Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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Abstract

The inorganic scaling in wells is a common problem faced by mining companies. At present, the use of protective coatings for tubing as a measure to prevent or reduce the formation of inorganic scale deposits on pipe walls has not been fully studied. To use protective coatings as a measure to counteract the deposition of inorganic salts, it is necessary to develop a method that allows assessing the ability of coatings, as well as polymer and metal materials, to prevent the formation of inorganic scale deposits on the inner surface of pipes.

The article proposes a method for assessing the ability of protective coatings to resist the inorganic scaling on the inner surface of tubing. The proposed assessment method allows to make an informed decision on the advisability of using internal protective coatings of tubing to prevent (or reduce) the formation of inorganic scale deposits. The authors consider design features of a test bench for assessing the resistance of coatings to inorganic scale deposits, which allows to simulate the conditions for the formation of scale deposits that are as close as possible to the real conditions of oil production facilities. The article presents the results of bench tests of nine coating samples, two polymer samples and one sample made of St 40G2 steel. To assess the effectiveness of using tubing with an internal anti-corrosion coating as a measure to combat scale deposits, additional research is required to assess the possibility of complex use of coatings in conjunction with other methods of preventing processes of inorganic scaling. Thus, the authors developed the Bench for assessing the resistance of protective coatings of tubing to inorganic scale deposits. A dynamic testing technique is proposed to evaluate the resistance of protective coatings to inorganic scale deposits. Based on the presented results, conclusions were drawn about the possibility of using protective coatings on tubing as a measure to prevent the formation of inorganic scale deposits on the inner surface of the tubing.

Open access

Abstract

The work focuses in architectural dimension of urban form, by confronting the plans of three neighborhoods in Prishtina that represent potentially three main urban paradigms of the last decades in city's urban transformation. The study aims to unfold the main elements, confront them, and expose to possible transformation. The work progressively decomposes each case into basic components and deductively to their minimal unit.

The research, through interpretation and graphic illustrations, analyzes the three plans by layers: basic elements and their relational modalities, urban matrix, open space character and composing minimal units. The process will identify the main components, and their generic potentiality to be considered as future inputs in city's development.

Open access

Abstract

Manufacturing ceramic green structures using starch consolidation casting is an established process that is simple, non-hazard, and low-cost. In this study, starch consolidation casting is used to prepare ceramics based on submicron monoclinic zirconia with additions of alumina and magnesia. Scanning electron microscopy results indicate that the size of pores decreased and the morphological irregularity increased when the tapioca starch content increased. The sample with 30 wt.% tapioca starch in a 55 wt.% slurry concentration had the highest estimated apparent porosity (around 56%), whereas the sample with 10 wt.% in a 68 wt.% suspension concentration had the lowest (about 35%).

Open access

Abstract

In the ever-changing realm of the contemporary workplace, adaptability and flexibility have emerged as crucial attributes for office buildings. The method of axes system design, in conjunction with modular structures, fosters a workspace that can seamlessly adapt to the evolving needs of offices. This system embodies a comprehensive approach to office design, emphasizing the integration of four important principles: modularity, adaptability, interconnectedness, and flexibility. The modular nature of the structural axes design allows for swift and cost-effective adjustments, facilitating customer needs. The dynamism of this system ensures that office spaces are in a perpetual state of evolution, reflecting the changing dynamics of the contemporary workplace as to be shown in this paper.

Open access

Abstract

Plastic pollution of oceans and seas is increasing every year and coastal countries need to pay particular attention to this problem. Four Asian countries – Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea – were analysed in terms of the amount of waste and plastic waste generated and their recycling rates. For each country, available data were collected and converted into a common unit of measurement – metric tonnes per 1,000 people. The countries' performance to date was analysed and used as a basis for projections for 2030. Based on the trends so far, Japan has seen an 11% reduction in plastics waste and a 6% reduction in waste over the period, while China has seen a 27% increase in waste and an 8% reduction in plastic waste. In South Korea, plastic waste increased by 49% and waste by 21%. In Singapore, waste decreased by 13% and plastic waste increased by 15%. On current trends, none of the countries are projected to reach their 2030 targets. However, by complying with current and newly introduced regulations, they have a chance to move closer to their targets.

Open access

Abstract

Thermomechanical treatments and variations in chemical composition during the production of these alloys allow their properties to be adjusted as necessary. In the present research, the influence of chemical modification was analyzed by adding a combination of two rare earth elements (lanthanum and cerium) and performing a pretreatment before natural and artificial aging. With this, it was observed that said chemical modification led to an increase in hardness after artificial aging and specific suppression of the hardening speed at room temperature, combined with a pretreatment process to improve the density of the nucleation site and take advantage of the possible vacancy capture effect. Furthermore, microstructural changes were observed in the study alloys by scanning electron microscopy. The above allows the design of alloy production processes according to the requirements of each application.

