Discover the Latest Journals in Architecture and Architectonics

Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing a building or structure, while architectonics is the scientific study of architecture itself. Architectural works are often considered important cultural symbols and works of art, and we often identify past civilizations with their architectural heritage.

Architecture and Architectonics

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Abstract

The ball and Plate (BaP) system is the typical example of the nonlinear dynamic system that is used in a wide range of engineering applications. So, many researchers in the control field are using the Bap system to check robust controllers under several points that challenge it, such as internal and external disturbances. Our manuscript proposed a position control intelligent technique with two directions (2D) for the BaP system by optimized multi Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC’s) with Chicken Swarm Optimization (CSO) for each one. The gains and rules of the FLC’s can tune based on the CSO. This proposal utilizes the ability of the FLC’s to observe the position of the ball. At our work, the BaP system that belonged to Control Laboratory/Systems and Control Engineering department is used for real-time proposal implementation. The results have been showing a very good percentage enhancement in settling time, rise time, and overshoot, of the X-axis and Y-axis, respectively.

Open access

Abstract

Many security vulnerabilities can be detected by static analysis. This paper is a case study and a performance comparison of four open-source static analysis tools and plugins (PMD, SpotBugs, Find Security Bugs, and SonarQube) on Java source code. Experiments have been conducted on the widely used Juliet Test Suite with respect to six selected weaknesses from the official Top 25 list of Common Weakness Enumeration. In this study, analysis metrics have been calculated for helping Java developers decide which tools can be used when checking their programs for security vulnerabilities. It turned out that particular weaknesses are best detected with particular tools.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Fahad Mohanad Kadhim, Muhammad Safa Al-Din Tahir, and Athmar Thamer Naiyf

Abstract

This study aims to increase the mechanical properties of the composite material manufactured by the lamination process. In this study, the lamination process will be implemented in two ways, and mechanical properties are compared between the two methods. The first method covers the lamination process under the influence of vacuum pressure only, while in the second method lamination process is achieved by the influence of vacuum pressure and vibrate by shaker device. The results showed that the endurance stress of fatigue increased by 18.18% for the material manufactured by the lamination process under the influence of vibration, while the yield stress and ultimate stress values remained roughly constant for both methods.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors: Orest Voznyak, Olena Savchenko, Nadiia Spodyniuk, Iryna Sukholova, Mariana Kasynets, and Oleksandr Dovbush

Abstract

The article is devoted to decision of actual task of air distribution efficiency increase due to swirled air jets application. The aim of the paper is investigation of swirled air jets, analytical dependencies obtaining for determination of the air velocity attenuation coefficient, aerodynamic local resistance coefficient and noise level from the twisting plates inclination angle; optimization of the twisting plates inclination angle of the air distributor. It has been established that increase of the angle results in the air velocity attenuation coefficient increase and results in decrease of the noise level and resistance coefficient of air distributor. The optimum angle of the plates is determined considering aerodynamic, noise and energy aspects and equals 36°.

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Abstract

This paper robotic process automation is highlighted in modern business environments to understand about the progression of robotic process automation and how robotic process automation has brought changes to the world of business. Adoption of robotic process automation tools has raised lots of questions, but their deployment in a business has changed the outcome of the return on investment in a business by reducing cost and time taken on repetitive tasks. The paper is differentiating robotic process automation bot from artificial intelligence and robotics for the better understanding of lay audience. The paper also gives an insight about futuristic aspects of robotic process automation and robotic process automation 2.0.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Patrik Márk Máder, Olivér Rák, Nándor Bakai, József Etlinger, Márk Zagorácz, and István Ervin Háber

Abstract

Building information modeling is a complex and structure-based methodology. It applies predefined steps and frameworks; however, an audit procedure can be complicated and time-consuming. The steps of the evaluations are based on logical connections that also form algorithms in a manual workflow. Algorithms can be interpreted by computers with the help of software languages. A higher level of automation, more efficient workflows, and more economical and accurate results can be developed by using algorithms.

