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The increasing consumer demand for less processed and more natural food products – while improving those products’ quality, safety, and shelf-life – has raised the necessity of chemical preservative replacement. Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Chitinolytic enzymes are of biotechnological interest, since their substrate, chitin, is a major structural component of the cell wall of fungi, which are the main cause of the spoilage of food and raw plant material. Among the several organisms, many bacteria produce chitinolytic enzymes, however, this behaviour is not general. The chitinase activity of the lactic acid bacteria is scarcely known and studied.

The aim of the present study was to select Lactobacillus strains that have genes encoding chitinase, furthermore, to detect expressed enzymes and to characterise their chitinase activity. Taking into consideration the importance of chitin-bindig proteins (CBPs) in the chitinase activity, CBPs were also examined. Five Lactobacillus strains out of 43 strains from 12 different species were selected by their chitinase coding gene. The presence of the chitinase and chitin-biding protein production were confirmed, however, no chitinolytic activity has been identified.

Open access

Immature rice grain is one of the under-valued by-products of rice milling industry. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of immature rice grain flour (IRGF) substitution to tarhana, which is a traditional cereal-based, fermented food product. IRGF was replaced by refined wheat flour at the levels of 0 (control), 30, 50, 70, and 100%, and the effect of this replacement on the contents of crude fat, ash, protein, dietary fibre, phytic acid, minerals, vitamins B1 and B2, tocopherols, γ-oryzanol contents and sensory properties were investigated. It was shown that stabilised IRGF remarkably improved nutritional properties of the end product without adversely affecting sensory quality up to 50%. In conclusion, it could be suggested that stabilised IRGF has a promising potential for many food applications due to being cheap, accessible, nutritious, and gluten-free.

Open access

Abstract

The sol gel method was used in preparing a series of A site partially substituted La1−xBaxCoO3 (x ≥ 0.1 ≤ 0.4) perovskite catalysts coded LBC1, 2, 3, and 4 and their potential as catalysts for soot oxidation were evaluated. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES), Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTG), X-ray analysis (XRD) were used in characterizing the prepared perovskite catalyst. The result shows that at (x≥ 0.2 ≤ 0.4), there was an increase in surface area when we compare it with that of x = 0. The increase in surface area helps in increasing the catalytic performance of the catalyst. Also, when evaluating the catalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts, it was observed that doping the perovskite catalysts helped in the general improvement of the catalytic performance for soot oxidation. The best performance in this research study with a T50 of 484 °C was observed at x = 0.2 catalyst (LBC2). This shows that the non-noble perovskite catalysts prepared in this research study has the potential to replace the noble metal based catalysts used presently in the diesel automotive industry.

Open access

Abstract

The sol gel method was used in preparing a series of A site partially substituted La1−xBaxCoO3 (x ≥ 0.1 ≤ 0.4) perovskite catalysts coded LBC1, 2, 3, and 4 and their potential as catalysts for soot oxidation were evaluated. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES), Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTG), X-ray analysis (XRD) were used in characterizing the prepared perovskite catalyst. The result shows that at (x≥ 0.2 ≤ 0.4), there was an increase in surface area when we compare it with that of x = 0. The increase in surface area helps in increasing the catalytic performance of the catalyst. Also, when evaluating the catalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts, it was observed that doping the perovskite catalysts helped in the general improvement of the catalytic performance for soot oxidation. The best performance in this research study with a T50 of 484 °C was observed at x = 0.2 catalyst (LBC2). This shows that the non-noble perovskite catalysts prepared in this research study has the potential to replace the noble metal based catalysts used presently in the diesel automotive industry.

Open access
Ideal supplementary cementing material – Metakaolin: A review

Abstract

Though being an ancient trend, usage of the homogeneous material cement in the construction industry is steadily getting eradicated with the springing up of supplementary cementing materials (SCM). Metakaolin is an imminent mineral admixture extracted from the mineral ore kaolinite, which enhances the interfacial zone by more efficient packing at the cement paste-aggregate particle interface, thus reducing the bleeding and producing a denser, more homogeneous transition zone microstructure. This paper depicts the various repercussions of the pozzolanic material metakaolin in the fresh and hardened properties of concrete when replaced with cement in finite amount. Also, it states the behavior of high-performance concrete and self-compacting concrete with metakaolin.

