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Mice (Balb/c), with peanut allergy induced, were subjected to desensitization therapy with the use of pea protein extract (PE) or isolated globulin fractions: legumin (PL) and vicilin (PV). B- and T-cell responses to peanut proteins were analysed by determination of the IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody levels in plasma and the concentration of IL-4, IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokines secreted by isolated splenocytes.Conducted studies have demonstrated that immunotherapy with proteins resulted in the decrease of total IgE and peanut-specific IgG1 levels and significantly enhanced synthesis of peanut-specific IgG2a in plasma (ELISA method) and at the cellular level (ELISPOT type B). A successful and effective immunotherapy is related to the shift in profile of lymphocytes from Th2 subpopulation towards Th1 subpopulation. In our studies significant increase in the activity of Th1 lymphocytes was observed in groups desensitized with pea protein extracts (PE) and pea legumin fraction (PL). In these groups, significant statistic decrease in IL-4 secreted and increase in IL-10 level were found.Desensitization method with the use of pea proteins being suggested in the presented studies can be an alternative method for specific immunotherapy for people, especially with strong allergic reaction to peanuts; however, this method needs further studies with mouse model.

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Vitamin B6 analysis by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and its validation in milk powder prompted this study. The calibration curves for pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and pyridoxine were evaluated and method precision and accuracy assessed. It was found that the working range was adequate for all the analytes. The analytical procedure was verified by testing the enzymatic efficiency, precision and accuracy. In milk powder samples pyridoxine was the only vitamer found in quantities above the considered limit of quantification and the accuracy showed Z-scores lower than 2. Uncertainty estimation based on method validation results was 0.066 mg/100g, for a vitamin B6 content of 0.61 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the method is adequate for vitamin B6 quantification in powder milk.

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This study aimed to evaluate the coating effect of methacrylic acid copolymers (MAc) on alginate beads, with respect to protection, survivability, and in vitro release of lactobacilli cells under simulated gut conditions, and to evaluate the effect of oven drying and fluidized bed-spraying as a mean to dry and coat alginate beads with MAc. MAc-coated beads exhibited protective effects for lactobacilli cells against low acidic environment providing higher survivability (71.82–96.11%) compared to uncoated beads (28.67–61.68%), and also higher cell release under sequential gut conditions (P<0.05). Lactobacillus casei BT 1268 showed a high cell release and was thus selected for further analysis using spray coating-drying via fluidized bed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fluidized bed-spray drying produced beads with irregular shapes but consistent coating and with lactobacilli cells clearly embedded within the inner matrix. Oven dried and fluidized bed-spray dried MAc-coated beads of L. casei BT 1268 also showed similar cell release, indicating the possible use of fluidized bed-spray as a more economical and less time consuming method for the protection and maintenance of cell viability.

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In this work the influence of addition of different plant extracts (olive leaf, green tea, pine bark PE 95%, pine bark PE 5:1, red wine PE 30%, red wine PE 4:1, and bioflavonoids) to blackberry juice during heating (at 30, 50, 70 and 90 °C) on the anthocyanin and phenol contents, polymeric colour, and antioxidant activity was investigated. Also, reaction rate constant, half-lives of degradation, and activation energy were calculated. Control sample was juice without addition of extracts. The highest anthocyanin content at 30 °C was in samples with the addition of olive leaf and green tea. At 90 °C the highest anthocyanin content was measured in samples with the addition of extract of red wine and bioflavonoides. Samples supplemented with the extracts had much higher antioxidant activity in comparison to the control sample. Results showed that at 90 °C the sample with green tea supplementation had the lowest reaction rate constant and the highest half-life. Activation energy ranged from 29 to 44 kJ mol−1.

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The fruit quality parameters of Prunus armeniaca L. cv ‘Ninfa’ grafted on ‘Myrobalan 29C’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) and ‘Real Fino’ apricot seedling (Prunus armeniaca L.) were analysed in an experimental orchard under organic management. The study was performed between 2010 and 2012 in the province of Seville (SW Spain). Colour, fruit and stone weights, firmness, soluble solid concentration, and acidity were measured for fruit quality evaluation. Trunk cross-sectional area, main branches, and fruit yield were also determined. In general, ‘Myrobalan 29C’ rootstock produced fruit slightly larger in size and with a bigger weight. By contrast, apricots on ‘Myrobalan 29C’ had less firmness and a lower solid soluble concentration than on ‘Real Fino’. There was little difference in the colour, acidity, and stone dry weights. Trees on ‘Real Fino’ had larger areas of trunk and branches but no significant differences were obtained in relation to fruit yields.

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The article analyses patterns and country-specific determinants of Visegrad Countries’ agri-food trade with the European Union. Literature focusing on the country-specific determinants of vertical and horizontal intra-industry trade is rather limited and those analysing agricultural (or agri-food) trade are extremely rare. Therefore, the paper seeks to contribute to the literature by covering the latest theories and data available on the topic to provide up to date results and suggestions. Moreover, it seeks to identify the determinants of horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade of the Visegrad Countries after EU accession. According to the results determinants of horizontal and vertical intra-industry differ and suggest that economic size is positively, while distance is negatively related to both sides of intra-industry trade. However, the relationship between vertical intra-industry trade and differences in factor endowments as well as foreign direct investment is ambiguous.

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The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 4, and 6 kGy) on microbial, chemical, and sensory values of Jabaly Syrian goat meat during storage at 4 °C for 1, 3, 4, and 5 weeks. Irradiation was effective in reducing the microbial load and increasing the shelf-life of goat meat. The radiation doses required to reduce the microorganisms by 90 percent (D10) in goat meat were 294 and 400 Gy for Salmonella and E. coli, respectively. The main fatty acids identified from the goat meat were oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids. No significant differences were observed in moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, pH value, fatty acids, total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen, and sensory properties (texture, flavour, colour, and taste) of irradiated and non-irradiated goat meat. Lipid peroxidation measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) increased on irradiation and chilled storage. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated goat meat.

