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Authors: M. Zheng, Y. Tian, H. Teng, J. Hu, F. Wang, Y. Zhao and L. Yu

In this paper, the wind energy resource in China’s oilfields is analyzed, the difference between China’s energy consumption structure and that of the world in average is analyzed as well, and the application prospect of wind heating technology in China’s oilfields is discussed as an example to reform China’s energy consumption structure. It shows that it is possible to use wind energy as an appropriate heat resource or supplementary heat source in some oilfields to supply heat energy for oil heating and living, more room to improve the energy resource utilization in various fields in China remain. It is a benefit to both oilfield and society to improve energy saving and environments.

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Reconfigurable electronics technology represents a challenging implementation paradigm of actual stage microelectronics. This paper presents the advantages of using hardware reconfigurable microelectronics technology in intelligent spaces development and implementation. An original approach is unfolded which emphasize the versatility of reconfigurable electronic circuit’s topology based configurations in a wide range of intelligent environment applications. The introduced theoretical approaches have been validated then by a real-time intelligent space implementation example. There have been exploited the huge re-routing abilities of reconfigurable electronics associated with its fine-grained operating behaviours. The final result of the theoretical and experimental research efforts is a well-fitted and practical solution for a wide range of intelligent space applications development and implementation.

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The aim of this article is to describe problems of members subjected to biaxial bending and axial compression force and the methods of their design. Members subjected to bending moments about two axes and axial compression force exhibit complex behavior. It is necessary to consider second order theory and imperfections when designing members like that, since they have noticeable influence on resistance in instability. There are examples shown in the article, using methods present in current European standards EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1999-1-1. Attention is drawn to differences in methods, both in applicability and practicality, in design of members with constant and linear bending moment. The purpose of presented paper is to show if the method, which is currently used in Eurocode for aluminum structures, can be also used for steel structures.

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Authors: Brigitta Török, Adél Len and Zoltán Orbán

This paper presents a nonstandard experimental procedure for detection of the presence of salts in building materials. The proposed tests helped modeling the deterioration of specific historical building materials caused by salts. The specimens were subject to visual survey and scanning electron microscope analyses, after submerging them in salt solutions. The results showed the damage of brick, cement based mortar and lime based mortar, caused by various concentrations of sulphate and chloride solutions. By this method various types of salt crystals could be identified. In cement and lime based mortars larger extents of salt deposits were found. A relevant difference between the control samples and the salt treated samples was observed.

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There are several methods for the analysis of road accidents in a road network. In Hungary from 2011 GPS coordinates are used to identify the location of personal injury accidents. This method significantly improves the display of locations of accidents on the map, which can be then analyzed using GIS tools. Accident black spots are the most dangerous places in road networks identified by the density of the accidents in the network. One of the analysis methods is the accident density searching. The methods and algorithms used in some software may show differences in relation to one another. The aim of this research is comparing two applications by investigating the local road network in Győr. The analysis was made using the WEB-BAL accident analysis software using the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise procedure and the QGIS software using the kernel density estimation method. The former is the official accident database and online software used for accident investigations and the latter is an open source geographic information system. The results are visualized in accident density plots and black spot maps.

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Buildings are the largest consumers of energy, accounting for nearly 40% of all energy used. Therefore, an effective method of reducing energy consumption is to create and design more efficient buildings. In this paper details of a sustainable and green building design for a small residential home are presented. This design is unique in that it is built to Passive house standards, and using shipping containers. The structure will use four 20 ft. (6.1 m) high and one 40 ft. (12.2 m) high cube containers, with the four 20 ft. (6.1 m) making up the main floor and the 40 ft. (12.2 m) forming the second floor. The size is a modest 820 sq. ft. (76.2 m2) designed for a family with one or two children.

The goal for the building is to be as self-sufficient as possible which makes it ideally suited to an ‘off-grid’ rural setting. However, it can be adapted to be ‘on-grid’ as well. Solar energy will provide all the electricity needs through a photovoltaic battery system, and warm water with a solar water heater. The site will be water neutral by utilising rainwater harvesting and on site waste water treatment. The results from energy modelling, using HOT2000, are presented, as well as an in-depth analysis on different insulation types and strategies. Finally, a cost estimate exercise is conducted and results compared to other passive houses and traditional code compliance buildings.

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The primary aim of the paper is to present a simple method for determining the changes in stiffness of a composite beam. The experimental model was made from wood and plaster boards. It was simply supported beam with a length of 4 m. Accelerations were measured at 24 points along the beam. In either case data for intact and damaged models were acquired. The identification of the damage was done using a code developed by the authors. The vertical mode-shapes were analyzed, so changes in the stiffness could be detected.

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Milk and dairy products are high-value foods; however, consumers suffering from lactose intolerance are not able to enjoy the nutritional benefits of these commodities. There are more and more researches and developments focusing on lowering the lactose content of milk and dairy foods in order to make them available for lactose intolerant people. In this study, we examined the coagulation time, product quality, texture profile properties, and syneresis of yoghurts prepared from lactose-free milk. Significant differences were observed between the control and lactose-free milks with respect to coagulation time and texture profile. The first rupture time, the hardness, and the adhesion force of the lactose-free yoghurt were higher compared to the control product. We observed remarkable difference between the whey leakage of control and lactose free yoghurt samples (21.47% and 14.63%). Results coming from instrumental texture profile analyses showed that the preliminary lactose hydrolysis of milk resulted a firmer texture. It was confirmed by the results of sensory evaluation, and considering the texture and taste, there was significant difference between the control and lactose-free yoghurts.

