Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Mohammad Kherais
,
Anikó Csébfalvi
,
Adél Len
,
Attila Fülöp
, and
Judit Pál-Schreiner

Abstract

In the last two decades, the utilization of timber in construction has gained increasing attention among researchers and sustainable building designers. Therefore, studies of climate impact on timber structures have been conducted, many of them focusing on the moisture content caused changes in timber. In the present study, four-point bending tests have been performed on three testing groups, containing 30 samples each. The first group has been tested under its natural conditions, while the second and the third groups were fully saturated with water. The third group was glazed with a protection material. The results show the changes in the modulus of elasticity and the modulus of rupture caused by the moisture content increase. In the same time the material behavior changed from brittle to semi-ductile or ductile for some samples.

Open access

Abstract

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Miklós Iványi, who instilled in the authors an appreciation for experimental investigations, which are foundational to understanding material and structural behavior. Timber-concrete composite structures are increasingly adopted for new buildings due to their favorable sustainability parameters and the increased availability of cross laminated timber. For larger spans, however, solid timber floors lead to higher timber volumes and the use of glulam beams may become necessary for a more efficient use of wood. This paper presents laboratory tests of glulam-concrete composite beams and is the first in a series of two papers on investigating the associated failure mechanisms. Three full-scale glulam-concrete beam specimens were studied. The glulam and concrete are monolithically interconnected using a continuous layer of adhesive. Shear reinforcement was added to the glulam beams to allow for failure mode control. Static load tests to failure were conducted along with acoustic emission monitoring to track the progression of the failure. The results indicate that the shear reinforcement of the glulam layer affects the load capacity of the composite beam through shifting the failure from a shear to a tension failure mode. Similar glulam-concrete beams can enable larger span applications for buildings and bridges while maintaining an attractive sustainability performance.

Open access

Abstract

Cement and concrete are the most crucial and dominating engineering materials in the construction sector. Cement serves as an excellent binder for concrete and when it is treated under unusual conditions either to satisfy accelerating or retarding requirements by the construction industries, admixtures role comes into the effect. The construction industry has been searching for retarding admixtures and the optimal dosage level, particularly for ready mix concrete applications. Generally the retarding admixtures such as organic retarders (lignosulphonates, hydroxycarboxylic acids and their salts, phosphonates, sugars) or inorganic retarders (phosphonates, borates) were generally used to reduce the speed of the reaction between cement and water by altering the growth of the hydration products and/or limiting the rate of water penetration to the cement particles. The research was still in its infancy stage in terms of determining not just the appropriate dosage amount, but also the ideal retarder materials for the aforementioned uses. In considering this industrial need, an attempt was made on utilizing the usage of sugar in the concrete to study the retarding effect without affecting the strength properties of cement. The sugars usage levels were at 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the usage of cement to investigate consistency, setting time, compressive strength and micro structure properties at the curing age of 7, 14 and 28 days on the mortar specimens. The conclusions of the study reported that setting time was extended with increase of the dosage levels of sugar. However in considering the strength property, less than 5% of sugar dosage level can be better for the application as retarding agent in the industry applications.

Open access

Abstract

This paper presents an investigation on a battery-less voltage of Piezoelectric (PZT) V-shape cantilever beam Energy Harvester (EH) using human body vibration. The frequency ranges are walking (0–5 Hz), running (6–10 Hz) and motions (11–15 Hz) for human movement. Pacemaker devices typically require a lower resonant frequency with higher voltage which is powered by batteries. The battery has a limited duration during its working process and the battery is difficult to replace in the human body. To address the aforementioned issue, a V-shape cantilever beam EH has been developed as a solution to overcome these limitations. The cantilever beam was designed in COMSOL Multiphysics software 5.5 version using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method for experimental investigations followed by three categories of frequency ranges of the human body. The simulation results showed that the generated battery-less higher voltage was 269 mV (AC) at the resonant frequency of 14.37 Hz in the motion range of 11–15 Hz. Later, an Ultra Low Power (ULP) electronic circuits will be designed and simulated in the LTSPICE software to convert and boost-up from 269 mV (AC) to DC voltage attained. The estimated output power of the energy harvester system can be powered up (4.7 µW) for modern pacemaker applications.

Open access

Abstract

Aim

The occlusion of the teeth is affected due to the appearance of micro-cracks resulting from maximum stresses in the contact zones between the wire and the bracket under normal and tangential loading. The objective of this study is to evaluate the surface and volume constraints in the presence of bonding and partial sliding zones on the contact surface between wires and supports. Knowledge of these stress fields will make it possible to better limit the surfaces where most of the micro-cracks occur. Indeed, the evaluation of the stress will facilitate the modelling or application of established micro crack models on this subject, because the initiation of micro-cracks often appears on the contact surface or just below it.