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Authors: M. Abbas Ali, Z. Bamalli Nouruddeen, I. Idayu Muhamad, R. Abd Latip and N. Hidayu Othman

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of palm olein (PO) addition on the quality characteristics of sunflower oil (SFO) during frying of potato pieces. The blends were prepared in the volume ratios of 20:80 (PO:SFO, PSF1) and 40:60 (PO:SFO, PSF2). Refractive index, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX, viscosity, specific extinction, polar compounds, food oil sensor value, colour, and polymer content of the oils all increased, whereas iodine value and C18:2/C16:0 ratio decreased as frying progressed. The percentage of linoleic and linolenic acids tended to decrease, whereas the percentages of palmitic and oleic acids increased. Based on the most oxidative stability criteria investigated, PO addition led to a slower deterioration of SFO at frying temperature. Blend PSF2 showed better frying performance compared to PSF1. However, higher amounts of free fatty acids and higher colour units were both detected in the blends compared to pure SFO at the end of frying. It appears that proper blending of highly unsaturated SFO with PO can result in oil blends that could meet nutritional needs with improved stability for domestic cooking and deep-frying.

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Authors: S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova, M. Eftimov, R. Tashev, L. Yankova, I. Belcheva and S. Belcheva

The main bioactive substances in Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) are polyphenols (flavonoids, procyanidins, and phenolic acids). A great number of polyphenols are able to traverse the blood-brain barrier. In recent years more attention is drawn to the ability of these substances to influence central nervous system functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AMFJ on exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity in male Wistar rats. AMFJ was administered orally for 7, 14, 21, and 30 days at three increasing doses (2.5, 5, and 10 ml kg−1). The changes in exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity were recorded in an Opto Varimex apparatus. It was found that the low doses of AMFJ (2.5 and 5 ml kg−1) for all treatment periods did not significantly affect exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity of rats compared to the saline-treated controls. AMFJ at the highest dose of 10 ml kg−1 had no significant effect on exploration and locomotion for the treatment periods of 7 and 14 days, while for the periods of 21 and 30 days it significantly decreased the number of horizontal and vertical movements, which might be the result of a sedative effect. At all the doses and testing periods, AMFJ did not disturb the progressive decrease in motor behaviour, suggesting habituation.

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The oral administration of hyaluronic acid has been shown to improve skin health. This study aimed at utilizing ultrasound treatment to enhance the production of hyaluronic acid by lactobacilli. Among the 16 strains of lactobacilli screened, a higher production of hyaluronic acid (P<0.05) was observed from seven strains namely, Lactobacillus casei BT 2113, Lactobacillus casei BT 1268, Lactobacillus casei BT 8633, Lactobacillus casei FTDC 8033, Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1231, Lactobacillus gasseri FTDC 8131 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus FTDC 8313. Upon ultrasonic treatment, hyaluronic acid concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) in all the seven strains studied. The use of ultrasonication at 100% amplitude increased the hyaluronic acid content (P<0.05) up to 51.6 % with concentrations ranging from 0.262 mg ml−1 to 0.385 mg ml−1, while an amplitude of 20% yielded a lower increase ranging from 0.227 mg ml−1 to 0.310 mg ml−1. Increasing duration of ultrasonic treatment (from 1 min to 3 min) also significantly (P<0.05) improved the concentration of hyaluronic acid in some strains. Our data demonstrated that a sub-lethal physical treatment, such as ultrasonication, can be applied to increase the membrane permeability of lactobacilli cells and subsequently increase the release of bioactive metabolites.

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Authors: Á. Tölgyesi, J. Fekete, V.K. Sharma, É. Pálffi, K. Békési, D. Lukonics and G. Pleva

A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to confirm chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in foods of animal origin and in urine samples, which were earlier found positive under the screening analysis, performed by competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) technique. The developed LC-MS/MS method was applied to four non-compliant samples from 2008 to 2012; giving concentrations of CAP residues from 1.18 to 3.68 μg kg−1. All samples, qualified positive by ELISA, were confirmed with the LC-MS/MS technique and found to be non-compliant. The effectiveness of the confirmatory method was proven by participating in a successful proficiency test in year 2010. Both LC-MS/MS and ELISA methods were validated according to the European Union 2002/657/EC decision. The decision limit of the confirmatory method was determined as 0.02 μg kg−1 for CAP in each validated matrix, while the detection capability of the screening test was 0.15 μg kg−1.

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The present study was carried out to examine the antioxidant activity in oyster mushroom cultivated on selenium (Se) rich substrate. Pleurotus fossulatus was cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from the seleniferous belt of Punjab (India) and its potential to accumulate Se from substrate was examined. Using different assay systems the modulations in the anti-oxidant profile of Se enriched mushroom was studied in comparison to the mushrooms cultivated on normal straw. The oyster mushrooms were observed to potentially mobilize Se from Se-rich substrates to fruiting bodies, resulting in significantly high uptake (37.2±0.6 μg g−1) as compared to control (3.57±0.53 mg g−1). The antioxidant activity, as determined by various assays, such as reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity, was higher in the experimental mushrooms when compared to control. The results obtained demonstrate that Se-fortified mushrooms through cultivation on straw containing organic forms of Se can be considered as natural and effective dietary supplements of organic Se for humans. The present study proposes the use of Se-rich agricultural residues as substrates for mushroom cultivation for human and livestock supplementation.

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Four kinds of lamb meat foods (Wiener sausage, ham, roasted meat, and roasted leg) were developed based on 8 different genotypes to improve lamb meat quality and quantity, and to study the differences among them. The stringiness, flavour, and odour of the products were judged in food sensory evaluation by a total of 265 (60% male and 40% female) randomly selected consumers. In stringiness and flavour five (from 1 to 5), and concerning odour three (from 1 to 3) categories were created according to decreasing quality. The consumers represented different age groups: below 20 years, between 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, and above 70 years. The groups of consumers were involved in sheep farming, other animal farming, other agriculture sector, industry, catering, education, other service; administrative department of the state, were students, and others. Analyses of variance were calculated to estimate the effects of the genotype of lamb, the gender, age, and occupation of judging consumers on the sensory evaluation of the meat foods. In conclusion, new lamb meat foods were highly appreciated by consumers, who made definite distinctions among genotypes according to flavour, stinginess, and odour. There were significant interactions between gender, age, and occupation of consumers as well as sensory evaluation of various lamb meat foods.