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In an attempt to devise a model which more closely imitates cellular biology a three-dimensional (3D) artificial organism model developed upon a two-layer coarse-fine-grid network model is proposed in this paper. The strength of this original approach is that it endeavors to capture the complexity of both the cellular networks as well as that of the biological cell itself, by implementing the internal biological phenomena of an organism into a 3D two different network topology hardware layer. In essence, this model not only keeps the full advantages of previously created 2D models that enable the implementation of similar self-replicating or selfrepairing abilities akin to those expressed by its cellular equivalents in nature, but there the inherent need of artificial cell structures to fulfill the entire role of a biological cell in the network is also expressed. Computer-aided simulation results prove that this kind of 3D coarse-fine-grid approach is well feasible physically therefore the model has been implemented into a computing platform made of custom reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processors.

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Several cities in the country have experienced the rapidly-growing period for more than two decades. New technologies are playing an important role in the green building performance encouraging new architects, engineers and investors in choosing ecological materials. Referring to the European Commission and building codes, recent regulations of local plans for various municipalities emphasize in particular the environmental improvements in urban areas, especially areas with cultural heritage. The scope of this study is to highlight the wood applications as a green material for the construction/restoration phase in residential buildings, dwellings, interior spaces, façades and multifunctional buildings in the urban environment.

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Damage induced on soybean by Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is easily recognizable. We were curious to know whether, in addition to this visual and quantitative damage, change occurs also in the nutritional value of the harvested product.

The Weendei analysis showed that as compared to the healthy items, the protein content (P=0.048) of the miteinjured seeds as well as their composition (P=0.048) has changed. No significant changes in the raw fat content could be confirmed by the statistical results of the study (P=0.643). Concerning the contents of raw ash (P=0.069) and raw fibre (P=0.859), there were no significant differences.

Three distinct changes in protein structure were confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Substantially less 69 kDa protein was detectable in the infested soybean, whereas no 48 kDa protein was present in the control sample; it only appeared in the infested ones. There was a higher amount of 30 kDa protein in the infested stock. In summary, alteration in the protein structure was caused by T. urticae, and changes were triggered in the protein content of the affected soybean plants. The protein structure-change in damaged soybean items caused further decline in the feed consuming capacity of farm animals.

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The aim of the study was to determine and compare the collagen profile of two beef carcass cuts: silverside (M. semitendinosus) and strip loin (M. longissimus lumborum), originated from Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls of the black and white variety. Silverside showed higher total, acid-soluble, total soluble, and insoluble collagen content than strip loin. Significant differences between silverside and strip loin were noted in their share of water-soluble and acid-soluble collagen (% total collagen, P<0.05). The thermal treatment caused cooking losses, which reached 38% in strip loin and 40% in silverside. There were no significant differences in shear force values or organoleptic quality between the cuts, which indicates their similar usefulness as meat for roasting. The content and profile of intramuscular collagen did not influence the organoleptic quality or shear force values of silverside and strip loin.

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Revealed comparative advantages are widely used by the global literature to analyse international trade flows, though agricultural trade is usually neglected in empirical works. Moreover, the determinants of revealed comparative advantages are scarcely investigated. This article analyses revealed comparative advantages in European Union’s cheese trade from 1990 to 2013 and identifies its determinants by using panel data econometrics. Results suggest that GDP/capita, geographical indication, and EU membership are positively, while foreign direct investment (FDI) is negatively related to revealed comparative advantages.

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Authors: N. Hromiš, B. Šojić, V. Lazić, N. Džinić, A. Mandić, V. Tomović, S. Kravić, S. Škaljac, S. Popović and D. Šuput

The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of chitosan coating with the addition of caraway essential oil and beeswax on lipid oxidation protection, as well as aroma and water content preservation of traditional dry fermented Petrovská klobása sausage.

During the entire storage period, TBARS index value in coated sausage was lower compared to the control (P<0.05). After two months of storage, TBARS index value in control and coated sausages were 0.94±0.04 mg kg–1 and 0.66±0.03 mg kg–1, while after seven months of storage, these values were 0.82±0.05 mg kg–1 and 0.67±0.02 mg kg–1, respectively. While content of saturated aliphatic aldehydes increased in control sausage (P<0.05), it remained unchanged in coated sausage during 7 months of storage. Lipid oxidation protective effect could be correlated to higher marks for aroma of coated sausage during the entire storage period (P<0.05). Coating slowed moisture loss of coated sausage compared to the control (P<0.05).

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The influence of storage time on different quality parameters and in vitro antioxidant activity of peaches cv. Elegant Lady harvested at two ripening stages (immature and commercial mature) and stored under cold and marketing conditions were assessed. Destructive (physical-chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and firmness) and non-destructive parameters (colour and index of absorbance difference, IAD) were assessed.

Storage and ripening stage influenced firmness, colour, and antioxidant activity. Firmness decreased significantly during cold and marketing storage, and skin colour parameters, a* and b*, underwent a deepening of the red hue, while IAD values fully justified differences in colour over storage time and ripening stage. The antioxidant activity increased during storage, although polyphenols and ascorbic acid contents remained constant, and was higher in commercial mature fruit than immature peaches, that revealed a ratio of total sugars/total acids more equilibrated.