Open access

The Effect of Connecting Bridges on Vortex-induced Vibration of Skyscrapers

Az összekötő hidak hatása a felhőkarcolók örvényleválás okozta lengésére

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Mehmet Köhserli and Péter L. Várkonyi

The shapes of slender skyscrapers are unfavourable for carrying horizontal loads. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of improving their structural behaviour by adding urban-scale networks of structural connections among the buildings. We focus on vibrations of skyscrapers in response to wind-induced vortex shedding. We develop a conceptual model of those structural networks composed of springs, dampers and point masses. The proposed model enables rapid numerical simulations involving large networks, which is not possible in the case of more detailed engineering models. The effect of connections, dilatation gaps, and network size are investigated for random collections of high-rise buildings, and triangular networks of horizontal bar connections among them. It is found that connections efficiently reduce vibrations in the network, especially for large network size. This study aims to be a first step towards uncovering the benefits of a novel form of urban development.

A karcsú felhőkarcolók alakja kedvezőtlen a rájuk ható vízszintes terhek viselése szempontjából. Munkánkban a szerkezeti viselkedés javítási lehetőségeit vizsgáljuk az épületeket összekötő szerkezeti kapcsolatok városi léptékű hálózata segítségével. Vizsgálatunk középpontjában a szél által kiváltott örvényleválás okozta szerkezeti rezgések állnak. A rendszert rugókból, csillapítóelemekből és tömegpontokból álló koncepcionális modell segítségével írjuk le. Ez a megközelítésmód lehetővé teszi nagy hálózatok gyors numerikus szimulációját, amely részletesebb mérnöki modellek esetében nem lehetséges. Véletlenszerűen generált épületcsoportok, és vízszintes rúdszerű kapcsolatokból kialakított háromszögelt hálózatok esetén vizsgáljuk a kapcsolatoknak, a bennük kialakított dilatációs hézagoknak és a hálózat méretének a hatását. Eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy a kapcsolatok jelentősen csökkentik a hálózat rezgéseit, különösen nagy hálózati méret esetén. A tanulmány célja, hogy kezdeti lépéseket tegyünk egy újszerű városfejlesztési modell előnyeinek feltárására.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors: Souphavanh Senesavath, Ali Salem, Saied Kashkash, Bintul Zehra, and Zoltan Orban

Abstract

Steel fibers recovered from recycled tires were considered for use as reinforcement in concrete to improve the tensile properties of concrete as well as being an economically viable and environmentally friendly alternative. This paper investigates the effect of purified and non-purified recycled tire steel fiber in concrete with a constant fiber proportion of 30 kg m−3 to determine properties in fresh and hardened concrete. The results indicate that concrete with purified tire fibers have better tensile properties than those with non-purified tire fibers. Density, strength, and toughness significantly increase but workability tends to decrease when using recycled tire steel fiber as reinforcement in concrete.

Open access

Abstract

This paper presents a tree growth optimization based control of a grid-tied dual-stage photovoltaic system. The tree growth optimization has been employed for optimizing the proportional and integral controller gains for direct current bus voltage (V dc) regulation to have minimum variation during dynamic conditions and to generate an accurate loss component of current (i Loss). The accurate iLoss, further enhance the control's performance by generating the accurate reference currents. The presented system is simulated and analyzed in a MATLAB simulation environment under various dynamic conditions, i.e., irradiation variation, unbalanced and abnormal grid voltage. The overall performance is satisfactory as per IEEE 519 standards.

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Egy modern finnugor építészet felé •

Vargha László Finnországgal kapcsolatos munkássága

Toward a Finno-Ugric Architecture •

László Vargha’s Scholarly Activities Related to Finland
Építés - Építészettudomány
Author: Laczó Dániel

Vargha Lászlóban (1904–1984) az utókor elsősorban a néprajztudóst tiszteli, jóllehet szakmai pályája kiterjedt a muzeológiára és az építészettörténetre is. E három tudományterülettel életszakaszonként eltérő mértékben foglalkozott. Tevékenységét mindhárom diszciplína esetében áthatotta a finnek építészete iránti érdeklődés. Cikkemben életútját e szempontból vizsgálom, felhasználva a Szentendrei Szabadtéri Néprajzi Múzeumban őrzött archívumát.