Open access

Abstract

Streaming services spread rapidly. Among these services there are the linear TV, video library or program review system, while the online platform offering these contents is called mobile TV. A recommendation system may not only keep existing clients, but may also generate further turnover, should it introduce new content to the users. In this paper a recommendation system based on the Élő point calculation method is addressed. It is detailed how the programs should be grouped into different dimensions and what type of categories should be considered. Further, the idea of punch cards is introduced. Besides, the user profiles are set. The match system introduced by Élő is applied to the present situation. The system is introduced at a local mobile TV provider with 20,000 users.

Open access

Abstract

This research aims to study the pullout resistance of a helical pile using three methods of machine learning techniques, which are: random forest regression, support vector regression, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, based on experimental results of a helical pile. The performance of these three techniques has been d compared and the results show that random forest algorithm has best performance than neuro-fuzzy inference system and support vector technique. The results show that machine learning considered a good tool in terms of estimating the pullout resistance of helical piles in the soil.

Open access

Abstract

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing is widely utilized for producing thermoplastic components with functional purposes. However, the inherent mechanical limitations of pure thermoplastic materials necessitate enhancements in their mechanical characteristics when employed in certain applications. One strategy for addressing this challenge involves the incorporation of reinforcement materials, such as carbon fiber (CF), within the thermoplastic matrix. This approach leads to the creation of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) suitable for engineering applications. The utilization of CFRPs in 3D printing amalgamates the benefits of additive manufacturing, including customization, cost-effectiveness, reduced waste, swift prototyping, and accelerated production, with the remarkable specific strength of carbon fiber. This study encompasses tensile and compressive testing of distinct material compositions: recycled polylactic acid (rPLA), PLA enriched with 10 wt.% carbon fiber, pristine polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), and PETG bolstered with 10 wt.% carbon fiber. Tensile tests adhere to the ASTM D3039 standard for specimens of rectangular shape, while the ASTM D695 standard governs the compressive testing procedures. Additionally, an inquiry into the influence of the primary 3D printing build orientation parameter on the tensile and compressive strengths of diverse materials was conducted. The outcomes reveal that rPLA exhibits superior mechanical properties in both tensile and compressive tests, irrespective of flat or on-edge build orientations. In the context of tensile strength analysis, it is noteworthy that rPLA demonstrated a superior performance, surpassing CFPLA by 30% in flat orientation and exhibiting a remarkable 39.2% advantage in on-edge orientation. Moreover, PLA reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits superior tensile and compressive properties compared to its PETG counterpart. A comparative analysis between CFPLA and CF-PETG indicates that CF-PLA demonstrates higher tensile strengths, with increases of 26.6 and 27.6% for flat and on-edge orientations, respectively. In the context of compressive strength analysis, rPLA surpassed CFPLA, PETG, and CF-PETG by 23.7, 53, and 67%, respectively. Intriguingly, the findings indicate that the incorporation of 10 wt.% carbon fiber diminishes the tensile and compressive properties in comparison to pure PETG.

Open access

Abstract

The manufacture of High-Performance Concrete (HPC) in bridge deck construction is part of an experimental framework that is also developing in the numerical domain to fill the existing gaps in understanding its behavior. However, the numerical modeling of HPC for bridge decks remains largely under-explored. It is precisely this gap that has sparked our interest in this research area, thus giving our work its innovative character.

This study primarily aims to deepen the understanding of the behavior of HPC bridge decks while manufacturing an efficient and economical HPC using local materials possessing very high properties (mechanical, physical, elastic, durability, and implementation) and advanced numerical modeling. This modeling has enabled us to study the behavior of HPC bridge decks in relation to cracking through the Extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM), an innovative solution that enables the modeling of discontinuities without complicating the process. This has been confirmed by the quality of the results, which show an excellent correlation with experimental data, underscoring the accuracy of the modeling. These results also reveal that the use of HPC in bridge construction can significantly reduce degradation risks while enhancing their performance. Consequently, the adoption of HPC stands out as a beneficial strategy, not only to minimize bridge degradation but also to extend their durability.

Open access

Abstract

Spatial data management is crucial for applications like urban planning and environmental monitoring. While traditional relational databases are commonly used, they struggle with large and complex spatial data. NoSQL databases provide support for unstructured data and scalability. This article compares the performance and disk space usage of SQL Server (a relational database) and MongoDB (NoSQL database) using an open-source library. Experiments conducted with the OpenStreetMap dataset from Central America show that the MongoDB database outperformed the relational SQL Server database in most cases, offering practical advantages for spatial data management in Geographic Information System applications.