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Turkey’s and several Middle East countries’ people consume “leblebi”, which is a traditional snack food made from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Leblebi processing steps caused significant decrease (P<0.05) in moisture and carbohydrate fractions. The dietary fibre contents were also reduced through leblebi processing steps. Dehulling process caused reduction in cellulose from 2.6 to 1.3%, whereas increase in acid detergent lignin content from 0.27 to 0.85% was observed. The mineral analysis results have shown that leblebi samples supply macro and micro nutrients required in the human diet.

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High levels of peptides can accumulate in tissues of legumes during germination. In this study, effects of germination conditions (pH, temperature, and time) on protease activity and peptides accumulation in soybean were investigated. The desirable level scope of parameters was used to further optimise germination conditions for peptides accumulation using response surface methodology. Results showed that protease activity and peptides yield were significantly influenced by pH, temperature, and time (P<0.05). The optimal pH, temperature, and time for protease activity were 5, 25 °C, and 6 days, respectively. Meanwhile, the optimal pH, temperature, and time for peptides content were 5, 30 °C, and 5 days, respectively. Box–Behnken design indicated the following optimal germination conditions: pH 4.8, temperature 29 °C, and time 5 days. Under these conditions, the highest peptides content (14.46 mg g–1 FW) in germinated soybean was obtained. The present study indicates that germinated soybean can be a valuable component of peptides-enriched foods.

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Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from tungrymbai, a traditional fermented soybean product of Meghalaya, India and assessed for their probiotic properties. Survival under simulated gastric conditions was tested and five acid tolerant strains were selected. By using 16S rDNA sequencing, these isolates were confirmed to be Enterococcus species. The strains exhibited good survivability in high concentrations of bile salts. The strains were susceptible to antibiotics and they were also found to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The strains were gelatinase negative and non-haemolytic. The strains also assimilated cholesterol up to a certain level. The study confirmed that all identified five strains have in vitro probiotic properties.

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Authors: R.T. Mócsai, A. Maczó, C. Grünwald-Gruber, K. Majer-Baranyi, N. Adányi, P. Milotay, J. Czelecz and R. Tömösközi-Farkas

Investigation of putative allergens from tomato berries is challenging as differences between human serum IgE specificity and reactivity as well as the non-specific binding of the primary and secondary antibodies often cause difficulties. In this study five tomato cultivars were investigated to evaluate their potential allergenicity in Hungarian tomato sensitive patients. The major allergens proved to be low molecular weight proteins, but several previously described allergens could be identified as well using IgE-Western blotting. IgE binding to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was ruled out through the use of CCD inhibitor, but non-specific binding of the secondary antibody remained an issue. IgE binding activity of a purified, immunoblot positive protein (band at 40 kDa), and non-specific binding of the secondary antibody to the same protein, was demonstrated with an Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) based immunosensor. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed this protein is an as-yet undescribed vicilin-type putative allergen.

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With the aim to determine the influence of packaging in preserving the quality of wine, in this research project the chemical and sensorial evolution of a red wine stored in different packaging materials (glass bottles vs multilayer Tetrabriks®) has been evaluated over a period of 12 months. Furthermore, two different temperature levels (4 and 20 °C) for each packaging solution were maintained throughout the storage period.

The results show how the characteristics of packaging could deeply affect wine quality as a function of the storage conditions used, and suggest that with their rational optimization the quality of red wine during storage can be kept and its shelf life extended. In this context, the kinetic characterization of the time evolution of some chemical compounds that can be assumed as indexes of wine oxidation rate could enhance the consumer’s enjoyment during tasting.

Under the adopted experimental conditions, the rate of wine aging was higher when the storage temperature increased. Furthermore, after 12 months of storage at room temperature, the glass bottles generally better preserved red wine from oxidation than multilayer Tetrabriks®.

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Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune, gluten-related disorder occurring in genetically predisposed individuals. The keystone to CD management is a gluten-free diet (GFD). Recently, media have been promoting the application of a GFD, however, this is necessary only in gluten-related disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge on CD among individuals, who conducted a self-administered coeliac disease test. Three hundred adult volunteers took part both in the anti-tissue transglutaminase screening and the survey concerning knowledge on CD. Five positive CD tests were obtained, representing 1.67% of the analysed population. In general, the questionnaire respondents were familiar with the issue of CD. The majority of them correctly defined CD as gluten intolerance, and realized that it may occur at any age. Gastrointestinal problems were easily associated with CD, however, extraintestinal symptoms were less frequently recognized as a manifestation of this disease. A GFD was properly identified as a method of treating CD by 95% of the respondents. Self-administered, transglutaminasebased screened persons presented a good level of knowledge on CD, regardless of their gender, place of residence, or education. However, dissemination of knowledge is needed, as CD is still an underestimated problem.

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We used an alternative approach, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, to detect Mangalitza component in food products, and it has been compared to an established Recombinase Polymerase Amplification test. The correlation between the assays was significant (P<0.01). Linear determination coefficient between the assays was 0.993 and level of diagnostic agreement was high (Kappa=0.971).

Previously, a real-time PCR method based on TaqMan probe was developed (Szántó-Egész et al., 2013) for detection of Mangalitza meat in food products, using a Mangalitza specific sequence. Other Mangalitza specific sequences suitable for the same purpose are also in use (V. Stéger, personal communication).

