Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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Abstract

Educational data mining is an emerging exquisite field that has been successfully implemented in higher education. One of the best ways to increase the efficiency of this emerging phenomenon is to select efficient professors and effective teaching methods. This study is intended to show academic success factors to have better management in student curriculum, contextualizing the progress and to prevent unfavorable conditions for students. In this research, students of Shahrood University of Technology were studied. Initially, 3,765 samples of students' educational background were considered. Then, pre-processing was performed to make the data normalized. Next, several predictive models were developed using a supervised data mining approach. Next, five algorithms by the best result were selected. Comparing the results of algorithms applied to data, the two algorithms, radial basis function network and the Naïve Bayes with respectively value F-measure 0.929 and 0.942 showed more accurate results. Finally, the most effective feature was selected, the attributes ‘maximum semester’ and ‘the total number of units dropped’ were ranked an the most important, and the three attributes of ‘the basic courses average’, ‘the number of units of main courses’ and ‘the total average’, were placed in the next ranks.

Open access

Abstract

In recent years, managers of both private and public organizations in developing countries have been struggling to double production and improve service delivery in their organizations. Successful organizations in the western world were, however, identified with the use of Information Technology (IT). The paper examined the magnitude of IT and its application in human resource management. Four organizations from private and public sectors were selected from all. Two organizations from each sector, members of staff, Human Resource (HR) professionals and managers of these organizations were targeted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the staff and unstructured interviews were designed to gather data from the HR practitioners and managers of these organizations. A statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data. In general, about 76.9% of the participants said that IT application in HR functions enhances organizational productivity. The selected organizations could boast of basic IT facilities, but their numerical strength still remains a challenge especially among organizations in the public sector. Organizations in both sectors must invest more in IT and its related accessories as a means of solving problem of inadequacy. Internet connectivity and company website were lacking in some organizations across both sectors and should be considered so as to improve upon the human resource functions and quality service delivery in the deprived regions of Ghana. Staff motivation, wage and salaries, strategic management and organizational leadership were mentioned as factors when put together with IT would augment productivity in any given economy.

Open access

Abstract

Over the recent years metallic foams have become a popular material due to their unique characteristics like low density coupled with beneficial mechanical properties such as good energy absorption, heat resistance, flame resistance, etc. However, their production processes (foaming) is highly stochastic which results in an inhomogeneous foam structure. Hybrid aluminum foam with closed-cell has been manufactured using direct foaming method coupled with the Taguchi Design of Experiments (DOE). Image analysis has been carried out to determine the average porous area and pore size. The influence of the production parameters (amount of foaming agent added, mixing speed and temperature) on the pore size and the porous area has been analyzed using the statistical Taguchi technique. From the experiments it was seen that the most important control factor for both the pore size and the porous area is the amount of the foaming agent added, followed by temperature and stirring speed. Furthermore, the statistical significance of these manufacturing parameters on the response was also investigated by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical method.

Open access

Szemléletváltás a budapesti bérházépítésben

avagy Újlipótváros mint az új városépítészeti paradigmák helyszíne

Changing Approaches in Multi-Storey Rental Housing,

or Újlipótváros as the Location of New Urban Design Paradigms
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Körner Zsuzsa and Kissfazekas Kornélia

A budapesti bérházépítés során a volumenközpontú szabályozástól a korszerű lakóháztervezési elvek felé történő elmozdulás folyamata felölelte a 20. század első harmadát. A tanulmány ezt az időszakot kívánja megvilágítani, az átmeneti időszak általános városépítészeti szemléletváltásainak, főbb jellemzőinek, és az ezek nyomán kialakuló beépítési mód változásainak a bemutatásával. A folyamatot a városépítészeti szempontból példaértékűnek tekintett Újlipótváros néhány tömbjének részletesebb elemzése illusztrálja, melyek kutatási alapját eredeti térképi anyagok és korabeli szakmai publikációk képezik.

In multi-storey rental housing in Budapest the first third of the 20th century was characterized by a transition from quantity-centered regulation to modern principles of residential house planning. The study seeks to shed light on this period by presenting attitude changes in general urban design in the transitional period, as well as their main characteristics and resulting development patterns. The process is illustrated by a more detailed analysis of some blocks in Újlipótváros considered exemplary from the point of view of urban planning, based on original maps and contemporary professional publications.

Open access

Abstract

In this paper the shear resistance of a member without shear reinforcement according to Eurocode 2 is investigated. This expression, as most expressions of design codes typically used to estimate the nominal shear resistance, has been created based on experimental investigations. It will be verified that in case of non-prestressed reinforced concrete member without stirrups, the shear resistance is carried by the shear resistance of the compressive zone; and the shear resistance given by the empirical expression of Eurocode 2 is actually the shear resistance of the compressive zone.