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Implementation of sourdough technology would increase nutritional value and attractiveness of gluten-free bread. However, fermentation process requires stimulation. The course of fermentation of gluten-free sourdoughs prepared from maize and soy flours and maize and potato starches, enriched in glucose and casein hydrolysate or soy sprouted seeds used as fermentation enhancers was evaluated. The clearest effect of the supplementation was observed in the case of sourdough prepared from starches only. The addition of glucose in the amounts as low as 0.5% has proved to be enough to enhance fermentation effectively. Supplementation of the sourdoughs with peptides was not very effective; however, when used together with glucose, a synergistic effect could be detected. The addition of sprouted seeds allowed to shorten the fermentation process with up to several hours. These studies have demonstrated possibility to simplify and shorten the process of gluten-free sourdough fermentation by modification of mixtures composition.

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Authors: N. Carbonera, M.L. Mitterer-Daltoé, M.I. Lohfeldt, L.S. Pastous-Madureira, M.L.P. Espírito Santo and M.I. Queiroz

The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of fermented anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) by consumers aged 18–67 (n=100) from two experiments, first using preference test and then by acceptance of formulation preference. Anchovy fillets were fermented with added NaCl and glucose with 4 different treatments: A (NaCl 1% and glucose 4%), B (NaCl 1% and glucose 6%), C (NaCl 1.5% and glucose 4%), and D (NaCl 1.5% and glucose 6% glucose). At first, the preference of fermented anchovy fillets with samples prepared in the form of pizza was assessed by applying a preference ranking test to 75 consumers. The results indicated the sample with 1% NaCl and 6% glucose as the preferred (P>0.05). Later in the second stage, the preferred fermented fillet was subjected to acceptance by 100 consumers who have the consumption habit of such product by using a hedonic scale of 9 points. The results indicated an acceptance rate of 79.8%. This work aimed to call attention to the importance of the acceptance of this food.

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Authors: R. Sárosi, K. Manninger-Kóczán, P. Penksza, R. Juhász, B. Szabó-Nótin, L. Szakács and J. Barta

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Jerusalem artichoke powder produced by a simple drying method is suitable for replacing inulin as a dietary fibre in bread. Baking probe was performed using 0, 5, and 10% Jerusalem artichoke (JA) powder and 2.5 and 5% inulin (IN) on wheat flour weight basis. Functional properties of bread loafs were tested by Stable Micro System TA TX2i Texture Analyser (SMS) after 0, 24, 48, and 72 h storage. It was concluded that using inulin as a dietary fibre did not deteriorate the baking quality of bread, however, shelflife slightly decreased. Jerusalem artichoke powder compared to inulin had similar effect on the baking properties of bread. Based on our results, JA powder proved to be a promising alternative for fibre enhancement in bread.

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Masonry arch bridges are the oldest bridge structures; thousands of them are still in operation despite the change in the loads carried by them since their construction. Many of them belong to our historical heritage, therefore their management require careful consideration.Assessment of masonry arches is necessary for a several reasons. Arch bridges deteriorate with time, and accordingly their capacity to carry load also declines. To maintain the safety of their operation it is thus necessary to confirm that their load carrying capacity is sufficient for the current and foreseeable applied loads without accelerated deterioration, and therefore that arches remain serviceable.A methodology is proposed in the paper for the assessment and lifetime expectancy of masonry arch bridges with the adaptation of advanced tools for structural analysis and testing.

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This paper presents a calculation model for road traffic annoyance based on traffic flow counting, road traffic noise emission measures and public surveys held in the urban area of inner Budapest, Hungary. Based on the research results a new model for the rate of highly annoyed of road traffic noise annoyance was determined, the subjective response of a person to road traffic noise emissions. Exposure to high road traffic noise may deteriorate everyday life and human well-being especially in urban areas with high traffic flow. With the model developed the rate of high annoyance can be predicted for urban traffic circumstances, for a given noise level. This prediction may help authorities to decide whether a road traffic noise complaint is justified or not and whether further measurements are necessary.

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According to the European Union Water Framework Directive, the Hungarian River Basin Management Plan considers as the base of its objectives - which are to assure sustainable water use - to determine the amount of sustainably exploitable water. This study outlines the core properties of current water supply system in Hungary; the distribution of extracted water between different types of sources, where and what kind of water-treatment procedures are needed etc. and also examines the changes in these indicators. This kind of data may contribute to the development of both ecologically and economically sustainable water supply systems.

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Authors: János Szabó and László Kajtár

It is the main priority in the case of office buildings to ensure a suitable comfort level. In addition, the comfort directly influences the productivity of office employees. Poor thermal comfort and poor indoor air quality deteriorates the intensity and quality of human work. On-site measurements were made in summer in an office building. The comfort evaluation could be done with continuous on-site measuring and data logging. The evaluation could be possible only by the base ground of the probability theory and for that reason the standard deviation and the 95% confidential range of the measuring results were determined.

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Efficient algorithms are needed for optimization of objects and systems, because the user would like to be sure that the optimum is global. The paper shows a very well scalable discrete firefly algorithm, developed for solving a supplier selection problem. The built in general reduced gradient and evolutionary algorithms of the Excel solver are also compared solving this problem. The results show that the firefly algorithm solves the problem in the fragment of the running time of the evolutionary algorithm. In the second part of the article, a mathematical model was formulated to solve the fixed destination multidepot multiple tour multiple traveling salesmen problem (mdmMTSP).

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The Szentágothai János Research Center in Pécs brings computer based building physics simulations to reality closer than ever. This high class building ads ground to several medical research programs and lectures, but it also gives a rare opportunity to improve computer simulations with its’ Building Management System (BMS from now on). The system does not only allow the complex building services system to be remotely controlled from a single computer, but also gathers important data related to the buildings’ physical performance, for example: room temperatures; air flow rates; geothermal pipe performance; and energy consumption of heat pumps. By comparing the results of a zone based building physics simulation model of the building, enhancement of the precision of the simulations and optimization of the actual buildings energy consumption can be done, by trying out different maintenance strategies.The first step is to build the computer model to be as precise as possible. In the zone based physical model, energy flows between zones, but the zones themselves often lack precise physical attributes, like energy loss through heat bridges. In this paper we will show how 2D finite element heat transfer simulations improve, zone base whole building simulations.

