Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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Abstract

The present study aims to determine the effects of blending cementitious materials on the mechanical and durability properties of high-performance concrete (HPC). Densified silica fume and fine-grounded metakaolin are used as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). A total of 16 mixes containing both binary and ternary blending of SCMs were chosen for w/b ratios of 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. The hardened properties tested for the HPC mixes were compressive strength at 7, 28, and 90 days, flexural strength at 28 days, and modulus of elasticity at 28 days. Maximum strength gains up to 15%, 38%, and 23% for compression, flexure, and elastic modulus were observed in ternary mixes compared to binary mixes. Stress-strain behaviour of ternary mixes indicates increased tolerance of stress for the least amount of strain in the specimens. Based on the experimental results, empirical relations were developed and checked with the existing codes and by earlier researchers. The durability properties tested for HPC were water absorption at 28 days, acid attack, and sulphate attack at 28, 56, and 90 days. Ternary mixes improved the pore structure of HPC, resulting in a 56% reduction in water absorption and a 34% reduction in compressive strength loss due to immersion in 5% H2SO4 at 90 days. The findings of the study endorse that ternary blending of SF and MK can improve the engineering properties of HPC, and a mix containing SF 10% and MK 10% is recommended for the best results.

Open access

Comparative Study on the Optimal Topologies

Összehasonlító tanulmány optimális topológiákra

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Bálint Tóth
,
Matteo Bruggi
, and
János Lógó

The topology optimization is a leading tool in structural design. Due to the rapidly spreading need of the industry, commercial software are available in the market. Generally, these software are suitable for solving one subtask (preprocessing, postprocessing, stress calculation, etc.) but need some user manipulation to interconnect to one that is better for some other subproblem. This is the reason why we write a study on the available software and make suggestions on their usability. The purpose of this research is to briefly introduce selected software such as Rhino 3D, Grasshopper, Peregrine, Karamba, Galapagos, polyTop and PolyStress using topology optimization theory. Due to the demand to apply them for industrial applications, the additional goal is to make suggestions to make these software programs more user-friendly and to create algorithms to connect with software used in the industry, such as Consteel. This work also discusses the connected algorithms and optimization methods such as layout optimization by Peregrine, and topology optimization by polyTop and PolyStress. Several illustrative videos are provided as supplements. In addition to the text of this paper one can see demonstrations of the applications by the use of the provided YOUTUBE links.

Open access

Real Net Vault or Pseudo-Ribbed Net Vault?

Geometry, Construction and Building Technique of the Vault of the Reformed Church of Nyírbátor and the Nave Vault of the Franciscan Church of Szeged-Alsóváros

Valódi hálóboltozat vagy bordákkal díszített donga?

A nyírbátori ferences templom hajóboltozatának és a nyírbátori református templom boltozatának geometriája, szerkesztés- és építéstechnikája
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Eszter Jobbik
and
János Krähling

In the present article, we revisit the question of the structural characteristics and building methods of two of the most famous Hungarian Late-Gothic net vaults, the nave vault of the Franciscan Church of Szeged-Alsóváros and the vault of the Reformed Church of Nyírbátor. Based on the data gathered by laser-scanning the two buildings, the geometric system of the two vaults, as opposed to the former state of research, differ significantly from each other. While the rib system and webbing of the vault of Szeged-Alsóváros have features characteristic of pseudo-ribbed net vaults and net vaults with webbing built with formwork, the vault of Nyírbátor is likely a real net vault structure with webbing built freehand. Furthermore, the rib system of the vault of Szeged-Alsóváros can be described by a single curved surface deductible from a circle segment, the rib junction points’ spatial positions in the vault of Nyírbátor are only describable by coordinates in the three directions of the space, not by an even surface. Based on the geometric descriptions, we also attempted to reconstruct the plausible building methods in both cases. Finally, we considered the results of the geometric analysis and the underlying construction ideas deduced from it and gave a new evaluation regarding the earlier reasonings for the strong building connections of the two churches in regard to the guilds and master builders.

Open access

Az esztergom-belvárosi kálváriakápolnák és stációk összművészeti jelentősége

The Overall Artistic Significance of the Chapels and Stations of the Calvary in Esztergom-Belváros

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Zsófia Galántai
,
Mária Prokopp
, and
Ákos Zsembery

A hazai századforduló építészetének egyik kiemelkedő emléke az esztergomi belvárosi Kálvária-hegyen található összművészeti együttes, mely két kápolnából és 14 épített stációból áll. A több évtizedes elhanyagoltság után néhány évvel ezelőtt megkezdődhetett az értékek kutatása és mentése, az alsó kápolnát sikerült részben felújítani, ám a felső kápolna ez év elején már az összedőlés határára került. Közösségi és egyházmegyei kezdeményezésre és a város vezetésének segítségével az utolsó pillanatban sikerült megmenteni. A tervezést és felújítást megelőző kutatásaink olyan építészeti és művészettörténeti gazdagságot tárnak elénk, melyek országos szintű értékek, bemutatásuk és védelmük közös feladatunk. A restaurátori kutatások és értékmentések megtörténtek, és megindult a rekonstrukciós munka is. E cikk alapvető célja, hogy a szakma és a közösség megismerhesse, magáénak érezhesse ennek az együttesnek hazánkkal összefonódott sorsát, mely nemcsak közös múltunk tanúja, de közös jövőnk záloga is egyben.