Open access

The Geometric Construction of Hexagonal Apses in Mediaeval Hungary

Hatszögű apszisok geometriai szerkesztése a középkori Magyarország területén

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Fanni Budaházi
and
Balázs Halmos

Geometric construction in Gothic architecture has been a popular subject of research for centuries. The use and extent of quadrature and triangulation grids has long been debated, as the few architectural drawings that survived from the era do not indicate the construction process. Modern surveying methods, however, allow us to inspect the exact geometry of a building with all its irregularities – in the case of this article we use 3D point clouds created by laser scanning, from which accurate measurements can be taken.

In our study we analyse four churches from mediaeval Hungary: the Franciscan church of Szeged-Alsóváros, the fortified church of Cincu (RO, Nagysink/Großschenk), the Franciscan church of GyöngyösAlsóváros and the fortified church of Mediaș (RO, Medgyes/Mediasch). Each of these are built with elongated choirs and approximately hexagonal apses. We explore the possible construction systems of these buildings and compare them to each other. We aim to present the similarities and differences between them and to offer likely explanations of their irregularities. Moreover, we propose the significance of construction circles used for creating a triangulation grid.

Open access

Abstract

Climate change manifested its adverse impacts last year, with an extreme drought leading to a drastically low water level in Lake Velence, Hungary. Nature-based solutions have the potential to alleviate these impacts locally. While a few initiatives have been implemented in Hungary, widespread adoption of these solutions is expected to be a goal for the more distant future.

This research focuses on one catchment at Lake Velence to evaluate decision-maker's readiness and urban water management infrastructure for broadly implementing nature-based solutions. Methods include delineating the stormwater system and creating a numerical model to evaluate rainfall-runoff processes and the possible impacts of nature-based retentions. Surveys among local mayors were conducted to assess their perception of existing water infrastructures and implementations of nature-based solutions. Its widespread use may become significant, but its effect on the lake's water level remains negligible.

Open access

Abstract

This study focuses on the optimization dynamics of racing go-karts, which is heavily influenced by the frame's stiffness. Lacking suspensions and differentials, go-karts rely on the frame stiffness for wheel balancing and skid prevention by lifting the inner rear wheel during turns. Utilizing a rigid-flexible model in MSC Software ADAMS View, validated by frame deformation measurements, this research integrates finite element analysis with multibody techniques. The model, leverages computer aided design files for frame geometry and employs finite element analysis for frame validation. It facilitates evaluating go-kart dynamics through simulations, aiding in maneuver testing and design optimization. This approach provides a comprehensive framework for advancing go-kart designs.

Open access

Abstract

In China, the decline of industrial communities suffering from both the aging of physical space and the breakdown of social relations. How to make marginalized and closed industrial communities actively integrate into the development of urban renewal has gradually become an issue of concern.

The paper takes the “Jingzhou New Town Industrial Park Urban Design Project” as an opportunity to explore a transformation path suitable for China's national conditions through the study of the history, culture, current problems, and renewal strategies of this heritage-type industrial community.

The study finally proposes three renewal strategies for industrial communities, which provide samples with certain reference value for the renewal of old industrial communities.

Open access

Abstract

With the development of time, people have more emotional needs for interior spaces. Interior lighting design is an extremely important part of interior design, especially in children's healthcare. In order to meet the needs of child patients and healthcare professionals for ward lighting, it is necessary to comply with various standards while also designing emotionally, emphasizing the positive effects of light on the psychology and health of the user. A literature research approach was used to combine the current status of interior lighting in healthcare spaces, culminating in the integration of the concept of emotional design into the lighting design of children's wards.

Open access

Abstract

This study combines theoretical research and practical case studies to explore effective methods for renovating rural architecture within the context of Chinese new rural construction. By analyzing the current state of existing rural architectures, identifying their characteristics and shortcomings, and applying the theory of architectural semiotics, this study proposes an innovative model for rural architecture renovation. The aim of this research is to provide valuable insights and optimization strategies for the revitalization of rural architectures in China, ultimately contributing to the sustainable development of rural areas and the preservation of regional culture.