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The research topic contributes to the possibilities of energy performance modernization in ‘Squirell Garden’ Nursery School in Csurgó, Hungary. The building bears a special importance for my family and for me, since my mother works there, and I used to attend it as a child. The aim is to achieve an improvement that fulfills the infrastructural requirements set for modern, 21st century nursery schools, that improves the comfort level of children and teachers in the nursery school, makes the maintenance of the facilities more economical and in conformity with regulations, and enhances the quality of education as well as the visual appearance of the building. The target group of the modernization consists of the nursery-school children, parents, nursery-school teachers and nannies, the local government of Csurgó. The study and the calculations implemented are giving a general idea about modernization possibilities of a vintage, since decades unrefurbished kindergarten building, focusing on comfort and low energy consumption.

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The present paper focuses on the re-evaluation of archive engineering geological data of sic core drillings at one of the new metro stations of Budapest (Kálvin square, metro line 4). More than 1000 data of total coring length of more than 210 meters were used for statistical calculations. The data set includes index of plasticity, skewness, void ratio, water content, dry and water saturated bulk density, relative humidity, angle of friction, cohesion and compressive strength. Based on the data set the engineering geological description of sediments was reevaluated, and sand, clay, silt and bentonite-rich horizons were identified. Three new crosssections were prepared. Statistical analyses proved that there is an increase in cohesion and density of clays and silts with depth, indicating the role of consolidation.

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The glass in architecture

András Reith (Editor) Ildikó Bujdosó, Tamás Csoknyai, György Deák, Tamás Erdélyi, Adrienn Gelesz, István Kronavetter, Zorán Vukoszávlyev Publisher: TERC Ltd, Budapest, Hungary, 2012 Isbn 978-963-9535-12-1

Author: Bálint Bachmann
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The paper presents a modified version of the T.E.A.M. Problem No. 32 of the Compumag Society. The original problem is a measurement arrangement to study the magnetic flux density distribution inside an EI ferrite core. A finite element simulation of the device in the frame of COMSOL Multiphysics using the A -formulation has been worked out. First, the device has been realized, and a LabVIEW program has been implemented to measure the waveform of the voltage of B-coils. The geometry and the solution of the problem have been implemented in the frame of COMSOL Multiphysics, to calculate magnetic flux density at the points, where B-coils are on the core.

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The role of artificial food additives and food chemicals in abetting certain behavioural conditions has been the subject of behavioural nutrition research over several decades. However, a few studies have also raised questions regarding a similar role possibly played by naturally occurring phytochemicals in general and salicylates in particular. Such studies have, however, been rather few and far between. More importantly, till date, there has been no attempt to collate the findings from the few studies that have been carried out at different points in time by different researchers across different countries and cultures. This gap in the extant body of knowledge is made especially prominent by the fact that naturally occurring salicylates abound in many green vegetables and fruit, which are common constituents of a healthy diet. The aim of this review article is two-fold — firstly, to collate and present the related researches on the effects of salicylates in general and natural salicylates in particular on mental health; and secondly, to identify promising research directions for the future.

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A most important question of currant urban development is to trigger different possibilities of creating urban green spaces in cities and densely built up areas. Open green spaces have various positive effects on microclimate, energy-balance and also on social and physiological issues. The aim of the current paper is to sum up the results of latest researches, and among them a case study, which aims at proving the effectiveness of vegetative shading and cooling.

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In this research it will be accomplished the supervision of valid passenger car unit values, which are applied in effective road technical specifications. It was used VISSIM micro simulation program made by PTV Ag. It has been examined four different types of junctions (T-intersections, 4-leg intersections, signalized intersections, roundabouts).Simulation running have been completed to the different types of junctions with different types of vehicles, random factors and volume of traffic from which it could be defined those PCU values, which indicate current traffic situations. They have been compared to values applied at the moment and I propose PCU values for capacity calculations.

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Slovak Republic and Taiwan R.O.C. have both similarities in geomorphologic landscape structures and urban divisions that create notable energy potential premises. They also are facing similar energy deficiency issues. Large population difference makes also premises for good prognosis study. Both countries are viably engaged in research on renewable resources. Proposed idea is dealing with the energy resource decentralization caused by not underestimated development of micro-urbanism, applying the autarchic grids arranged in the idea of ‘electric power grid circles’ binding micro-urban structures together and at the same time creates smart energy communities using renewable energy micro-systems. Current water turbine’s efficiency rose up to 96%. Proposed multi-purpose micro-hydro type might be one of the reliable renewable resources applicable in this kind of situations.

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In network modeling, several junctions of the physical road network are often left out from the network model due to different factors. The paper focuses on the possibility of incorporating the effects of these junctions into the model with the adjustment of volume-delay function parameters through micro-simulation models. Parameter sets were determined for typical road junctions, similar results were merged to reduce multitude within the set. Recommendations are given to incorporate the results into transportation network models.

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Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by bees from the nectar or secretions of plants or from excretions of plant-sucking insects, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store, and leave in honeycombs to ripen and mature. The physical properties of honey make it versatile and applicable to several industries. High consumer demand for honey consequently leads to widespread adulteration. In the present study, fifteen honey samples were collected from various parts of Kerala, India and classified into three categories: market samples, raw/wild samples, and industrial samples. The samples were then analysed for the following parameters: organoleptic features, physicochemical properties, biochemical characteristics, and microbiological state. The values obtained for physicochemical and biochemical analysis were compared to Standard values provided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. It was found that no honey ideally conformed to all parameter standards. Some samples clearly indicated conditions of improper handling. All honey samples showed significant polyphenol content. Although honey samples showed increased microbial growth upon dilution, they were also found to have effective antimicrobial properties. Significant links between moisture content, yeast count, and non-conformity in honey were determined, which highlights the necessity of proper storage conditions.