Open access

Finding Groundwater in East and West

Comparing Methods of Finding Groundwater in Al-Karaji’s Treatise on The Extraction of Hidden Waters and Vitruvius’s Treatise on The Ten Books on Architecture

Földalatti vízvezetékek Keleten és Nyugaton

Al-Karaji A rejtőző vizek kitermelése és Vitruvius Tíz könyv az építészetről című traktátusának összehasonlító elemzése a földalatti vízvezetékek tekintetében
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Elaheh Golzari
and
Péter Rabb

Hydraulic systems were built by ancient civilizations, notably the Persians and Romans, to deliver water to their residences where the water supply was scarce. Qanats were invented by the Persians to transfer water from aquifers to the surface, and aqueducts were built by the Romans to transport surface or underground water from its sources to distribution points in cities. Finding groundwater is a similarity between these two historical systems. This research compares ancient methods used by Persians and Romans to locate areas with abundant subsurface water. The oldest existing historical documents that recorded ancient ways of tracking groundwater, Al-Karaji’s treatise on qanats and Vitruvius’ treatise, were investigated with the qualitative content analysis method. As a result, historical means are divided into two categories in these two treatises including natural indications and practical tests. Natural indications consist of mountains and rocks, features of steppes, plants, vapours and dew, the whistles of the wind, and alluvial fans. An inverted container, a fleece of wool, an oil lamp, and a fire are instances of practical tests. Although these two treatises were authored over a ten-thousand-year interval and the structures of water systems differ, there are commonalities between ancient methods of tracing underground water.

Open access

On the Buckling of the No-tension Material Masonry Column

A húzószilárdság nélküli téglapillér statikai modelljéről

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
István Tajta
and
Endre Dulácska

Masonry columns, subjected to eccentric compression, crack due to tension if the eccentricity is larger than the size of the core of the section. Previous studies have assumed that the cracks have so small spacing that the cracked tension side can be neglected during the analysis.

The critical load can be determined using this assumption. However, experimental experience has shown that the cracks have large spacing, approximately equal to one and a half times the cross-section height. Therefore, the crack-free parts between the cracks influence the lateral deflection and the critical load. Considering the above-mentioned phenomenon, we determined the elastic critical buckling load of the cracked masonry column.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Basim Jabbar Abbas
,
Talib K. Q. Alsheakayree
,
Hussain M. Ashour Al Khuzaie
, and
Hussein Kareem Sultan

Abstract

A railway on 4 m height embankment is being built in the south of Iraq. The railway alignment is extending on a compressible soil experienced impermissible settlement according to the results of soil investigation of the soil at the project site. A trial for reducing the settlement was done adopting sand piles. Nonlinear analysis was conducted to evaluate the settlement of soil before and after using the proposed technique.

The results indicated that without any improvement, the expected total settlement of the railway embankment on the compressible clay layer is 170.2 mm. By inserting granular piles of diameter 0.3 m, it was obtained settlement decreases to 88.7 mm with reduction being in range of ∼48%.

Restricted access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Nadiia Spodyniuk
,
Ievgen Antypov
,
Viktor Trokhaniak
,
Victor Kaplun
,
Orest Voznyak
,
Olena Savchenko
, and
Iryna Sukholova

Abstract

The efficiency of using photovoltaic panels significantly depends on the climatic conditions and the power of the consumer. The evaluation of the efficiency of using the battery of the photovoltaic panel depending on the climatic conditions and the power of the consumer was carried out by the method of simulation modeling. A new type of storage battery allows to accumulate excess and compensate for the energy deficit due to the capacity of the batteries, and in case of their complete discharge - due to connection to other sources of electrical and thermal energy. The temperature field on the surface of the solar panel is constructed based on numerical simulation. The temperature ranges from +70.4 to +127.5 °C. In the main area of the panel, the heat flow ranged from 3,200 to 7000 W m−2.

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Abstract

Speech scrambling aims to distort speech signals to prevent unauthorized listeners from understanding them, but conventional techniques are vulnerable to attacks. Therefore, more robust and secure speech scrambling algorithms are needed to ensure sensitive communication security. A proposed scheme uses a particle swarm optimization algorithm to generate a random key and optimize the level of noise in the scrambled signal, along with two transformations Multiwavelet and Arnold techniques to improve complexity and security. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using various performance measurements and has demonstrated superior encryption performance than other similar audio encryption schemes with key space equal to 128 × 2.718. Further research and development in speech scrambling are essential to guarantee secure communication in sensitive contexts such as military and intelligence.

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Abstract

With the development of society and economy, people pay more and more attention to thematic landscape architectural design featuring various cultures. Landscape architectural design is no longer only satisfied with the standardized, identical design style, but should focus on some specific cultural communication functions. In the thematic landscape architectural design, the use of cultural symbols can reflect the characteristics of the park. Through some research and practical design, the design method of using cultural symbols in landscape architectural design is summarized: from finding cultural elements to design language transformation.

Restricted access