Approaches like real-time monitoring of accumulation of the specific DNA product usually require specialised laboratory equipment. For Mangalitza detection, portable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) approach has been developed (Szántó-Egész et al., 2016), which requires a device capable of maintaining 39 °C and a lateral flow strip with easy yes/no indication of the successful amplification.

We wanted to develop another fast, non-PCR based test with minimal laboratory requirement to provide a third possibility to detect Mangalitza component in food.

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In the present work, three volatile Maillard reaction products (maltol, furfuryl alcohol, and furfural) were considered for their supposed ability to act as process markers of dry durum wheat pasta. Hence, a commodity investigation was performed on Made in Italy pasta products and the HS-SPME/GC-MS technique was adopted to detect the target compounds in sixty samples. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate whether the relative abundance of the flavour compounds can differentiate pasta samples processed through mild technologies (traditional methods) from that submitted to intense thermal stress during their elaboration (industrial methods). Results showed that the analysed products were efficiently discriminated according to their claimed manufacturing method by maltol, furfuryl alcohol, and furfural, which thus can serve as reliable pasta process indicators.

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Authors: Z. Naar, N. Adányi, I. Bata-Vidács, R. Tömösközi-Farkas and R. Tömösközi-Farkas
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Authors: Á. Tóth, E. Baka, Sz. Luzics, I. Bata-Vidács, I. Nagy, B. Bálint, R. Herczeg, F. Olasz, T. Wilk, T. Nagy, B. Kriszt, I. Nagy and J. Kukolya

Thermobifidas are thermophilic, aerobic, lignocellulose decomposing actinomycetes. The Thermobifida genus includes four species: T. fusca, T. alba, T. cellulosilytica, and T. halotolerans. T. fusca YX is the far best characterized strain of this taxon and several cellulases and hemicellulases have been cloned from it for industrial purposes targeting paper industry, biofuel, and feed applications. Unfortunately, sequence data of such enzymes are almost exclusively restricted to this single species; however, we demonstrated earlier by zymography that other T. alba and T. cellulosilytica strains encode the same enzyme sets. Recently, the advances in whole genome sequencing by the use of next generation genomics platforms accelerated the selection process of valuable hydrolases from uncharacterized bacterial species for cloning purposes. For this purpose T. cellulosilytica TB100T type strain was chosen for de novo genome sequencing. We have assembled the genome of T. cellulosilytica strain TB100T into 168 contigs and 19 scaffolds, with reference length of 4 327 869 bps, 3 589 putative coding sequences, 53 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. The analysis of the annotated genome revealed the existence of 27 putative hydrolases belonging to 14 different glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. The investigation of identified, cloned, and heterologously multiple cellulases, mannanases, xylanases, and amylases may result in industrial applications beside gaining useful basic research related information.

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The utilization of potato waste liquid instead of synthetic substrates for lactic acid production cannot only reduce the production cost but also makes the process environment effective. Unlike many lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid producing Rhizopus strains generates L(+) lactic acid as a sole isomer of lactic acid. Furthermore, some Rhizopus spp. are amylolytic in nature and can produce lactic acid from starchy substrates without prior saccharification. This study aimed at the utilization of potato waste liquid for the production of L(+) lactic acid using amylolytic Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 8784. The effect of media components and process parameters on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of potato waste liquid by fungal strain has been studied to maximize the production of L(+) lactic acid. The results revealed that highest lactic acid production (15.5 g l–1) was obtained with potato waste liquid containing 30 g l–1 starch supplemented with soya okara hydrolysate (1.5%, v/v), calcium carbonate (1.5%, w/v), and salts. In terms of process parameters, the maximum L(+) lactic acid (18.15 g l–1) production was obtained at pH 6 with temperature 30 °C, agitation of 150 r.p.m., after incubation period of 48 h.

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In the process of design and operation of sewerage system are used empirical formulas, which are in many cases, become obsolete and unusable when somebody can use nowadays modern technologies and materials. Therefore there is the possibility of using the mathematical models enormous importance for the enhanced environmental protection with the lowest operating and investment costs. In this modern method of analyzing of sewers has been designated as the first object, the object sedimentation tank. The purpose of the primary and secondary settling tank is to ensure the reduction of concentration the floating solids.

For the solution of research work has been chosen, after consultations with representatives of the Western Slovakia Water Company as interesting object of sedimentation tank located on the waste water treatment plant Nitra - Dolné Krškany.

Measurements on the object settlement tank situated at waste water treatment plant Nitra confirmed the expected speed parameters of the sewage in the tank. The velocity of wastewater is in the most cases very low, and even insignificant. However, finding that the sludge cloud has a non-standard form of a double wave gives the opportunity to optimize the operation of facilities sedimentation tank. The measured parameters are used as calibration parameters to input to the mathematical simulations, which are created by software ANSYS fluent.

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For open channels significant pollution sources during the intensive precipitations are outflows from storm-water overflows on the sewer network. When combined with low discharges in rivers, the water released from overflows can cause high concentration of pollution in receiving open channels. In this paper, the results of computer modeling of the impact of storm-water overflows on the stream water quality in three municipalities in Czech Republic are shown. The local river networks are the main receivers in the cities where storm-water overflows are led in. The results serve as a base for the proposals on the measures, improvements and structural modifications.

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The main objective of this paper is to classify the techniques of parametric design, and to make the existing classification system more exact. The previously created classification was based on shape and logical aspects, which granted a good approach for parametric design techniques and helped providing an overview. However this system, for the sake of scientific precision, needed further darification at points. In this paper a more precise classification is shown, which is based on the interpretation of patterns as graphs. This enables their topology to be studied in a more exact, mathematical way.