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The aim of this work was to study antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of water extracts of various types of rice. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic andflavonoid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. Individual phenolics — catechins, catechin gallates, ferulic acid — were analysed by HPLC/PDA. Antimutagenic activity of rice extracts was tested using unicellular eukaryotic yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 the first time.Non-processed rice types contained substantially higher amount of soluble total and individual phenolics and had higher antioxidant activity than peeled rice. Parboiled rice, in which technological processing helps to maintain active substances inside the grains, exhibited also relatively high phenolic levels. The highest antimutagenic effect was proved in Indian Rice, Arborio, Jasmine Rice and Three Colours Rice independently of rice extract concentration. Because of relatively high values of phenolics and high antioxidant activity, the antimutagenic activity of these samples could be attributed to biologically active phenolics present mainly in the bran layer of whole rice grain.

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In this study, the flesh yield and proximate contents of caramote prawn, Penaeus kerathurus, were researched depending on sex and seasons. Furthermore, prawns were divided into two groups for freshness assessments at two different times. The first group of prawn was completely wrapped with the stretch film and aluminium foil and stored at room temperature. The second group was placed in water with ice and stored at 4±1 °C (ice storage). The shelf-life of P. kerathurus was determined. Trimethylamine-nitrogen (TMA-N) and pH were analysed to determine biochemical quality and total mesophilic count (TMC) was measured to determine the microbial quality. In addition, sensory analyses were also carried out. The flesh yield of P. kerathurus was on average 52%. It was found that percentages on average moisture, lipid, protein, and ash contents in P. kerathurus were 76.27%, 1.63%, 16.52%, and 1.98%, respectively, and these values changed depending on the season (P<0.01). Increases in TMA-N, pH, TMC values and changes in the sensory parameters were found statistically significant (P<0.05) in prawns throughout storage. According to sensory, chemical, and microbial analyses, it was found that shelf-life of P. kerathurus wrapped with aluminium foil and stretch film and stored at room temperature was 1 day. The shelf-life of P. kerathurus for ice storage was 9 days.

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Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are most commonly encountered in the dairy industries, either existing naturally in milk or inoculated as starters in fermented dairy products. Recent research suggests that fermented dairy products are a cocktail of bioactive ingredients. The objective of our study was to evaluate the bioactivity of cell wall fractions of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium grown in reconstituted skimmed milk, and the possibility of intra- and extracellular extracts of these bacteria for applications in foods and beyond. Intracellular and extracellular extracts of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium showed inhibitory activities against food and dermal pathogens. All strains were able to produce inhibitors, such as organic acids, antimicrobial peptides, diacetyl, and hydrogen peroxide. Most strains showed higher production of extracellular than intracellular inhibitors (P<0.05). Meanwhile, all strains were able to produce hyaluronic acid, lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, neutral sphingomyelinase and acid sphingomyelinase at concentrations applicable for cosmeceutical application. Findings from our study demonstrated that inhibitors and bioactives from lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have the potential to be developed into formulations for food and non-food applications.

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The fatty acid compositions of the total lipid, neutral and polar lipid fractions in the liver and muscle of Capoeta sieboldii and Capoeta baliki from Tödürge Lake were determined. Major fatty acids found in total lipid (TL) and neutral lipid (NL) in liver and muscles were C16:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:1 n-9, C18:1 n-7, C20:4 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3, and C22:6 n-3. Beside these acids, C18:0 was another notable fatty acid in polar lipid (PL) fraction of the tissues investigated. The n-3/n-6 ratio, which is an indicator of health benefits of fish oils, was between 2.89 (PLs of liver) and 5.84 (PLs of muscle) in C. baliki, while it was found between 1.43 (PLs of liver) and 2.52 (NLs of muscle) in C. sieboldii. C. baliki was the excellent species in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in TL (43.92% in muscle) and PLs (52.94% in muscle) and C22:6 n-3 amounts (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA) were responsible for these high percentages. These results suggest that Capoeta species investigated have high nutritive value in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acids for human nutrition.

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In many occasions descriptive analysis consists of product-specific training where the samples to be measured are used during the training. Towards the end of the training period it is common practice to present these samples and reach a consensus on their profiles, which we have called Training Consensus Profiles (TCP). Following the TCP, the samples are scored by each assessor and the results are statistically analysed to obtain statistical profiles. The objective of the present work was to compare the TCP with the statistical profiles in samples from three different food categories: fernet (an herb-based alcoholic drink), mayonnaise, and spaghetti. General Procrustes analysis showed that the TCP and statistical profiles were similar. A case is made, that if this type of training and measurement are to be followed, the statistical measuring stage could be left aside, directly reporting the results obtained from the TCP. Advantages and limitations on reporting these TCP profiles are discussed.

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Ten kinds of virgin olive oil of two major cultivars (Ayvalık and Memecik) produced in several areas of Turkey (Bayındır, Edremit, Ortaklar, Burhaniye, Ezine, Tire, Havran, Ayvalık, Altınoluk, and Küçükkuyu) were analysed. The quality characteristics, fatty acid composition, total phenol, ando-diphenol content of the samples were determined. Oxidative stability and free radical scavenging activity were determined using Rancimat test, Schaal oven test, and DPPH method. It was found that while Memecik oil from Ortaklar demonstrated the strongest oxidative stability, Ayvalık oil from Ezine had the lowest oxidative stability among the samples. Fatty acid composition and especially oleic acid/linoleic acid ratio was previously defined as a parameter that can help distinguish cultivars from one another; however, this study proved that total phenol, especially o-diphenol content of the oil, has the strongest effect on oxidative stability compared to other factors including fatty acid composition.

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In this research, the effect of gender on fast-food consumption has been studied to determine fast-food consumption habits with a survey given to 900 people including Tekirdag city centre high school students and Namık Kemal University students. Also, the relationship between fast-food consumption and overweight, and whether the students have trust for hygiene applications of fast food producing and service enterprises has been studied. 900 people in total were involved in this research (459 females and 441 males). According to the results of the survey, a significant relationship between gender and fast-food choice type, portion size, consumption frequency, trust for complying hygiene rules, the need of being informed about food security, being affected by commercials, food poisoning and the reaction to it, and not consuming fast-food has been found.Many Turkish adolescents are becoming increasingly more westernized and have greater convenience when they eat out. Fast-food type nutrition which is popular among children and teenagers contains deficient or excess nutrients. High schools and universities are appropriate establishments for students to gain correct nutritional habits. This research has been planned to determine fast-food preferences of different gender.