Open access

Abstract

In artificial intelligence, combating overfitting and enhancing model generalization is crucial. This research explores innovative noise-induced regularization techniques, focusing on natural language processing tasks. Inspired by gradient noise and Dropout, this study investigates the interplay between controlled noise, model complexity, and overfitting prevention. Utilizing long short-term memory and bidirectional long short term memory architectures, this study examines the impact of noise-induced regularization on robustness to noisy input data. Through extensive experimentation, this study shows that introducing controlled noise improves model generalization, especially in language understanding. This contributes to the theoretical understanding of noise-induced regularization, advancing reliable and adaptable artificial intelligence systems for natural language processing.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
András Greg
,
Gabriella Medvegy
,
Gábor Veres
,
Bálint Bachmann
,
Balázs Kokas
, and
Péter Paári

Abstract

The article represents a case study of the realization of changing engineering education in two new contemporary educational buildings of the University of Pécs, the impact of these buildings on educational methods, and the impact of community-based education on these buildings. As part of the university development program launched in 2016, the University of Pécs, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology's campus has been expanded with new architectural education buildings. The task of the new buildings was to adapt to the directions of the new engineering education and the representation of education of its faculty. The engineering education influences the object of architecture and determines its operation and its layout.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Dilshad Mohammed
,
Victor Nagy
,
Márton Jagicza
,
Dávid Józsa
, and
Balázs Horváth

Abstract

The evolution of autonomous vehicles hinges significantly upon the advancements in driving assistance systems. Adaptive cruise control, a pivotal component of these systems, warrants continuous real-world examination to assess its operational efficiency. The study investigates these systems integrated into diverse commercial vehicles with a specific focus on the following distances they provide. The findings reveal that camera-based systems offer shorter following distances relative to ISO standards, while radar-based and combined camera and radar-based systems provide larger following distances. The study contributes to understand adaptive cruise control technology and its alignment with safety standards, thereby aiding in the on-going development of self-driving vehicles.

Open access

Abstract

Local soil conditions play a crucial role in shaping ground surface responses and impacting the intensity of ground shaking. In this study, the influence of different site profiles on computed ground motion was investigated using a 2D equivalent linear analysis approach. Four distinct site profiles: sand, clay, sand-clay-sand-clay, and clay-sand-clay-sand profiles were considered. The results were presented using multiple metrics, including surface acceleration, displacement, modulus decreasing ratio, and coherence analysis. Notably, the clay profile significantly influenced ground motion, while the sand profile exhibited relatively lower seismic activity. This suggests that softer sites significantly influence ground motion, leading to potentially high levels of shaking.

Open access

Abstract

The present investigation examined the impact of thermal cycling applied during the painting of sheet steels and the transfer period in the forming of W-temper heat treatment of high-strength aluminum alloy on springback. The U-draw bending test was conducted numerically and experimentally to examine the springback parameters. Pre-painted steel might be aged due to surface cycling during painting and it changes the mechanical characteristics. As a result, pre-painted steel becomes more susceptible to springback. It is also observed that springback is mostly reliant on the amount of transfer time between the W-temper forming of aluminum alloy. To sum up, the interplay among material characteristics, processing techniques, and forming conditions leads to the springback phenomena.

Open access

Abstract

Cylinder bore coatings are widely used in automotive internal combustion engines to replace cylinder liners. During the atmospheric plasma spraying process, the coatings are oxidized and controlled by the Si content of the steel powder used as the coating raw material. This phenomenon affects the technological process, the microstructure, and the properties of the formed coatings. The research aims to investigate how the Si content of two commercial grades of steel powder commonly used in industry affects the undesirable consequences observed in practice, such as clogging of powder nozzles or large variations in coating hardness. The analyses and industrial experiments show that increasing the Si content can contribute significantly to these undesirable phenomena.

Open access

Abstract

Mining industry once was a strong contributor to the economic development of cities and created economic benefits for human beings, but ecological problems are increasing day by day. This study takes the quarry in Nagykovacsi, Hungary as an example, and through comprehensive evaluation of the site, utilizes nature-based solutions to carry out the design practice of seeking new development vitality and opportunities for the brownfield site after mining. Finally, it summarizes the ecological remediation concepts and strategies suitable for mining brownfield sites, and contributes to the reuse of urban land space and the creation of a favourable ecological environment.

Open access

Abstract

Several biopolymer applications in geotechnical engineering have been adopted in recent years, notably dust control, soil strengthening, and erosion control. Although biopolymer soil treatment approaches can assure engineering efficiency while satisfying environmental protection standards, this technology requires more validation regarding site adaptability, durability, and economic feasibility. The influence of biopolymers on soil behavior is discussed within geotechnical engineering applications and practices, including soil consistency limits, strength and deformation parameters, hydraulic conductivity, soil-water properties, and erosion prevention.

Laboratory studies were performed to confirm the behavior of the treated soil, including Atterberg limits, proctor, and direct shear tests utilizing two types of biopolymers: guar gum and xanthan gum.