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Point cloud based modeling has become widely used in recent years in the engineering practice. This paper presents several point clouds produced by different software packages using pixel based multi view spatial reconstruction. The purpose of the investigation is to give statistical quality measures beyond the apparent differences between the point clouds. Reference measurements have been carried out by terrestrial laser scanning. There are proprietary and free software solutions among the tested programs.

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Flash floods are becoming a phenomenon that troubles people more and more often in many Slovak under-mountain regions and society needs to deal with these extreme natural events. This article is showing an example of mathematical modeling of flood protection measures in Small Carpathians region. To secure flood protection, detention reservoirs have been proposed, because of their automatic function that is important due to rapid progress of flash floods. As a base for this project a previous work that attempted to reconstruct the flood has been used. HEC-RAS 4.1.0 software package was used for numerical modeling, which includes flood mitigation calculation. Six variants of proposed detention reservoirs were created and checked by a design flood wave that was created according to rainfall with recurrence period of 100 years. All of the proposed detention reservoirs have exact proportions needed to secure flood protection including height of the dam, length of the dam in crest, type and dimension of outlet and dimensions of emergency spillways. The modeling included flood wave passing during several situations - normal function of detention reservoirs, blocked outlet and dam break. This study should be considered as a base for future flood protection project. An extensive terrain survey has been performed in frame of this project.

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The aim of the paper is to investigate the hygrothermal properties of a newly developed ultra-lightweight polystyrene concrete, based on laboratory measurements. It describes the measuring process of thermal conductivities, and determines the declared thermal conductivity. The temperature and moisture conversion coefficients are determined, and new approximate functions are introduced. The paper describes the sorption and desorption isotherms, and gives polynomial approximate functions. The paper also investigates the temperature dependency of sorption curves. It determines the water absorption coefficient and the free water saturation. Furthermore, it describes the measuring process of the water vapor permeability. The water vapor resistance factor and water vapor diffusion-equivalent air layer thickness are calculated.

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Creating of indoor environment in the work area in industrial buildings should be based on cooperation between heating and ventilation. However, practice shows that this is not truth in many cases. Both professions are many times designed separately. Result is their noncooperation leading to a mutual obstruction in terms of disposal location or functional operation of the systems. Creating a heating and ventilation system, which would both be designed in accordance with applicable legislation and it would create an optimal indoor environment for people in working area, to find solution in combination of radiant heating with ventilation air recovery unit.

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Indoor air quality is a major part of indoor environmental quality and plays an important role in creating sustainable and healthy indoor environments. Well-being, health and comfort are affected by indoor air quality. The measurements that are introduced in this research paper were used to record the results of three different residential interiors. These data are a part of a larger scale research project that included the evaluation of residential buildings, offices, university interiors and for instance nurseries. The reason behind conducting the measurements in these interiors was that in all of the examples inadequate indoor air quality and therefore human discomfort, illness and also building failure occurred.

In this paper the theoretical background of the research and the measurement of indoor air quality (indoor air temperature, relative humidity level and carbon dioxide level) will be introduced. The poor indoor air quality in these buildings is a result of a complex system. The thermal bridges of the facade cause cold interior surfaces, the airtight solutions cause high relative humidity levels. These two combined result in mould appearance. Besides, the lack of appropriate ventilation rate can be the third part of the reason behind poor indoor air quality.

Based on the results of the measurement data, different solutions are suggested in each case to improve indoor environmental and air quality, in accordance with creating healthier indoor environments.

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It is a viable alternative to automatically generate Java source code based on the specification provided by the associated unit tests. This possibility may seem far-fetched in the general case, but after considering the most common restrictions, which are applied nowadays as best practice, it turns out that a significant part of the production code can be generated automatically. The goal is to generate viable implementations, which fulfill the requirements imposed by unit tests. According to the presented vision the modern test frameworks, development guidelines and computational capacities make it possible to reach this goal.

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The paper presents a photovoltaic system auto sizing algorithm with irradiance and shading calculation, which uses the photovoltaic geographical information system database. This calculation step is a very labor intensive task, which require a lot of iterative design time to find the optimum alternative. Based on measurement data, monthly irradiance correction matrixes are simulated to completely describe the yearly irradiance loss caused by shading of the nearby objects. As result, a function between the shaded area and the yearly energy loss can be obtained. Furthermore, photovoltaic modules can be auto-allocated on a given area according to the boundary conditions. Taking into consideration the photovoltaic installers’ pricing system, a complete photovoltaic auto-sizing algorithm can be presented, which greatly reduces the time spent on quotation writing. This paper also includes a battery energy storage sizing algorithm according to the given economic conditions, which extends the capability of the photovoltaic system auto-sizing algorithm.

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Authors: Dániel Benjámin Sándor, Anita Szabó, Ernő Fleit, Zoltán Bakacsi and Gergő Zajzon

Phase separation process is influenced by operational factors that can hardly be controlled. This paper demonstrates the results of a series of experiments aiming to solve these problems using polyvinyl-alcohol - poly-acrylic acid copolymer hydrogel micro-carrier for the adherence of microorganisms to achieve better settling properties of the biomass. The nitrification process was examined using hydrogel micro-carriers and conventional activated sludge flocks. The sedimentation properties of the two systems were compared indifferent conditions. Results show that the sedimentation properties of the immobilized system were more favorable than activated sludge flocks.