Open access
Ideal supplementary cementing material – Metakaolin: A review

Abstract

Though being an ancient trend, usage of the homogeneous material cement in the construction industry is steadily getting eradicated with the springing up of supplementary cementing materials (SCM). Metakaolin is an imminent mineral admixture extracted from the mineral ore kaolinite, which enhances the interfacial zone by more efficient packing at the cement paste-aggregate particle interface, thus reducing the bleeding and producing a denser, more homogeneous transition zone microstructure. This paper depicts the various repercussions of the pozzolanic material metakaolin in the fresh and hardened properties of concrete when replaced with cement in finite amount. Also, it states the behavior of high-performance concrete and self-compacting concrete with metakaolin.

Open access

Abstract

The inelastic buckling behaviour of different rectangular thin isotropic plates having a free edge is studied. Various combinations of boundary conditions are subject to in-plane uniaxial compression and each rectangular plate is bounded by an unloaded free edge. The characteristic deflection function of each plate is formulated using a polynomial function in form of Taylor–Maclaurin series. A deformation plasticity approach is adopted and the buckling load equation is modified using a work principle technique. Buckling coefficients of the plates are calculated for various aspect ratios and moduli ratios. Findings obtained from the investigation are found to reasonably agree with data published in the literature.

Open access

Abstract

The inelastic buckling behaviour of different rectangular thin isotropic plates having a free edge is studied. Various combinations of boundary conditions are subject to in-plane uniaxial compression and each rectangular plate is bounded by an unloaded free edge. The characteristic deflection function of each plate is formulated using a polynomial function in form of Taylor–Maclaurin series. A deformation plasticity approach is adopted and the buckling load equation is modified using a work principle technique. Buckling coefficients of the plates are calculated for various aspect ratios and moduli ratios. Findings obtained from the investigation are found to reasonably agree with data published in the literature.

Open access
Cyber-physical platform development and implementation for industry 4.0

Abstract

Industry 4.0 is referred as the fourth industrial revolution that represents the information intensive transformation of industrial automation and manufacturing processes. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are building blocks in Industry 4.0 and part of the Industry 4.0 vision. This paper presents a cyber-physical platform development and implementation strategy for Industry 4.0 applications. It has been considered a cyber-physical platform model (CPP) built upon hardware reconfigurable technology based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processor framework. The development strategy exploits the full benefits enabled by reconfigurable hardware, such as scalability of complex systems, platform-based design approach, adaptive processing, real-time constrains management, or high performance prototyping capabilities. The implemented experimental setup also combines major advantages of both the hardware and software platform-based design trends in Industry 4.0. In this endeavor, the used software toolkit comprises the entire system complexity as a high performance integration layer. The presented design method and implementation strategy can serve as rough orientation for future CPS research and development activities.

Open access
Cyber-physical platform development and implementation for industry 4.0

Abstract

Industry 4.0 is referred as the fourth industrial revolution that represents the information intensive transformation of industrial automation and manufacturing processes. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are building blocks in Industry 4.0 and part of the Industry 4.0 vision. This paper presents a cyber-physical platform development and implementation strategy for Industry 4.0 applications. It has been considered a cyber-physical platform model (CPP) built upon hardware reconfigurable technology based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processor framework. The development strategy exploits the full benefits enabled by reconfigurable hardware, such as scalability of complex systems, platform-based design approach, adaptive processing, real-time constrains management, or high performance prototyping capabilities. The implemented experimental setup also combines major advantages of both the hardware and software platform-based design trends in Industry 4.0. In this endeavor, the used software toolkit comprises the entire system complexity as a high performance integration layer. The presented design method and implementation strategy can serve as rough orientation for future CPS research and development activities.

Open access