Open access
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
Éva Bácsné Bába
,
György Norbert Szabados
,
Szabolcs Gergely Orbán
,
Zoltán Bács
,
Renátó Balogh
, and
Sándor Kovács

Abstract

Many sports organisations operate as non-profits, but the emphasis and role of for-profits in this sector cannot be avoided. Today, sports activities are connected to the business sector and generate profit, hence, sports sector is a decisive part of the economy. Sport profile companies differ in their organisational strategy formulation approach. The main focus was to learn more about their strategy approach and market behaviour. 350 sports business organisations were involved in a survey of 3,248 companies, and the Chi-square test, variance analysis, and principal component analysis were applied to the sample. Results showed that 75.7% of the responding sports companies had no written strategic plan. The availability of written strategies seemed to depend on the organisation's scale. The market-following behaviour was confirmed in the case of smaller sports enterprises. Fitness service providers appeared to follow a market-leading behaviour. Growth, investment, and development naturally emerged as essential factors for companies with higher sales revenue and operating sports facilities, and they were relatively less important in sports goods production and trade. Most of the results showed that in the sports business sector, large-scale organisations focus on strategic-related issues more than other players in the industry.

Open access

Abstract

One critical issue in the tracking systems based on photovoltaic (PV) is how to harvest highest power of the photovoltaic array; particularly when the system is operating in partially shaded conditions (PSCs) or varying irradiances. This study proposes particle swarm optimization (PSO) hybridization and cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) methods for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated and examined under various irradiance patterns. A comparison study in performance has been conducted between the proposed hybrid CSA-PSO method with the conventional P&O and PSO techniques. Several tests have been performed based on numerical simulations utilizing the programming software MATLAB/Simulink. The results demonstrated that the suggested hybrid technique yields smaller tracking time, higher power and greater efficiency than those of other traditional algorithms.

Open access

Abstract

Composite materials are vulnerable to impacts that may occur during their use. Such transverse loads represent a significant threat to these materials because they can cause damage that is difficult to detect. Thus, understanding the mechanical behavior of composite materials during impacts is crucial for improving their damage resistance. Therefore, this study investigates the response of two commonly used composite panels in maritime transportation—a PVC core sandwich composite and a laminated GFRP composite—under quasi-static indentation (QSI). Using numerical simulations with Abaqus/Explicit, this investigation aims to anticipate mechanical characteristics and damage patterns during low-velocity impact. Results show a strong correlation between numerical and experimental data. The force-displacement curves aid in understanding damage sequences, with predicted maximum loads at 1.43% and 6.45% accuracy for laminated and sandwich composites. Both exhibit significant damage, including permanent indentation, matrix cracks, fiber fractures, and prevalent delamination around the impact point.

Open access

Abstract

Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is a rising eco-conscious substitute for traditional cement-based concrete, bringing the construction industry closer to sustainability. Self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC) enhances the concrete flowability and fills the congested reinforced areas without vibrators in concrete structures such as bridges, tunnels and canals. This study aims to analyze the impact of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (NS) on the rheological and mechanical properties of SCGC to optimize the dosage of NS in SCGC. For this purpose, NS (0–6%) blended in partially distributed binders of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (50:50) with 0.5 alkaline binder ratio, 2% superplasticizers (9 kg m−3) (MasterGlenium SKY 8233) and 12% extra water (54 kg m−3). Sodium silicate solution and sodium hydroxide ratio of 2.5 was used for this study. It is observed that SCGC with 3% NS replacement complied with the guidelines of EFNARC. According to the T50cm slump flow test, V-funnel test, and L-box test results meet the guidelines of up to 4% NS replacement, and 3% NS addition offers excellent mechanical properties in SCGC. This study concluded that the replacement of 3% of NS improved the fresh and hardened properties of SCGC, which can apply to construction.

Open access

Abstract

Today, the role of humans is changing rapidly in both industrial production activities and services. Mediocre, easy-to-learn activities can be performed more efficiently by machines; mediocre knowledge is being devalued while the importance of high-level skills is increasing. As a result, in all sectors of the economy, and especially in engineering, new approaches to expert training are needed; people must learn to hand over certain decision-making roles and to control the processes supported by AI rather than compete with it. STEM education has a responsibility to achieve these goals and must develop appropriate tools for engineering education. This paper presents a complex didactic methodology for competency-based education in engineering bachelor programs. An important element is the mathematical competency map, which shows the importance and place of mathematical and algorithmic (coding) knowledge in engineering topics. Another element is the systematic testing of mathematical knowledge in non-mathematical contexts in engineering courses. We provide an overview of our achievements in applying the developed toolset and improving the efficiency of mathematics teaching in engineering bachelor programs.