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In 2013 Typhoon Haiyan, the largest typhoon ever recorded in the Philippines, devastated several portions of the country. This resulted in more than 7,000 deaths and thousands of people were misplaced or were made homeless. The aim of this study is to design and produce a transitional shelter prototype, for the victims of typhoon Haiyan. The shelter is affordable, easy to construct using basic tools and that can provide maximum space for a family of five while being able to withstand an onslaught on another incoming typhoon. Furthermore, this paper presents a design concept for a transitional shelter incorporating the Bent Method of construction while only using locally sourced coco lumber and actual validation on a full scale prototype. In order to achieve this objective, site analysis as well as consultations and interviews with the victims were being done and the results evaluated. Second, the conceptual designs as well as the method are presented to the local government and the beneficiaries of the shelter to obtain feedback. Third, the construction of a prototype was then employed to evaluate the construction conditions as well as the spatial considerations for the users. The proposed shelter used only locally sourced materials, manpower and simple tools for a family of five members. Finally, a post evaluation analysis was conducted in order to obtain feedback on the performance of the shelter and provide future knowledge in improving the design and its use. This study shows how due to the design of the shelter, the families were able to develop their own spaces as well as make subtle design alterations according to their expanding needs. Results from these studies reveal that by understanding the needs of the users, the design and methodology of the ‘I-Siguro Da-an’ transitional shelter was effective and practical in providing temporary housing for the victims of the typhoon.

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The application of a deformation-based analytical approach is presented in this paper to calculate the strength-increase of axially loaded circular columns, strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer and reinforced concrete jackets.

A short introduction of the calculation methodology is presented and the adopted basic assumptions are briefly explained. Through a trial-and-error type iterative procedure the magnitude of confining stresses and the confined strength of core material are determined, based on the compatibility of lateral deformations of the core column and the jacket-wall.

The accuracy of the proposed model for circular sections is demonstrated with a comparison with 149 test results.

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Creating typology is a comparative method to investigate the physical or other characteristics of the built environment. It can be a useful instrument to facilitate the thermal performance assessment of existing buildings. Heat material’s resistance and construction techniques play a significant role in energy performance of buildings. It is influenced by many factors, such as ambient weather conditions, building structure, and heating, ventilation and airconditioning systems.

The study was focused on analyzing five types of residential buildings at the center of the Sulaimani city (north of Iraq) to assess the energy performance of the building types and comparing results with dynamic analyses, using IDA ICE 4.7.1 software. The results revealed that the thermal performance of the buildings is mostly influenced by the variations in the construction techniques and materials.

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Traffic control strategies of signalized circular intersections are analyzed in this article after a brief overview of traffic lights in roundabouts. A detailed description was made on the ‘direct’ mode of operation of the Hungarian regulation describing three types of control program. Finally a comparison of traffic performance is given based on the main geometric features and parameters of the signal programs with a description of the signal plan structure. The PTV Vissim environment was used to examine and evaluate the performance of each combination through the average delay per vehicle resulting proposals for the application as well as for further studies in subject.

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In the research area of healthier meat products a possible trend is to replace high energy density fat in formulations with substances providing less energy than fat. The aim of the producers is to obtain a product having maximum yield with similar or same organoleptic properties and structure like well-known full-fat analogues. Properties of high fat products can be restored with the use of different fat substitutes, non-meat protein, and/or hydrocolloids or starch, owing to their stabilization abilities, fat coating, and water binding, respectively. The review is aimed to summarize the effect of different fat substitutes on the processing quality, textural characteristics, and sensory properties of comminuted meat products with low lipid content.

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Chakaiya variety of amla was investigated for its phenolic contents, and extracted phenolics from amla powder were evaluated for their antioxidant activity. RSM (response surface methodology) was used to determine the optimum conditions for maximum recovery of total phenolic content (TPC) and 2,6-diphenyl picryl hydrazil free radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity. The gelatine coating on banana slices before frying significantly reduced (approximately 60%) the fat uptake from oil during frying in comparison to control. The reduction of particle size to the nano range was found to be effective to load the antioxidants effectively. Antioxidant extracted from amla reduced the rate of oxidation of oil during frying and so it may be a better alternative of synthetic antioxidant in food products.

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Authors: Kerti K. Badakné, L. Szalóki-Dorkó, Zs. Zalán, N. Adányi and K. Takács
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Extracts from lo-han-kuo (Siraitia grosvenorii) are of high sweetness and low calories, and they have been widely used as a natural sweetener to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes. In the current study, lo-han-kuo extracts were extracted using subcritical water under different operation condition. The study revealed that the optimal extracting parameters were: extraction time of 20 min, extraction temperature of 140 °C, and the addition of 15% ethanol. Antioxidant activity, contents of total flavonoids, and total phenolic compounds of lo-han-kuo extracts were also investigated. A mathematical model was established to describe the relationship between antioxidant capacity and content of bioactive components in lo-han-kuo extract, and it was found that antioxidant capacity of the extracts was mainly attributed to the yields of total mogrosides (P<0.05).

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The aim of the publication is the computer aided designing process of the X-zero gear drive. Determination of the geometric parameters and correlations are necessary for the designing process. A computer program has been carried out for the designing process, using which an arbitrary X-zero gear drive could be analysed and modelled. Using this program a concrete geometric gear drive is designed. The CAD models are designed for later connection, geometric and tooth contact (TCA) analysis.

