The aim of this publication is to show the process of computer aided designing of the spur gear pairs having normal and modified straight teeth. For designing, the determination of the geometrical parameters is needed. Computer programs have been developed with which gear pairs having normal and modified teeth, with any arbitrary parameters can be analysed, designed and modelled. With these programs gear pairs having concrete geometry have been designed and CAD models have also been drawn to have further meshing, geometrical and TCA (Tooth Contact Analysis).
Segmentation is one of important methods in medical images processing, particularly as it allows images to be analysed. The method used for segmentation depends on the image problem to be resolved. In this research, knee cartilage needs to be segmented to determine the level of the Osteoarthritis (OA) and for further treatment. Knee cartilage is a soft hyline sponge that is located at the end of the femur, tibia and patella bone to release friction during movement. OA is a knee cartilage problem wherein there is a thinning of the cartilage that results in a shift especially happening between femur and tibia bone causing discomfort and pain. Thinning of the knee cartilage is due to many factors such as age, body weight, genetic, accident, sport injury and extreme use such as physical work. OA can occur to a male or female, child or adult. The effects experienced by patients with OA are such as difficulty to walk, limited movement, and pain in the thin cartilage areas. Monitoring of patients' condition needs to be done to help reduce the problem and thereby enable specialists to perform the appropriate treatment. Imaging is a method used today to monitor the condition of patients with OA. Previous studies showed that MRI is a suitable method for monitoring the condition of patients with OA because of its advantages in visualising knee cartilage more clearly than other imaging methods. Thus, for segmenting the knee cartilage which as mentioned before is an important process in medical images processing, the MR images were selected based on many factors. Segmentation in this study was aimed to obtain the cartilage region to diagnose patient OA level. Various segmentation techniques have been developed by researchers in segmenting the knee cartilage region but they have been unable to segment precisely due to the thin structure of the knee cartilage, especially for patients with intermediate and severe OA. COMSeg technique was developed to segment knee cartilage, especially for those experiencing a normal and intermediate OA and try to implement it to severe OA. The development of this new technique takes into account the imaging method used, the images feature obtained so it can be suitable to process knee image and then selection of an appropriate technique to be applied to the selected images as input.
Human beings live in a complex and magical system of nature. The constitution of everything is like the structure science of architecture, which presents various forms and combinations. The development of structure science makes modern architecture show the high unity of internal structure and external contour. Through the study of branch networks formed by rivers, the mystery of branch growth can be found, for instance fractal self-similarity, preferential growth at the tops, avoidance of homogeneity, etc. Based on the understanding of branch ecosystem, everyone can try to build a sustainable surface structure by mimicking the laws of river network.
Every year the library of IIUM subscribes to quite a number of online databases with huge expenses but the utilization of these databases is countable. 10 out of 53 subscriptions have been terminated by 2015 to save the cost go in vain. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model based on the ISB elements to identify the reason behind this low usage and to increase the usage of online databases in the future. It has undertaken a quantitative approach to identify the elements of ISB among undergraduate (UG) students. The primary data has been collected through questionnaires based on the variables identified in the objective. There are 118 samples participating in this research and the proposed model has been adapted from Savolainen and Wilson. Psychological perception, searching strategies and the information resources have been considered as the independent variable and measured the usage of the online database among UG students as the dependent variable. The results have shown that there are seven elements which have an influence on the usage of the online database among IIUM UG students. Despite the limited number of samples and a specific group of students, the proposed model can enhance the usage of online database system subscribed to by IIUM library and a search engine can be developed to get the usage increased. In that sense, it is recommended to involve more participants from the different levels of students and users to get diverse elements of ISB. However, the paper contributes to bridging the gap between the online database usage and the users, believed to have an effective outcome for online database subscription. It is hoped that the proposed model would significantly fill this gap and help the library to increase the number of users for their expensive databases.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bioactive compounds (BACs): linalool (LIN) and piperine (PIP) on chicken meat characteristics. The meat was treated with 500, 1000 ppm of BACs, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C for 8 days. Physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), microbiological status, and sensorial (electronic-nose based) properties were investigated. Both BACs significantly increased the redness (a*) and chroma (C*) values in meat compared to increased lightness (L*) and higher TBARS in control. Although both BACs showed overlapping aroma profile, the E-nose was able to distinguish between the different meat groups. LIN with various dilution ratios, particularly 1:10 (v:v), showed in vitro growth inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Bacillus cereus, concomitantly Listeria monocytogenes required 1:80 (v:v) to be inhibited, and no inhibition was detected for Pseudomonas lundensis. In contrast, PIP at different dilutions did not exhibit inhibitory activity. Regarding aerobic mesophilic counts (AMC), less than 7 log CFU g−1 were recorded except for control showing higher log. Both BACs have potential to improve quality characteristics and increase the shelf life of meat and meat products.