Open access

Abstract

The predictive maintenance of permeant magnet synchronous motor is highly required as this kind of motor has been commonly employed in electric vehicles, industrial systems, and other applications owing to its high power density output, as well as the regenerative operation characteristics during braking and deceleration driving conditions. One of the most important causes of PMSM failure is the stator short and drive switches failure. These problems have attracted more attention in the field of deep learning for fault detection purposes in the early stages, to avoid any system breakdown, and to decrease the risk and price of maintenance. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of detecting the electrical faults in PMSM by generating our data which includes current signals that have been analyzed and preprocessed by applying Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to select the reliable features this conversion will be used to train ResNet 50. The evaluation metrics have shown that ResNet 50 achieves an accuracy of 100% for the classification of faults.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Peter Ivanyi
,
Amalia Ivanyi
,
Aarne Jutila
,
Jenő Balogh
,
Barry H. V. Topping
, and
Gabriella Medvegy
Open access

Abstract

The integration of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) into our modern society hinges on gaining widespread acceptance from potential road users. To indicate the preparedness of these road users and elucidate their perspectives regarding the use of AVs in future, it is imperative to conduct surveys gauging public acceptance and satisfaction with this emerging mode of transportation. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive questionnaire study involving 1,000 individuals in Gyor City. The survey's primary objective was to assess participants' attitudes and willingness to embrace autonomous vehicles within the city's road networks. The study delved into various socio-demographic factors, such as age, gender, and employment status, while also exploring participants' prior knowledge and opinions regarding the advantages and limitations of AVs. The findings reveal a generally favorable disposition among the public toward the inclusion of AVs in urban traffic, paving the way for the acceptance of mixed traffic patterns. Notably, respondents in younger age groups exhibit greater enthusiasm for incorporating AVs into their daily transportation, whereas individuals aged 65 and above express more reservations, displaying a conservative outlook. Furthermore, participants with prior knowledge and a deeper understanding of AVs exhibit a markedly more positive inclination toward this emerging technology compared to those lacking such familiarity.

Open access

Linear and Centralised Net Vaults

Geometry-Based Building Archaeology Presented on the Net Vaults of the Fortified Church of Mediaş

Lineáris és centralizáló hálóboltozatok

Geometria alapú épületkutatás a medgyesi erődtemplom hálóboltozatainak példáján bemutatva
Építés - Építészettudomány
Author:
Eszter Jobbik

This article presents an objective, point-cloud-based geometric description of the nave, apse, and sacristy vaults in the fortified church of Mediaş (RO; Medgyes, Mediasch). The description includes the global geometry of the rib systems and the connections between the webs and ribs in each vault. Based on these, we classify these structures into the geometry-based typologies for the global geometry of the rib system and the rib-web connections we established based on our previous works. Additionally, based on the vaults of Mediaş, two rib-system subtypes have been defined: centralising and linear vaults. The relationship between these subtypes and the concept of cylindric and spheric vaults, as well as their connection to the ‘pattern’ of the net vaults is discussed. Based on the geometric descriptions, we also discuss the possible building strategies and techniques of these vaults and consider the periodisation of the building.

Open access

Abstract

Design and testing of real materials is a costly process and usually requires some specific equipment. To alleviate this task numerical methods can be leveraged. In this work we show possible modelling technique for closed-cell material structure using Weaire–Phelan unit cells. As an example existing aluminum structures were used and modelled parametrically, allowing to establish different geometrical models for different applications. Numerical simulations for compression was also done on the developed models to reveal the material response. The influence on the cell wall thickness and the friction between the material and the compression plate was investigated. It was found that the friction coefficient has no significant effect on the material response, except in the case where bonded connection was assumed. It was also demonstrated that material response and the porosity controlled by cell wall thickness have an approximately linear relationship with each other. This method proved to be a flexible and alternative solution of real laboratory tests and targeted to reduce costs of material design.

Open access

Típus-lakóépületek Magyarországon

Standardised Residential Buildings in Hungary

Építés - Építészettudomány
Author:
Réka Mándoki

Az elmúlt ötven év során sok iparágban, például a ruha- és a bútoriparban, az egyedileg tervezett és gyártott, kisszériás áruk helyét egyre inkább a sorozatgyártott tömegtermékek vették át a fejlett országokban. Mivel a sorozatgyártás lehetőséget biztosít a termékek optimalizálására, azok sok esetben olcsóbbak és kiszámíthatóbb minőségűek lehetnek, mint az egyedi termékek. Ez pedig egy megfelelően széles választék fenntartása mellett kifejezetten vonzó a vásárlók többsége számára.

