexural strength at 28 days, and modulus of elasticity at 28 days. Maximum strength gains up to 15%, 38%, and 23% for compression, flexure, and elastic modulus were observed in ternary mixes compared to binary mixes. Stress-strain behaviour of ternary mixes indicates increased tolerance of stress for the least amount of strain in the specimens. Based on the experimental results, empirical relations were developed and checked with the existing codes and by earlier researchers. The durability properties tested for HPC were water absorption at 28 days, acid attack, and sulphate attack at 28, 56, and 90 days. Ternary mixes improved the pore structure of HPC, resulting in a 56% reduction in water absorption and a 34% reduction in compressive strength loss due to immersion in 5% H2SO4 at 90 days. The findings of the study endorse that ternary blending of SF and MK can improve the engineering properties of HPC, and a mix containing SF 10% and MK 10% is recommended for the best results.

Open access

Comparative Study on the Optimal Topologies

Összehasonlító tanulmány optimális topológiákra

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Bálint Tóth
,
Matteo Bruggi
, and
János Lógó

The topology optimization is a leading tool in structural design. Due to the rapidly spreading need of the industry, commercial software are available in the market. Generally, these software are suitable for solving one subtask (preprocessing, postprocessing, stress calculation, etc.) but need some user manipulation to interconnect to one that is better for some other subproblem. This is the reason why we write a study on the available software and make suggestions on their usability. The purpose of this research is to briefly introduce selected software such as Rhino 3D, Grasshopper, Peregrine, Karamba, Galapagos, polyTop and PolyStress using topology optimization theory. Due to the demand to apply them for industrial applications, the additional goal is to make suggestions to make these software programs more user-friendly and to create algorithms to connect with software used in the industry, such as Consteel. This work also discusses the connected algorithms and optimization methods such as layout optimization by Peregrine, and topology optimization by polyTop and PolyStress. Several illustrative videos are provided as supplements. In addition to the text of this paper one can see demonstrations of the applications by the use of the provided YOUTUBE links.

Open access

Real Net Vault or Pseudo-Ribbed Net Vault?

Geometry, Construction and Building Technique of the Vault of the Reformed Church of Nyírbátor and the Nave Vault of the Franciscan Church of Szeged-Alsóváros

Valódi hálóboltozat vagy bordákkal díszített donga?

A nyírbátori ferences templom hajóboltozatának és a nyírbátori református templom boltozatának geometriája, szerkesztés- és építéstechnikája
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Eszter Jobbik
and
János Krähling

In the present article, we revisit the question of the structural characteristics and building methods of two of the most famous Hungarian Late-Gothic net vaults, the nave vault of the Franciscan Church of Szeged-Alsóváros and the vault of the Reformed Church of Nyírbátor. Based on the data gathered by laser-scanning the two buildings, the geometric system of the two vaults, as opposed to the former state of research, differ significantly from each other. While the rib system and webbing of the vault of Szeged-Alsóváros have features characteristic of pseudo-ribbed net vaults and net vaults with webbing built with formwork, the vault of Nyírbátor is likely a real net vault structure with webbing built freehand. Furthermore, the rib system of the vault of Szeged-Alsóváros can be described by a single curved surface deductible from a circle segment, the rib junction points’ spatial positions in the vault of Nyírbátor are only describable by coordinates in the three directions of the space, not by an even surface. Based on the geometric descriptions, we also attempted to reconstruct the plausible building methods in both cases. Finally, we considered the results of the geometric analysis and the underlying construction ideas deduced from it and gave a new evaluation regarding the earlier reasonings for the strong building connections of the two churches in regard to the guilds and master builders.

Open access