The aim of this research is the analysis of the effect of the modification of the base profile angles of x-zero gear drives for the TCA parameters. We analyze the normal stress, the normal deformation and the normal elastic strain on the connecting zone of the gear pairs. Based on the received results we create diagrams which show the fluctuation of the analyzed TCA parameters in the function of the changing of the selected parameter of the x-zero gear drives. After the analysis we determine the consequences and select the appropriate variant.
Sustainability and scarcity in resources are the two major issues to be dealt within the present scenario by effective utilization of alternative materials. In this present study, an attempt has been taken to study the effect of supplementary materials such as fly ash and silica fume as a partial replacement to cement and steel slag and M-sand as a replacement to river sand on strength and durability of concrete. In this study, concrete specimens were prepared based on five different mixes by varying the percentages of these supplementary materials. Various mechanical properties like compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength were performed to ascertain the mix with optimum levels of replacement of supplementary materials for cement and fine aggregate. Durability property like water absorption test was performed on the mix with optimum values of strength. Results revealed that mix with higher percentages of steel slag, optimum level of silica fume and fly ash have shown higher strength and lesser permeability in concrete.
Some studies suggested a positive effect against cardiometabolic diseases of supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) rich foods in pathological subjects, even if the total literature is controversial. In order to clarify ALA-rich chia seed action in hypertensive model with the overt pathology and without drug interference, in the present study the biochemical markers of cardiometabolic diseases (endothelin-1, ET-1; nitric oxide, NO; and bradykinin, BK) in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs) were analysed after 5% chia seed dietary supplementation for five weeks, and compared with the staple raw material wheat and corn. At the end of the experimental period, also plasma antioxidant capacity and inflammatory condition were evaluated. Our results showed that the chia seed group was more oxidized. On the other hand, ET-1 significantly decreased in chia seed group, and there was no difference between groups for NO, BK, and the inflammatory C-reactive protein (CRP). In conclusion, some positive effects of chia seed consumption on cardiometabolic markers in SHRs were observed, despite this the association of chia seeds with antioxidants is suggested to avoid plasma oxidation increase.
In this study, the effects of onion skin powder (OSP) (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 6%) on some chemical and physical properties of cooked chicken meat patties during refrigerated storage (30 days, 4±1 °C) were investigated. For this purpose, moisture, fat, pH, free fatty acid (FFA), and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) analyses in the raw meat patties were also carried out. In addition, the chemical (moisture, fat), technological (diameter reduction, cooking yield), and sensory properties of cooked chicken patties were examined on the first day of storage. During storage, pH, colour, FFA, and TBA analyses were performed.
There were significant changes in the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory properties of chicken patties with OSP addition. The moisture, pH, and TBA values of samples decreased by incorporated OSP. Moreover, the use of OSP improved technological parameters of patties. However, the addition of OSP resulted in a darker colour in patties. In conclusion, OSP could be used in chicken meat patties to improve their quality properties.
This study empirically investigates the effects of the special, face to face supplier performance measurement system. Using supplier performance measurement system the supplier will have the possibility to make a self-assessment method through questionnaires according to different aspects. The customers make the same queries. After ranking from both sides, the results will be compared and confronted with the supplier. The effects on different areas and the nexus with supplier in the aftercare period will be examined in this study. The relation between the communication and reaction modes at the procurement side is deeply discussed.