Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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The preservation of existing buildings is desirable not only for the purpose of saving architectural values, but equally important is that it is an environmentally friendly–environmentally conscious activity as well, since by renovating existing houses less waste is generated, the environmental impact from transport decreases, the material and energy invested in the structures already built do not get lost and no additional energy is needed for demolition.

Open access

Fű – Fa – Agyag – Őrség •

Az építészeti anyaghasználat és a táji adottságok kölcsönhatása az Őrség területén

Grass – Wood – Clay – Őrség •

The Interaction Between the Use of Architectural Materials and Landscape Features in the Area of Őrség
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Ágnes Bertyák
and
Kornélia Kissfazekas

Egy adott területen hagyományos népi építészet nemcsak egy adott korszak társadalmi viszonyaitól, igényeitől és technológiai fejlettségétől, hanem a helyben fellelhető környezeti és természeti adottságoktól és az azok nyújtotta lehetőségek megfelelő felismerésétől és hasznosításától is nagymértékben függ. A Magyarország nyugati határvidékén található Őrség aprófalvas települései a tájjal szoros kapcsolatban fejlődtek. Az itt élők tájalakító tevékenységüket a helyi erőforrásokra építve, ahhoz alkalmazkodva vitték végbe, így épületeiket is a helyi adottságok használatával és figyelembevételével alakították ki. Ezek nyomán elsősorban két építőanyag vált általánossá és a terültre jellemzővé, a fa és az égetett agyagtégla, melyek használata eltérő építészeti formákat, szerkezeteket vont magával.

Jelen kutatás célja a történeti, hagyományos anyagok és formák tájhasználati összefüggéseinek feltárása az Őrségben jellemző, épülettipológiát is befolyásoló anyaghasználati sajátosságok elemzésén keresztül. A kutatás az írott források feltárásán felül történeti térképek és webes térképészeti szolgáltatások vizsgálatával készült az Őrségre és annak három általunk kiválasztott, összetartozó településére fókuszálva (Őriszentpéter, Ispánk, Nagyrákos), ötvözve a tájépítészeti és építészeti szemléletet.

Open access

Abstract

The topic of this study has been the examination and comparison of the competitive balance of the Spanish and the English first leagues of soccer, called La Liga Santander and Barclays Premier League. The basis for the research project has been provided by a database of sixteen hundred elements, containing the data of the two leagues starting from the 2014/2015 season up to the 2017/2018 season. When choosing the time period for the study, we intended to avoid having to deal with the impact of Covid-19, which is why we picked exactly these competition seasons. We have primarily used statistical indicators. In the case of sports-related data, our inquiries have included the following: comparing and averaging the winning percentages per season, furthermore, the winning percentages of championship seasons, the distribution of goals scored and conceded and, finally, the calculation of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. Although there is one aspect of investigation according to which the competition balance of La Liga is closer to the optimal, the dispersion of winning percentages and the indicator of the goals conceded as well as the HHI index show that the Premier League is the more balanced competition of the two.

Open access

Abstract

An optimization approach for two-area power system with Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is the Atomic Orbital Search (AOS) approach. The proposed approach is applied to achieve full utilization of UPFC and keeps the parameters uncertain. The multivariable PI controller is utilized to control the system controller and eliminates the negative interaction of the controllers. The proposed approach combines the two subsystems by converting algebraic subsystem using differential approximation, which leads to a nonlinear system. The proposed approach provides efficient voltage regulation and quicker damping of inter-area mode oscillations. The proposed UPFC controller eliminates generator oscillation and fault condition, which guarantee the stability of the system as well as provides dynamic power flow control under the tie-line. At last, the proposed method is simulated on MATLAB platform and compared with existing methods. From this comparison, it is shown that the proposed approach provides less oscillation than the existing approach.

Open access

Abstract

A hybrid approach is proposed in this paper to achieve the load power requirement for grid connected hybrid photovoltaic wind system. The proposed approach is the combined execution of both the Modified Dragonfly Algorithm (MDA) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference System (ANFIS), hence it is called MDA-ANFIS. ANFIS approach is improved by the MDA approach to minimize the error functions. The main aim of the proposed approach is satisfying the load power requirement and obtains the maximum energy from the hybrid wind solar system. Through the modelling of operating modes of generation units, the proposed approach determines the switching states of the inverter. The MDA approach is utilized to generate the dataset and the data set is processed by ANFIS, which creates the control signal. By using the proposed approach, it was possible to minimize the system parameter radiation, external disturbances as well as optimally fulfill the load demand. The proposed method is activated in MATLAB/Simulink platform, and its performance is compared with existing methods.