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Authors: L. Silva, G. Maia, P. Sousa, R. Figueiredo, M. Afonso, M. Gonzaga, C. Gomes and E. Figueiredo

The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the rheological properties of mixed nectars, based on cashew apple, mango, and acerola pulps. Ten different formulations with different mass fractions of cashew apple, mango, and acerola pulps were prepared using a simplex centroid design [with a total of 35% (w/w) pulp] and submitted to heat treatment at 90 °C for 1 min. Samples were collected before and after heat treatment and characterization of their rheological properties was carried out. The rheological behaviour was obtained at 25 °C, with shear rate ranging from 108 to 500 s−1 (upward curve) and from 500 to 108 s−1 (downward curve) for 1 min with 25 readings for each curve. The Ostwald de Waele model showed to be a good fit for all formulations studied, which showed a non-Newtonian behaviour and a pseudoplastic character. Results of apparent viscosity for the non-heated formulations were well fitted by the linear model and the heat treated formulations by the cubic model. The heat treated formulations had higher (P<0.05) values of consistency index and apparent viscosity, as well as lower (P<0.05) values of flow behaviour index compared to non-heated formulations. The rheological characterization of these formulations is a very useful tool during product development and processing control of mixed nectars of fruit juice.

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Authors: J. Goon, C. Choor, R. Ainaa, X. Sze, M. Syahriah, M. Syamimi, S. Rashidi, M. Mardiyanna and J. Zakiah

Honey is a dietary antioxidant as it contains phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. Antioxidants are non-nutritive, biologically active ingredients in food that reduce oxidative stress. The antioxidant content in each type of honey varies depending on its source. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Nenas honey supplementation on the oxidative status of a group of healthy medical students. They were divided into two groups; control (n=10) and supplemented (n=13), where 1 tablespoon of Nenas honey was given each day. Blood sampling was done at baseline, 1st and 2nd month of the study for determination of DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidise (GPx), and catalase (CAT). Results showed that Nenas honey increased the level of DNA damage at the 1st month but reduced it significantly at the 2nd month as compared to control. GPx and CAT activities also decreased significantly with honey supplementation throughout the study, though no changes were observed in SOD activity. Fasting glucose levels remained within the normal range with honey supplementation. In conclusion, Nenas honey decreases oxidative stress which leads to a reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities in the body.

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Authors: S. Dragoev, D. Balev, G. Ivanov, B. Nikolova-Damyanova, T. Grozdeva, E. Filizov and K. Vassilev

Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors responsible for the quality loss in refrigerated and frozen stored fish products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of superficial treatment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with dihydroquercetin (DHQ) solutions on the hydrolytic and oxidative changes in fish lipids during refrigerated storage. It was found that treatment with DHQ solution (1.0 g l−1) reduced approximately twice the free fatty acids content of chilled stored salmon. After 11 days of storage at 1 °С, the contents of hydroperoxides (HPO) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of these samples decreased with 45.00 and 0.91 mg MDA/kg, respectively. The share of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in control and experimental samples did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Results obtained show that the superficial treatment of salmon with DHQ solution (1.0 g l−1) delayed the hydrolytic and oxidative changes in fish lipids significantly, thus preserving the salmon freshness up to 11 days of storage at 1 °С.

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Authors: M. Gyalai-Korpos, A. Fehér, Zs. Barta and K. Réczey

The need to introduce promising bioethanol production technologies calls for advanced laboratory techniques to study experiment designs and to obtain their results in a quick and reliable way. Real time monitoring based on general principles of ethanol fermentation, such as effluent CO2 volume, avoids time consuming steps, long lasting analyses and delivers information about the process directly. A device based on the above features and capable for real time monitoring on parallel channels was developed by the authors and is described in this paper. Both for calibration and for fermentation, test runs were carried out on different days and channels. Statistical evaluation was based on the obtained data. According to the t-test (P=0.05) and Grubbs analysis, the calibration method is reliable regardless of the date of calibration. When evaluating the fermentation results by ANCOVA acceptable standard derivations were obtained as impact of channel (58.8 ml), date (82.1 ml) and incorporating all impacts (116.2 ml). The final ethanol concentrations calculated based on the gas volume were compared to ones determined by HPLC and an average difference of 10% was found. Thus, the device proved to be advantageous in monitoring fermentation.

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Food microflora is a complex and mutable ecosystem where the effects of microbial culture addition are still not entirely foreseeable due to microbial diversity. Starter, probiotic, and adjunct microorganisms are widely selected and used in food to improve quality and safety; they may be formulated as monostrain or multistrain cultures. Lactic acid bacteria are included among the main groups deemed useful for these aims. Compatibility tests can constitute an effective way to assess interactions among lactic acid bacteria. Food microflora composition is generally examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The existing limits of each method can be overcome by combining them, so that they give more information on microbial complexity. Since mixed cultures of starter, probiotic, or adjunct lactic acid bacteria provide more beneficial effects than single cultures, future research should be guided by compatibility tests to show the most suitable and beneficial mixed cultures.

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Jute bags and cocoa butter (CB) were analysed by gas chromatography (GC-FID/MS) to detect and quantify mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). Extraction clean-up on silica gel SPE (10 g/60 ml) was developed, as a unique sample preparation step for the determination of linear and branched n-alkanes in the range C14 to C31. The size of CB sample (500 mg) was sufficient for the detection of batching oil at levels of 2 mg kg−1, with satisfactory recovery and repeatability. MOSH from batching oil form a hump of unresolved components and the shape reflect balanced molecular-mass distribution between even and odd carbon atoms (from C14 to C22 n-alkanes), expressed with the Carbon Preference Index (CPI=∑odd homologs/∑even homologs). Contaminated raw CB extracted from cocoa beans, transported and stored in jute bags during 2000 and 2001, showed MOSH (average 42 mg kg−1). However, only the 7.5% of the samples analysed of deodorized CB from 2007 to 2009 contained MOSH <36 mg kg−1. High CPI values (>1.26) were attributed to natural hydrocarbons with a strong predominance of odd-numbered paraffins, situated between C22 and C31 n-alkanes (average 31.7±5.37 mg kg−1). The results confirmed that MOSH components below n-C20 were fully eliminated by the deodorization process.