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Fluidized bed dryers are widely used in several fields of industry. Sufficiently accurate thermal models provide an opportunity to increase the effectiveness of dryers. The required size of a fluidized bed dryer can be defined with the application of mathematical model. This work is aimed at developing mathematical model to investigate the influence of operating parameters in a fluidized bed dryer using volumetric heat transfer coefficient. After the defining the input parameters of the differential equations, the required entry length of the dryer which effective heat and mass transfer between gas and particles takes place can be estimated. The correct estimation of the entry length is useful in optimal design of a fluidized bed dryer. Using the model the impact of the drying parameters can be determined to the required length.

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The special active agent content makes suitable herbals for healing and health preservation. The key element in herbs and spices processing is drying. The required low moisture content of medicinal plants to storage can be achieved only by applying drying equipment at Hungarian climatic conditions. The extent of the dryer capacity defines the processing capacity of the factory. During the daily operation can easily occur bottleneck, when large amount of herbs are transported to the factory, which is above the drying capacity — various plants unexpected simultaneous flowering, weather emergency, extraordinary collecting, etc. The aim of the manuscript is to determinate operational data at herbs pre-drying with low temperature air by measurements. This work defines the drying rate, the volume decrease and the drying air velocity for various medicinal plants at drying with ambient air.

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Author: Ferenc Kalmár
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Microwave vacuum drying is a novel and mild food preserving technology. Beside its basic preserving function, it can be combined with other technologies, like hot-air drying. As a result of this combination, special snack can be produced from apple. The product is characterized by its unique consistency, high nutritional value, and consumer preference. In this work physical (dry mass content, hardness, bulk density, and colour), sensory (appearance, colour, odour, taste, texture) and nutritional (antioxidant activity and total phenolics) properties of dried apple snack were investigated as a function of pre-drying, microwave energy input, and batch weight. For evaluation of data, central composite experimental design was applied. According to the results, the physical properties of products produced by microwave vacuum drying combined with hot-air pre-drying (CMVD) mainly depend on the specific energy input. Higher specific energy input results higher dry mass content, which is associated with harder consistency, lower bulk density, and positive consumer perception as well. Bulk density had an optimum point of batch weight at 336 g. Higher value of pre-dried dry mass content resulted lighter colour but less antioxidant activity and less total phenolics, therefore shorter hot-air drying and prolonged microwave vacuum drying is recommended.

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The laboratory investigations of the heat transfer properties of wall structures are very significant from the point of view of designing the buildings. In this article measurements and calculations will be presented in order to manifest the effect of the forced and un-forced convection of air at the cold surface of the wall. A steady-state method for measuring the thermal resistance of wall structures with Hukseflux apparatus is presented in this article. The measurements were accomplished through, firstly on an un-insulated inbuilt plaster/brick/plaster wall construction and later it was covered with a 0.013 m thick aerogel layer blanket. Aerogels are nanoporous lightweight materials, were discovered more than 70 years ago. In these years their applications are truly spread over. During the investigations the wall structures were tested without forcing the air to motion, and then measurements were carried both on the insulated and un-insulated wall structures, where the movement of the air was forced by a ventilator from three different directions with the same 1 m/s velocity near the wall.

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The appropriate number of washing cycles for obtaining most of the surimi-like materials is not well defined in literature. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the number of washing cycles (one, two, or four) on the quality of surimi-like material obtained from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) using the bleaching method with sodium bicarbonate. The product was evaluated based on its chemical and physical characteristics. The chemical compositions of samples showed an increase in protein (45.7 to 89.9%, dry basis) and decrease in fat (49.1 to 7.0%, dry basis) contents, while the moisture content increased from 69.5 to 79.1% after four washing cycles. Washing diminished yield. Gel prepared with MDCM washed once showed the lowest gel strength (507.1 g.cm). It thereafter increased to 546.0 and 602.7 g.cm after double and quadruple washings, respectively. Higher content of myofibrillar proteins and higher whiteness were also obtained after successive washings. It was concluded that four washing cycles was the most appropriate method for producing surimi-like material from MDCM.

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It was determined that amounts of chlorogenic acid, tyrosine, and tryptophan in potato tubers depend on meteorological conditions, farming type, individual properties of a variety, and interaction of these factors (P<0.05). It was noted in 2011 that organically grown potato tubers accumulated significantly higher amounts of chlorogenic acid, tyrosine, and tryptophan derivatives than conventionally grown tubers, while in 2012 the opposite was observed (P<0.01). Such results are due to the different meteorological conditions during the survey years.

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Authors: L. Hajas, K. A. Scherf, Zs. Bugyi, K. Török, E. Schall, P. Köhler and S. Tömösközi

In special dietary products for people intolerant to gluten, gluten content is not supposed to exceed the regulatory thresholds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are routinely used to quantitate gluten in these products. They measure gliadin/gluten with high specificity and sensitivity, but they have some limitations. Quantitative and qualitative variability of the target proteins among wheat cultivars is a factor that may cause inaccurate results. One of the aims of this work was to characterize the protein composition of five wheat cultivars grown in multiple harvest years and their blends by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The gliadin/gluten content of these wheat flours was also analysed with two commercial ELISA kits. The effect of differences in protein profiles between the flours from an individual cultivar and the blend of five cultivars, harvest years, as well as processing procedures (dough forming and baking) on the results of two ELISA kits was investigated and their relative magnitude was determined. Among the factors investigated, the differences between flours had the greatest impact on gliadin recoveries.