Materials and methods

In this study, the two most common situations of contact between the wire and the bracket were studied; the first corresponds to the situation where the wire is positioned in the center of the support (classic friction), and the second corresponds to the situation where the inclined wire touches the ends of the supports (critical contact angle).The MATHCAD software was used to simulate the damage zones for normal loading in the two cases studied (classic friction, critical contact angle). We proposed a Hertzian loading for the first case and a linear loading for the second case. Also, the effect of the additional load during wire tightening applied by the orthodontist was studied.

Results

The charge concentration is located above the contact zone, of the order of 0.3P0 (pressure per unit of arbitrary normal length), according to Mathcad simulation results. The adhesion zone/micro-slip zone contact generates the largest tangential load, which is directed towards the side experiencing the most stress. We also observed that the stick area shifts towards the recessed side when the additional load is applied. Additionally, comparing the configurations, the critical contact angle resulted in a higher maximum shear stress.

Open access

Abstract

The dog clutch offers advantages in mass and efficiency, but faces challenges in mismatch speed synchronization, which affects its shiftability. Face impact between dog teeth also reduces its lifespan. Our previous work introduced the kinematical shiftability condition that ensures impact-free gearshift but had limitations due to analysis assumptions. This study eliminates those assumptions, but uses a similar approach. Based on our previous work for dog clutch engagement dynamics, we develop the dynamical shiftability condition. Validation with full dog clutch dynamics showed an agreement. Employing another previous work that introduced shiftability map and parametric study method, we study system parameters impact on shiftability but based on the dynamical shiftability condition.

Open access

Abstract

The Jordan Museum is the most important modern archeological museum in Jordan. This paper assesses the quality of design and the visitors' satisfaction with the Jordan Museum. Also, it investigates which of the selected performance elements contribute most to visitors' satisfaction. Investigative Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) was used within a mixed methodology approach. A questionnaire was used for the quantitative part, complemented by other qualitative methods. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the design quality and visitors' satisfaction. Stepwise regression was used to detect which performance elements predict overall visitors' satisfaction. The design quality of the museum was rated as good, and its permanent galleries were exceptionally rated as excellent. The visitors were generally satisfied with the museum. Visitors were satisfied with the interior and exterior finish but were not impressed with the heavy use of stone in the façade. The simplicity of the museum layout made navigation easy, and visitors were satisfied with wayfinding. This paper is the first to use POE to assess the Jordan Museum. The findings can be used to enhance the management and operation of the Jordan Museum. Also, important performance elements can be developed into guidelines to guarantee effective museum designs in the future.

Open access

Abstract

This study explores the impact of corrosion on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) responses through practical experiments and numerical modelling, focusing on rebar diameter reduction, corrosion product layer thickness, crack formation and corrosion product filling in vertical and transverse crack. Practical experiments involved GPR testing of reinforced concrete slab. By analyzing B-scans we identify areas with moderate and severe corrosion. Numerical modelling using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Method to model GPR signal propagation in a concrete bridge deck with corrosion is applied. Key finding includes a significant 26.70% increase in reflected wave amplitude when corrosion product filling in vertical crack increased by 400%, highlighting its extensive effect on signal GPR propagation. Reduced rebar diameter led to a 9.79% amplitude decrease and a 0.06 ns arrival time delay. Increased corrosion product layer thickness primarily affected arrival time with a 0.06 ns extension but significantly amplified GPR signal amplitude. These findings offer insights for improving GPR based corrosion detection and assessment methods, leading to more robust systems for concrete bridge deck inspection and maintenance. This paper contributes to understanding how corrosion affects the signal that is detected by GPR. This information can be used to improve the way that we manage and assess corrosion in concrete bridge deck.

Open access

Abstract

Direct current (DC) motors have superior features such as operating at different speeds, being affordable and easily controllable. Therefore, DC motors have many uses, such as machine tools and robotic systems in many factories up to the textile industry. The PID controller is one of the most common methods used to control DC motors. PID is a feedback controller with the terms Proportional, Integral, and Derivative. The proper selection of P, I, and D parameters is critical for achieving the desired control in the PID controller. In this study, the transfer function of a DC motor is first obtained, and the speed of the DC motor is controlled by the PID controller using this transfer function. Then, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), an optimization method based on swarm intelligence, is used to adjust the P, I, and D parameters. By using the obtained P, I, and D coefficients, the speed of the DC motor is tried to be controlled, and the effect of the filter coefficient on the system output is examined. The performance of the proposed PSO-PID controller with successful results is given in tables and graphics. Control and optimization studies are carried out with MATLAB Simulink.

Open access

Abstract

Green wall systems have been introduced all over the world as a sustainable solution to combat the hot environment inside buildings and provide thermal comfort by improving the thermal efficiency of the buildings. This study aims to find out whether green walls can be used to manage the inside thermal conditions of Aqaba buildings. It is intended to lessen the impact of Aqaba's harsh warm climate on internal building spaces and achieve a thermal comfort level. A physical live experiment was used to detect the thermal impact of green walls on internal spaces. The thermal performances of two identical real-scale test rooms, one of which had a fixed green facade, were compared. This study concludes that green facades have a significant potential to promote buildings' thermal behaviour in the hot summer of Aqaba and thermally similar regions.

Restricted access