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Authors: N. Costa, P. Sakon, H. Paula, M. Pinto, M. Sant‘Anna, T. Araújo and V. Minim

This study aimed to evaluate the composition, the protein quality, and the acceptability of a powder dietary supplement formulated for elderly people. The centesimal composition was analysed according to A.O.A.C. methods and the protein quality was assessed in weaning rats, by comparing Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Net Protein Ratio (NPR), and True Digestibility (TD) of the supplement with a casein-control based on AIN-93G diet. For the acceptance test samples of four flavours of the supplement dissolved in whole milk were offered to each judge, in monadic form. To assess the overall acceptability a scale of seven points was used. The sensory panel was composed of 121 Brazilian panellists, with mean age of 68.28±5.78 years. The supplement is promising in reaching the nutritional demands of the elderly, providing high content of protein and fibre and low content of fat. The values found for PER and NPR were shown to be superior to the control group of casein (P<0.05) and the digestibility was higher than 90%, showing that the supplement presented characteristics of a high nutritional value protein source. The supplements with banana, vanilla, and strawberry flavour were the most accepted and did not differ significantly for the overall acceptability.

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The effect of hot-air roasting temperatures and time on colour (L*), moisture content (% d.b.), hardness (N), and fracturability (mm) attributes of two different type of peanuts (China and India origin) were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate temperatures ranging from 130–170 °C (China) and 130–200 °C (India), while roasting time was from 20–80 min (China) and 15–50 min (India). The results revealed that temperature and time have significant effect on all the responses. Increase in roasting time and temperature caused a decrease in all the responses for both peanuts. A feasible experimental condition of peanut roasting obtained from the optimisation of simultaneous multiple attributes’ response for the China and India peanuts was 152 °C for 60 min and 158 °C for 45 min, respectively. The strongest linearrelationship was found between hardness and fracturability, while the weakest was between colour and fracturability for both peanuts.

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The paper examines the relationship between the use of specific knowledge and success among the Hungarian grape growers and wine makers. In the recent decade Hungary has been left behind by the world trends representing an increasing share of premium and superpremium wines (which materialize higher knowledge) in export development. According to our survey, the non-appropriate usage and management of knowledge and skills that would be ‘condition sine qua non’ for wine making might be behind that. However, the use and spread of skills is a basic component in explaining the differences among companies, it is not unambiguous in formulating the business success measured by different indicators. At the same time we can conclude that the Hungarian wine enterprises — keeping the idea of generation, as well as its further development, elaboration, and adequate usage within the frame of the company — can achieve market success.

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Quantification of red pigment content of fruits using destructive techniques is expensive and it enables only the analysis of batches but not of individual items. This study examined the feasibility of using non-destructive, spectrophotometric method to predict one of the most valuable internal quality indices, lycopene, in individual tomato fruits. An open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation and potassium supplementation on the yield and lycopene content of processed tomato fruit. Three different treatments (regularly irrigated RI, irrigation cut-off 30 days before harvest CO, and rainfed RF unirrigated control) and two different potassium fertilisations (P) were applied. Regular irrigation significantly decreased the lycopene content of tomato fruits. The CO treatment resulted in the highest total lycopene without potassium supplementation. Potassium supplementation, given at the time before fruit maturity, significantly increased the lycopene concentration of cultivar Brigade F1, independently of irrigation. The closest correlation was at 700 nm R2=0.38 and R2=0.45, between reflectance and the (all-E)-lycopene and the (9Z)+(13Z)-lycopene isomers, respectively.

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Authors: O.N. Campas-Baypoli, D.I. Sánchez-Machado, C. Bueno-Solano, A.A. Escárcega-Galaz and J. López-Cervantes

Moringa oleifera tree has been recognized internationally for its nutritional, therapeutic and medicinal properties. Dry seeds are rich sources of oil with a high potential of commercial exploitation. The present study reports the physicochemical characterization, polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging capacity and fatty acid profile of moringa seed oil, and the chemical composition of the seed cultivated in Sonora, Mexico. Moisture, ash, protein and lipid contents in the seed were found to be 4.7, 5.8, 26 and 39%, respectively. The oil showed a refractive index of 1.4642. The saponification number was 183 mg KOH/g oil, iodine value: 75 g I/100 g of oil, acid value: 0.49 (% oleic acid). The polyphenol content was 0.137 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was 87.39%. The moringa seed oil was rich (68%) in the major fatty acid, oleic acid (C18:1n9). Moringa oil extracted by sonication showed a fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties comparable to the oil from seeds grown in different regions of the world. The optimization of the oil extraction process on a large scale shows high potential, as the oil could be marketed as edible vegetable oil, for frying purposes, or as a functional ingredient.

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Authors: J.A. Pino, E. Ortiz-Vazquez, E. Sauri-Duch and L. Cuevas-Glory

The volatile compounds of black sapote fruit were isolated by simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 32 volatile constituents were detected, which represented 4.57 mg kg−1 of the fruit. The composition of volatile constituents of the fruit included 9 terpene compounds (49.1% of the total volatile composition), 11 ketones (9%), 5 aldehydes (29.2%), 4 alcohols (3.6%), 2 esters (8.2%) and a paraffin (0.8%). Major compounds were (Z)-b-ocimene (26.6% of the total volatile composition), (E)-cinnamaldehyde (25.5%) and limonene (17.0%). By application of odour activity values, seven constituents were considered as aroma-active volatiles, from which the most important were (E)-cinnamaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, limonene, (Z)-β-ocimene, linalool, methyl (E)-cinnamate, and β-caryophyllene.

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Typical Calabrian cured meat products, produced with meat of local and commercial pig breeds were evaluated and characterized for their quality and homogeneity. Sensory, microbiological and physicochemical analyses were carried out at the end of cured meat products ripening. A wide statistical variability was observed in these commercial products due to both company and different productions. The mineral composition was similar to that observed by other authors in similar cured meat products; the statistical analysis revealed only a difference among the samples for magnesium (P<0.01) and for calcium (P<0.05) contents. According to the performed sensory analysis, the meat products were acceptable with some differences due to both production and company variables. About microbial populations, the most abundant were lactic acid bacteria and total aerobic bacteria, while enterobacteria were less represented.