Knowing the mechanical background of the empirical expressions of Eurocode 2, the limits of its applicability can be shown, thus its error can be predicted. Using the reports of experimental investigations, it is easy to find cases to prove the correctness of the error-prediction. In this paper simple modifications will be suggested to Eurocode 2 shear design procedures, by which a more consistent level of safety can be ensured.

Open access

Abstract

Microgrid (MG) is a system of production and distribution of electrical energy that can operate both in grid-connected and islanded modes. This capability leads to significant variations in the fault current level. Moreover, dynamic changes corresponding to the line outage contingencies or outages of the distributed generations (DGs) that are implemented for local generation in the MGs lead to the changes in the fault current level. These changes in the fault current level make some miscoordination between the overcurrent relays (OCRs) in the conventional protection schemes. To overcome this drawback, there is a need for an adaptive protection scheme that can adapt to both operational and dynamic changes and takes effective protection decisions accordingly. This paper first presents a statistic-based review of MG and its protection including total publications, type of publications, the ten most researchers, and the ten most sources. Finally, comprehensive remarks of the 30 most cited papers related to adaptive protection of MG are presented. This paper will help the researchers of the MG protection to learn the most desirable techniques and the concentration of studies in adaptive protection of MGs for future works.

Open access

Abstract

This article contributes a novel technique based on cascade classifiers for smoke detection by utilizing the image processing method. It has been a difficult issue for ten years or so due to its variety in shape, texture, and color. In this article, a machine learning methodology is represented to tackle this issue and simulated with MATLAB software. The smoke detection issue acted like a classification issue. The solution is demonstrated as a binary classification issue. Hence, the support vector machine (SVM) is represented for classification. In order to train and test the SVM classifier, both samples of positive and negative are gathered. Two SVM classifiers are utilized in the cascade. The first classifier distinguishes the presence of smoke if smoke presents in a provided input image; the second classifier is utilized to find the locale of smoke in a provided input image. The size of the window is set to 32 × 32 and slided across the whole image to identify the smoke in a zone of the window. The novel technique is a training dataset and utilizing linear kernel function. In this manner, the novel technique is tested with a test dataset. The first SVM classifier obtained 100% accuracy in training and 96% accuracy in testing. A training accuracy of 96% and a test accuracy of 93.6% were obtained by the second SVM classifier. This novel technique proved to be more proficient and cost-savvy than the traditional strategies.

Open access

European and Slovak Examples of Pop-up Theaters •

Alternative Theaters Across Europe

Pop-up színházak európai és szlovák példái •

Alternatív színházak Európa-szerte
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Kristína Boháčová and Alexander Schleicher

A large group of emerging cultural spaces abroad and in Slovakia has the adjective independent. In this context, this means that they were not established by public institution and are looking for sustainable forms of funding themselves, operating on grants and volunteering system. The limited amount of funding also determined the architecture that covers such cultural centers. Historic ruins, neglected public spaces, abandoned industrial buildings are common factors that appear throughout Europe. Is there a difference between Slovak alternative and its foreign counterparts, or is it a global phenomenon with identical characteristics? And can it be established at all based on such a small sample as the independent cultural and theater centers are?

A kulturális terek nagyobb csoportja külföldön és Szlovákiában is független jelzővel jelenik meg. Ebben az összefüggésben ez azt jelenti, hogy nem közintézmény hozta létre őket, maguk keresik a finanszírozás fenntartható formáit, támogatásokból és önkéntesekkel működnek. A korlátozott összegű finanszírozás meghatározza az ilyen kulturális központok építészetét is. A történeti romok, az elhanyagolt közterületek, az elhagyott ipari épületek Európa-szerte gyakran jelennek meg helyszíneikként. Van-e különbség a szlovák alternatív és a külföldi gyakorlat között, vagy ez globális jelenség azonos jellemzőkkel? És egyáltalán ez kiderülhet-e a független kulturális és színházi központok egy ilyen kis mintája alapján?

Open access

Transformation of Tools and Conservation of Architecture#

Some Researches on the Use of Digital Systems for the Intervention on the Historical Buildings

Az Építészet Megőrzésének És Észközeinek Atalakulása •

Digitális Rendszerek Használata Történeti Épületeken Végzett Műemléki Beavatkozások Edsetén
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli

The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.

As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.

This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.

A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.

A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.

Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.

Full access
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors: Ayad Q. Al-Dujaili, Amjad J. Humaidi, Daniel Augusto Pereira, and Ibraheem Kasim Ibraheem

Abstract

Ball and Beam system is one of the most popular and important laboratory models for teaching control systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy to the position control for the ball and beam system. Firstly, a nonlinear controller is proposed based on the backstepping approach. Secondly, in order to adapt online the dynamic control law, adaptive laws are developed to estimate the uncertain parameters. The stability of the proposed adaptive backstepping controller is proved based on the Lyapunov theorem. Simulated results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach.

Open access