Bár az építőipar más iparágakhoz képest lassan fejlődik, az épületelemek előregyártása egyre jellemzőbbé válik Európában a szakképzett munkaerő hiánya és a helyszíni kivitelezés kockázatai miatt. Egyelőre ugyan a legtöbb épület még egyedi tervek alapján születik, de az előregyártás terjedésével, a nagy fejlesztő cégek térnyerésével és a lakáspiac drágulásával kérdéses, hogy a lakóépületek meddig lesznek képesek megőrizni az egyediségüket vagy egy hasonló folyamatnak leszünk hamarosan a szemtanúi, mint ami a ruha- és a bútoriparban lejátszódott.

Mivel az épített környezettől elvárt egyediség összefügg az ember megélt tapasztalataival, a felvázolt jelenség apropóján a jelen cikk azt vizsgálja, hogy Magyarországon milyen motivációk álltak a formai szempontból egynemű lakókörnyezetek létrejöttének hátterében. A példák felsorolása mellett a cikk felvázol egy keretrendszert, amin belül értelmezhetővé válnak azok a társadalmi folyamatok, amik megmagyarázzák, hogy miért és miként építünk típusépületeket. A javasolt rendszerezés szempontként vonja be a típusépületek elemzésébe, hogy ezek az épületek fentről lefelé vagy alulról felfelé építkező folyamat eredményei-e, elterjedésük projektspecifikus-e, és hogy maguk az épületelemek szabványosítottak-e.

A jelen cikk a körülöttünk lezajló folyamatok értelmezésén felül egyfelől bemutat példákat arra, amikor a típusépületek használatával harmonikus épített környezet jön létre, másfelől pedig bemutatja azt is, hogy milyen okok állhatnak amögött, amikor a típusépületek nem válnak be. Mindez segíthet abban, hogy elkerüljük a jövőben az olyan épületek sorozatgyártását, amelyek borítékolhatóan nem lesznek képesek hosszú távon is megőrizni társadalmi elfogadottságukat.

Open access

Abstract

Springs are the most basic mechanical elements used in transmission mechanisms. The rapid development of the computer and cellular industry has encouraged spring manufacturers to develop the industry to produce very small springs. Most computer-aided design programs for mechanical parts provide the possibility of designing these parts, as these programs include different types of decisions. All these decisions require coordinates for geometric data as well as metadata. The paper aims to develop software programs to design and analyze springs as one of the most significant mechanical elements used. This paper aims to develop a design software of a helical spring system, where this software is built using a computer program in the language of Visual Basic Version 5. When the user enters data into the system, the system will perform a series of complex calculations in the system, then provide a detailed report on all the engineering dimensions of the spring, and test its efficiency. The output of the software shows the required spring wire parameters. The software was tested with test data from the open literature, and the required wire spring parameters were obtained.

Open access

Effect of Bonding Type on the Failure of Reinforced Concrete Beam Strengthened with In-Situ High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete Layer

A kapcsolat típusának hatása helyszínen öntött szálerősítésű, nagyszilárdságú betonhabarccsal megerősített vasbeton gerenda tönkremeneteli módjára

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
Cecília Nemessányi
and
Anikó Pluzsik

High performance fibre reinforced concrete (HPFRC) materials with tensile hardening behaviour can effectively be used for strengthening reinforced concrete beams. A perfect bond between the original and the reinforcing layer cannot be formed, the load-bearing capacity and ductility of the strengthened beam can significantly be affected by the interfacial bond strength between the contacting surfaces. In this paper, beam retrofitting with cast in-situ strengthening type is examined. The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the impact of the different bond types on the load-bearing capacity, ductility, and failure mode of the strengthened beams in the case of cast in-situ strengthening. Twenty-four beam tests were performed with untreated and rough surfaced beams, with or without connecting elements. The effect of the bond type proved to be significant regarding the failure mode in the case of compression side strengthening, stronger bond resulted in higher load bearing capacity and ductility, too. When tensile side reinforcement was investigated no average increment was experienced in the maximal force and ductility due to the stronger bond. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the generally applied analytical models that assume perfect connection may lead to exaggerated results in the case of a compressed side HPC-strengthened beam. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a model that considers the effect of the imperfect bond.

Open access

Abstract

Numerous studies have proven that digital development positively affects economic growth. This study aims to confirm or refute the positive impact of digital evolution on economic growth by applying the dimensions of the International Digital Economy and Society Index (I-DESI). The analysis refers to the period 2015–2020 of the European Union member states. The study's novelty is that the I-DESI index has yet to be used in research to investigate the relationship between the digital transition and GDP production. The present study, therefore, goes one step further than the previous typical DESI-GDP models. The research uses Pearson correlation and F-statistic analysis to show the relationship between the variables. The study confirms that digital development has positively impacted the economic growth of EU member states. This result was confirmed by both Pearson and Spearman correlation. However, the results are ambivalent. The empirical results indicate that the more digitally developed member countries had a higher GDP per capita. However, the positive effect is different. The results confirm that the development of digitalization and GDP increased more dynamically in the more digitally developed EU member states than in the less developed member states. Therefore, an increase in the backwardness of the less developed member countries and not a catch-up can be observed in the period under review.