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Applying several hydrocolloids in ascending concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1% w/w flour basis) to bread making procedure was considered. Effect of hydrocolloids [guar, xanthan gum, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] as bread improver on Barbari (Iranian bread) was analysed in terms of microstructure. Image analysis parameters, hardness, and microstructure of fresh bread were analysed. The results confirmed the ability of hydrocolloids for improving fresh bread quality. Among all used hydrocolloids, HPMC and CMC produced the softest texture, smoothest and continuous structure, and improved overall the bread quality.

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The aim of this study was to determine the changes in some physicochemical properties of olives (fruit weight, water content and oil content) and olive oils (total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pheophytin a, peroxide value and free acidity), and in the chemical properties (fatty acids, tocopherols, phenolics, oxidation stability and volatile profiles) of oils during ripening.Ripening indices (RI) of olive samples were 1.93 (unripe), 4.28 (ripe) and 5.89 (overripe). Most of the mentioned features changed with ripening. During ripening there was a sharp decrease in total chlorophyll, carotenoid and pheophytin a contents. An increase in oleic and linoleic acids and a decrease in palmitic acid were found in the fatty acid composition. Olive oils showed strong relations among oxidation stability, tocopherol content, total phenols content, and antiradical actvity of phenol extracts and these parameters decreased with maturation. Nevertheless, higher amounts of trans-2-hexenal were found in the oil from ripe olives than from unripe and overripe olives. On the other hand, the highest concentration of hexanal was found in the oil from overripe olives.In general, significant differences were observed in fruit weight, pigments, free acidity, fatty acid, tocopherol, and total phenolics contents, radical scavenger activity, oxidation stability, phenolic profile and volatile profile between the olive oils from the Gemlik cultivar at different stages of maturation.

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Bambara bean protein concentrate was acylated and partially hydrolysed with pancreatin in order to improve its functional properties. Increasing acetylation and succinylation (from 0.0 to 1.0 g anhydride/g concentrate) modified lysine at similar rate. Acylation markedly improved protein solubility and water solubility index at neutral pH, which reached to 92 and 94%, respectively. Acetylation showed greater effect on emulsifying activity, which was maximum at 0.5 g anhydride/g concentrate, and emulsifying stability was higher at 0.25 g anhydride/g concentrate. A significant increase in foam capacity was recorded at 0.5 g succinic anhydride/g concentrate, and foam stability decreased detrimentally following acylation. Fat absorption capacity was not improved by acylation. At pH 3.5, protein solubility of acylated concentrate was low (<14%). Hydrolysis of protein concentrate with pancreatin resulted in significant increase in protein solubility at neutral pH. At isoelectric pH, solubility of protein hydrolysates increased with the increasing degree of hydrolysis.

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The n-3 fatty acids advantageously affect human health. Thus, partial substitution of pig backfat with soybean- or flaxseed oils in “Párizsi” (lyoner), with the aim to increase its n-3 fatty acid (FA) content, resulted improved FA profile (n-6/n-3 ratio). Relatively high (9% flaxseed oil) substitution decreased this ratio to the optimum (∼4). This modified FA profile was preserved during 32 storage days. Oil addition influenced fresh surface colour: lightness (L*) increased, redness (a*) decreased in parallel with the increasing oil addition, while only soybean oil increased yellowness (b*). Storage altered the colour slightly. The texture was not systematically altered by oil substitution, while during storage in a vapour permeable casing hardness increased. Considering organoleptic properties, soybean oil improved the extent of spiciness, while the general consumer acceptance was the most favourable (within complemented samples) by 3% flaxseed oil. Increasing vegetable oil levels intensified the taste of spice mixture.

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The effects of red grape, wild grape and black raspberry wines on the quality of ground pork during a 15 days refrigerated storage period were investigated. The levels of phenolic compounds were the highest in black raspberry wine (P<0.05). In contrast, the antioxidant capacities according to ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were not significantly different among the wines (P>0.05). The addition of 5% and 10% wine influenced the quality of ground pork by decreasing pH, inhibiting the progression of lipid oxidation and the formation of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and stabilizing the red colour of the ground pork compared to control samples to which no wine was added. In ground pork, addition of red grape wine led to lower concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, 0.19–0.39 mg kg−1) and TVB-N values (69.1–119.9 mg kg−1) than wild grape (0.16–0.43 mg kg−1 and 72.0–194.1 mg kg−1, respectively) or black raspberry wine (0.33–0.58 mg kg−1 and 81.7–225.4 mg kg−1, respectively) up to 10 days of storage. Results from the present study suggested that the quality of ground pork was affected by wine type and storage period. These effects could be due to phenolic compounds as well as other chemical components of the wines.

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Mycoviruses are known to infect fungi of different habitats and life style. Some of them, like the Mushroom Virus X (MVX) complex, cause abnormal development of fruiting bodies and severe yield losses in mushroom cultivation. Most mycoviruses have a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, therefore dsRNA-detection is frequently used as a first step to identify virus infection. In relation with MVX 23 dsRNAs species have been described, occurring in variable number and combination in diseased mushrooms. The aim of our experiments was to find out whether dsRNA-immunoblotting can be used to detect dsRNA in small samples of cultivated A. bisporus varieties and of wild growing Agaricus species. We found that by immunoblotting, the same dsRNA species were detected in apparently healthy cultivated champignon fruiting bodies and in MVX-infected reference samples, respectively, as by conventional CF11 chromatography, but for immunoblotting a much smaller sample size was needed. In two out of three deformed fruit bodies of cultivated A. bisporus from Hungary we detected a 4.1 kbp dsRNA species which was also present in the MVX infected reference samples. Diverse and variable dsRNA patterns were observed in apparently healthy samples of 12 wild growing Agaricus species, indicating that extreme care should be taken when non-cultivated Agaricus is used for breeding new varieties. Non-sterile cultures and environmental mushroom specimens are fairly often mixed with parasitic and endofungal organisms, therefore, we also tested fungi isolated from mushroom cultures. Here again, 1–7 dsRNA species were found in extracts of Trichoderma and Dactylium isolates and of Mycogone-infected sporophores. Our results demonstrate clearly that dsRNAs from very different origins can be present in cultivated champignon and support the view that the MVX symptom-associated dsRNAs are probably of polyphyletic origin and do not represent one defined virus.

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