Open access

Abstract

Alkali Activated Concrete (AAC) is a moderately new form of concrete that has gotten a lot of interest in recent decades owing to its environmental advantages and features. However, further research into the effects of various proportions of fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), and lime on the characteristics of calcium-based AAC is still needed. This work aims to provide detailed information about the characteristics of AAC with various concentrations of fly ash, GGBS, and lime in order to produce the best combinations for engineering applications. The alkali activators in this investigation are sodium hydroxide and calcium silicate. All concrete mixes are examined for workability, strength, and durability for knowing the impact of fly ash, GGBS, and lime on AAC performance. The results specify that the increase in dosage of GGBBS diminishes the workability. The accumulation of only lime and GGBS shows optimum strength and durability results. In this study further regression analysis has been carried out for predicting the strength of the AAC. The regression equation was developed using the response surface approach for reliably predicting experimental outcomes with an acceptable margin of error.

Open access

Abstract

Photovoltaic energy is a well-known term nowadays, and with the continuous increase in PV demand, it has become necessary to consider the other sides that may affect the success of it, which is considered one of the real effects on the environment. The PV waste has started to create a large issue with the absence of administrative procedures in many countries. Despite the estimated life of photovoltaic panels being between 20 and 30 years, many units have already started to stop working. However, research indicates the total cost of new materials to manufacture a PV panel is around USD 90 per square meter, compared to USD 13.62 for the costs of recycling a PV module. The regulations disclosed that the problem of EoL for PV modules and their management is still not considered an issue in many countries. Therefore, SWOT analysis was used to evaluate the EoL management of waste PV modules in three regions in Washington, California, and the European Union's WEEE Directive. This study presents recommendations to strengthen regulations to manage the problems of the EoL waste, and open the way for countries and the private sector to realize the responsibility that may affect the environment.

Open access

Abstract

Our results introduce the preferences and attitudes of farmers and the internet-orientated population regarding renewable energy sources (RES) in Kosovo. The research included 243 internet-orientated participants and 30 farmers. The data was gathered through questionnaires (in both groups) and deep interviews (just in farmers). The results showed that the awareness of RES was high for especially solar, wind and hydro energy, the relationship among them was very strong. It was justified that firewood was typically used by respondents with low income, but not considered as renewable energy source, similarly to Hungary and the USA. A special feature of Kosovo is that electricity has very high importance for the man in the street, even for heating. Better education, higher income and environmental-consciousness definitely support better knowledge of RES, similarly to international tendencies. Males and employed participants had more knowledge about RES than females, or unemployed ones. Moreover, the results showed that the participants prefer environment rather than convenience, which is also typical of less wealthy countries. Our results might be useful as a typical less developed country case study for international comparison and helps to eliminate the unknown willingness in RES for the development of future agricultural strategies in Kosovo.

Open access

Abstract

The research is dedicated to determine one of the most important mechanical properties which is the Young's modulus. Its value is crucial for clearly explaining and understanding the results of any mechanical loading experiment. Three cylindrical samples of 15 mm height and 7.5 mm diameter were designed using SpaceClaim application in the ANSYS Software and then 3D printed using Direct Metal Laser Sintering via EOS M 290 3D printer. The specimens were then tested under compression in order to determine the value of the Young's modulus for titanium alloy of grade 23 (Ti, Al, V, O, N, C, H, Fe, Y). The finite element method was executed using ANSYS mechanical to run a comparison between laboratory results with nominal results of the Young's modulus. Young's modulus value is affected by the 3D printing accuracy and quality, the material's quality as well; however, the deviation is within 10%.

Open access

Abstract

The need to decrease energy use represents a challenge particularly in developing countries, including Kosovo, considering the unsustainable, insufficient, and inconsistent energy supply. This contribution presents a simplified yet comprehensive approach to evaluate the energy performance improvement potential of three selected multi-family residential buildings using building energy models generated from calibrated and simplified input parameters. To this end, alternative retrofit measures were tested via a simulation-based parametric study. The energy benefit of each retrofit alternative was estimated and analyzed. Results are expected to provide valuable information towards outlining design guidelines for energy-efficient residential buildings in Kosovo.

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