Open access

A miskolci Avasi késő gótikus templom nyugati rózsaablaka

The Western Rose Window of the Late Gothic Avas Church in Miskolc

Építés - Építészettudomány
Author:
Éva Lovra

A miskolci Avasi Református Templom [3530 Miskolc, Papszer u. 14. hrsz.: 2405, azonosító: 2926, műemléki törzsszám: 848] nyugati falát egy kis méretű kerek, mérművekkel díszített ablak – rózsaablak – töri át, amit az 1980-as években kibontottak és újrafaragtak. A kőrestaurátori munkákról kevés feljegyzés áll rendelkezésünkre, így az eredeti ablak kőtöredékeinek holléte is ismeretlen volt. A rózsaablak kőtöredékeinek megtalálása, beazonosítása és konzerválása lehetővé tette bemutatását egy, a legutóbbi, 2019-es felújítási munkálataihoz kapcsolódó állandó építészettörténeti kiállításon a templom falain belül. Az esettanulmány a rózsaablak (ismert) történetét mutatja be az első ismert ábrázolásoktól, a Szehlo Ottó-féle téves felmérésen keresztül egészen a jelenkori állapotig; az ablak szerkesztésének elvi menetét, amely kontextusba helyezi a Sztehlo-féle vázlatokat és válaszol az ábrázolásokkal kapcsolatban felmerült kérdésekre; foglalkozik a kőanyaggal és a beépítési móddal, amelynek kiemelt jelentősége a kőrestaurálás folyamatában és a kiállításánál volt, hiszen a kőszerkezet állapota kritikus volt, egyes részei mozdításra törnek, kiállításához a szilárdítása és kezelése elengedhetetlen volt.

Open access

Abstract

Local scour poses a grave threat to bridge foundations, potentially causing catastrophic collapses. This study uses FLOW-3D with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes model to analyze pier scour and dune formation under bridges. It focuses on submerged debris shapes near the water's surface. Results closely match experiments when specific conditions are met. The study introduces an innovative approach to debris impact assessment. Instead of traditional methods, it proposes a novel equation accounting for debris's effective area and elevation. This enhances reliability by over 20%, improving scour depth assessment in debris-laden scenarios. This advances the understanding of debris's role in local scour, benefiting bridge design and management practices.

Open access

Abstract

Present paper shows the different types of tensor product model based linear matrix inequality controller design and feasibility analysis of two degrees of freedom aeroelastic wing section model. The tensor product models are based on reducing or removing the nonlinear behavior of the system and weighting functions. The linear matrix inequality based method results globally asymptotically stable system. The goal of the paper is to examine that selecting and varying the transformation space influences the feasibility of the linear matrix inequality based controller. The paper gives a comparison between the different tensor product models in terms of controller performance. The linear matrix inequality gives feasible solution for the controller design if the transformation space is selected adequately.

Open access

Az építésautomatizálás technológiai lehetőségei

Az ipar 4.0 szemlélet kibontakozása az építőiparban

The Technological Opportunities of Construction Automation

The Development of the Industry 4.0 Approach in the Construction Industry
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors:
István Vidovszky
and
Tamás Szögi

Az építőipar a munkaerő hiánya és az egyre fokozódó minőségi elvárások miatt a hagyományos, jellemzően emberi erőforrást alkalmazó vagy emberek által közvetlenül működtetett technológiák irányából apró lépésenként az automatizált technológiák irányába fordul. Az ezzel együtt járó változás csak úgy lehet zökkenőmentes, ha az építőipar résztvevői aktív részesei a változási folyamatnak. A cikk az építőipar fejlődési irányait, annak problematikáját és lehetőségeit kívánja bemutatni a területtel kapcsolatos kutatások és a már alkalmazott technológiai megoldások elemzésével a közeljövőben lehetséges változások, további lehetőségek, illetve problémák feltérképezésére és megvilágítására törekedve.

Open access

Abstract

Integrating thermal energy storage with thermal conversion systems is necessary to maximize their use. Phase change materials are the best media for storing and releasing thermal energy from various basic material types. Because the phase change materials have a high latent heat of fusion, it is often viable to use these characteristics and include the phase change materials in building envelopes to store thermal energy. The paper provides a thorough categorization of the phase change materials and thermal energy storage systems, in addition to an evaluation of their modeling using computational fluid dynamics. The purpose was to highlight computational fluid dynamics as a useful technique for advancing the engineering of thermal energy storage devices.

Open access