Fiatalkorának meghatározó élmenyei kötődnek a finnekhez. Személyes visszaemlékezése alapján Vargha a finn építészettel és művészettel gyermekkorában ismerkedett meg egy magyar folyóiratban. Pályakezdőként csereprogrammal jut el Finnországba és köt barátságot finnekkel. A második világháború idején közreműködik egy finnugor kiállítás összeállításában Budapesten és Kolozsvárott. Mindeközben gyűjti és jegyzeteli a finn néprajzi szakirodalmat.

A háborút követően a nemzetközi kapcsolattartás lehetőségei szűkülnek, Vargha is csak később tér viszsza a finn kultúrához. A hatvanas években a helyszínen tanulmányozza a szabadtéri néprajzi gyűjteményeket – köztük számos északit –, melynek tanulságaival hozzájárul a Szentendrei Szabadtéri Néprajzi Múzeum – svéd szóval: a skanzen – létrejöttéhez. Oktatóként az egyetemi órákon is tanítja a kortárs finn építészetet. Előadásokon, kiállításokon mutatja be itthon Finnország építészetével kapcsolatos ismereteit. Emellett szakmailag legkiemelkedőbb fellépései a finnugor kongresszusokhoz köthetők, melyekben visszatér egy őt korábban is foglalkoztató témakörhöz; melynek értelmében a magyar népi építészetnek létezik egy ősi, finnugor rétege. Sikereit árnyalja, hogy pályája végén több jelentős publikációs lehetőséggel nem élt.

Egyéb érdemei mellett Vargha László kiemelkedő alakja a finn–magyar kulturális kapcsolatoknak, a finnekkel kapcsolatos kiemelkedő munkássága pedig önálló fejezettel gazdagíthatja pályája értékelését.

László Vargha (1904–1984) is considered a prominent ethnographer in Hungary, albeit he was active in museology and history of architecture as well. During his career he had shifted between these topics. His contribution to all three disciplines was affected with a profound interest in Finnish art and architecture. My article investigates his professional career in the light of his appeal, using the sources preserved in his personal archive in the Hungarian Open-Air Museum.

Vargha had determinative experience related to Finland during his youth. His first encounter with Finnish art was in the pages of a Hungarian periodical in his childhood. In an exchange programme he visited Finland and made friends with his peers. During the Second World War he contributed to an exhibition on Finno-Ugric peoples. The archives reveal that he had studied Finnish ethnographic literature in this period.

Possibilities for maintaining international relationships were reduced after the fall of the Iron Curtain. Vargha returned to Finnish culture only after a significant interval. In the sixties he conducted a study trip to various open-air museums. Many of those destinations were in Sweden and Finland. The study trip contributed to the foundation of the Hungarian Open-Air Museum, which still borrows its name in Hungarian from the Nordic Museum: skanzen. As a university lecturer he introduced Finnish architecture to the curriculum.

Vargha presented Finnish architecture in lectures and exhibitions across Hungary. He also participated in the International Congress for Finno-Ugric Studies, where he revisited the concept that an archaic Finno-Ugric layer is present in Hungarian vernacular architecture. Despite the possibilities offered and his thorough knowledge he failed to publish significant publications at the end of his career.