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Nowadays other aspects of motivation are also displayed, including in relation to organizational culture. Visible and invisible elements of organizational culture have an impact on performance of workers. Shared values and knowledge by employees are resulting a strong organizational culture. The better the organizational culture, the higher level of motivation is manifested among employees. According to the observations, if in an organization there is a strong organizational culture with gratitude and recognition towards employees, this will cause the strengthening of motivation and significant performance improvements. The objective our study is examining the relationship between organizational culture and motivation and how dimensions of organizational culture motivate employees of the organization.

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The paper presents a fault-tolerant digital system design and development strategy for high reliability hardware architectures implementation. Starting from the general consideration that digital hardware systems play a key role in a large scale of control systems implementation, a triple modular redundancy (TMR) solution it is proposed for development. For this reason, the well-known 1 bit majority voter configuration has been extended and generalized to the full control bus of a digital control system. Computer simulations show that the proposed hardware solution fulfills in all the theoretical expectations and it can be used for experimental tests and implementation. The presented design solution and conclusions are well suited to generalization for a wide range of fault-tolerant digital systems development ranging from reliable and safety servo control applications up to high reliability parallel and distributed computing hardware architectures.

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Honey is a valued substance that has excellent nutritional value. However, it is a vulnerable product, with the possibility of adulteration at each stage of its production and processing, in terms of direct and indirect adulteration. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding of honey-bee colonies with honey-bee candy results in honey adulteration. The physicochemical properties of honey samples were determined, and the ability to discriminate between authentic and adulterated honey was studied. The physicochemical properties evaluated were water and hydroxymethylfurfural content, electrical conductivity, pH value, acidity, foreign enzymes, and stable isotopes. Sensory and melissopalynological analysis were also performed on 39 honey samples. β-fructofuranosidase activity, δ13C (honey), difference between the δ13C of the honey and of its protein (i.e. Δδ13C) were identified as the most important to discriminate between authentic and adulterated honey samples. The results of the study indicate that honey-bee feeding practices might have an influence on honey and its adulteration.

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Sliced ready-to-eat traditional meat products presented in individual packaging with more convenience to the consumer is the way that food industry tries to adapt to the new consumer tendencies.

The current work assessed the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in a contaminated sliced vacuum packed chouriço with different sugar concentrations, two salt levels, and presence/absence of Lactobacillus sakei as starter culture along the storage period at two temperatures (8 °C and 22 °C). Neither the inoculation with L. sakei, nor the addition of carbohydrates influenced the survival of the pathogen. Higher amount of salt resulted in a significant reduction of L. monocytogenes, and storage at the higher temperature displayed a safer product. After 7 days, L. monocytogenes was not detected in any samples. The study of the association of the factors contributing for L. monocytogenes survival by logistic regression showed that increasing the level of salt addition from 1.5% to 3% reduces the odds of survival of L. monocytogenes to about one fifth (0.174). Worthy of attention is the significant reduction in the odds (OR=0.028) of finding viable L. monocytogenes when the samples are stored at room temperature (22 °C), when compared to low temperature (8 °C).

The general and indiscriminate use of refrigeration for meat products might increase the risk of presence of L. monocytogenes. The competitive advantage that L. monocytogenes has at low temperatures, as the potential inhibition of LAB activity, is probably the reason of the observed behaviour. The amount of salt was an important hurdle to control L. monocytogenes growth, so, manufacturing meat products with lower salt contents to meet the demands of healthy products might represent a risk for safety, since high levels of salt together with low aw are the keys for their conservation.

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In this paper phase change materials are presented, as effective thermal energy storage due to their great latent heat storing possibility. The main substance used for thermal energy storage purposes is water. Storing the energy with water is not that effective as with phase change materials, because the temperature of water has to change, and it worsen the heat exchange intensity. On the other hand, with phase change materials the temperature of the material does not have to change due to the latent heat storage possibilities. A buffer tank with two pipe coils filled with phase change materials is investigated with the aim to reduce the storage volume. An own thermodynamic model, a CFD simulation and an experimental system are presented. The models could be validated and the process of phase change could be examined with a life-size thermal energy storage system in the laboratory of the department. The performance of heat absorption and release of the phase change material could be calculated in the function of inlet water temperature and mass flow.

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Traditionally, triticale is mainly used as animal feed, the use for human utilization is still uncertain. However, in the past few decades, importance of triticale is increasing globally. Therefore, the determination of nutritionally important parameters of triticale and study of their genetic and environmental (G×E) variability have essential importance. In this study, ten hexaploid triticales along with reference wheat and rye varieties were grown at two locations in Hungary in a three-year-long experiment. Crude protein (8.6–16.3%), crude fat (0.86–1.98%), starch (57.6–65.0%), and dietary fibre values (7.5–13.7%) showed notable differences, significant genotype control were detected in all tested parameters except ash content (1.42–2.10%). The analysis of variance confirmed that crop year affected all traits, and also location had significant effect on the formation of protein and – to a lesser extent – the fibre levels. Furthermore, interactions between the effects were observed. Generally, nutritional characteristics of triticales were positioned between wheat and rye in this experiment; however, there were notable differences between the genotypes, and also the magnitudes of environmental effects were significant. Nutritional values of triticale provide a prospect for food production and human consumption.

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