Apart from his other achievements László Vargha was also an important character in the relationship of Finnish and Hungarian architecture, and his outstanding oeuvre related to Finland could enrich his professional evaluation.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Farid Boushaba, Salah Daoudi, Ahmed Yachouti, and Youssef Regad

Abstract

This paper presents numerical solvers, based on the finite volume method. This scheme solves dam break problems on the dry bottom in 2D configuration. The difficulty of the simulation of this type of problem lies in the propagation of shocks on the dry bottom. The equation model used is the shallow water equations written in conservative form. The scheme used is second order in space and time. The method is modified to treat dry bottoms. The validity of the method is demonstrated over the dam break example. A comparison with finite elements shows the weakness and robustness of each method.

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Abstract

Recently, the construction of shaft intake structures in Slovakia has increased. The shaft intake structures overcome significant vertical depth over short horizontal distance. The flow of water in these shaft intake structures is therefore very complicated. The velocity field at a shaft intake of a small hydropower plant was investigated on a physical model in a hydraulic laboratory using the particle image velocimetry method. The particle image velocimetry measurements were realized for different shaft depths and the results of this study can increase negative effects of not suitable the design of construction on the flow homogeneity in the turbine intake.

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Abstract

In this paper a complete methodology of modeling and control of quad-rotor aircraft is exposed. In fact, a PD on-line optimized Neural Networks Approach (PD-NN) is developed and applied to control the attitude of a quad-rotor that is evolving in hostile environment with wind gust disturbances and should maintain its position despite of these troubles. Whereas PD classical controllers are dedicated for the positions, altitude and speed control. The main objective of this work is to develop a smart Self-Tuning PD controller for attitude angles control, based on neural networks capable of controlling the quad-rotor for an optimized performance thus following a desired trajectory. Many problems could arise if the quad-rotor is evolving in hostile environments presenting irregular troubles such as wind gusts modeled and applied to the overall system. The quad-rotor has to rapidly achieve tasks while guaranteeing stability and precision and must behave quickly with regards to decision making fronting turbulences. This technique offers some advantages over conventional control methods such as PD controllers. Simulation results are achieved with the use of Matlab/Simulink environment and are established on a comparative study between PD and PD-NN controllers founded on wind disturbances application. These obstacles are applied with numerous degrees of strength to test the quad-rotor comportment. Experimental results are reached with the use of the V-REP environment with which some trajectories are tracked and then applied on a BLADE Inductrix FPV+. These simulations and experimental results are acceptable and have confirmed the efficiency of the proposed PD-NN approach. In fact, this controller has fairly smaller errors than the PD controller and has an improved ability to reject troubles. Moreover, it has confirmed to be extremely vigorous and efficient fronting disturbances in the form of wind disturbances.

Open access

Abstract

The paper deals with an analysis of a drought in the small basin of the Gidra River in Slovakia due to problems with the abstraction of water from small reservoirs and ponds. A detailed hydrological assessment of the M-daily discharges for a long-term period was based on a dataset from the only gauging station on the upper part of the river. Because of the existing water structures with prescribed operations during the year, hydrometric and geodetic measurements were taken by the authors. The solution to this problem represents the conditions for the minimum required Q355 discharge in the river anytime and anywhere. This can only be solved with a master operational manual for the whole river to be able to flexibly react to the current hydrological situation.

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Abstract

In the sorting plant examined during the research, the sorting of the selectively collected mixed packaging waste is done by hand. Studies were performed on the quantitative changes of the waste stream entering and leaving the sorting plant, the composition properties according to the particle size, and lastly the number of pickings. The amount of incoming waste has increased linearly over the years. The sizes preferred by the optical separators were the guideline during the measurements. Sixty percentage of all incoming waste falls in the ideal range of 70–350 mm, 20% in the range of <70 mm and 20% in the range of >350 mm. Because there are significant differences in composition and quantities as the seasons and months alternate, these results provide important information for engineers designing a mechanized technology.

Open access

Abstract

The deteriorative processes occurring in the environment, the growth of population, the water demand of industry and agriculture, point out day after day the increasing role of water management. The economical use of drinking-water consumption as well as the cost reduction is becoming more and more important. In this research, the measure of a water supplier of Győr was examined in terms of implementing the purposes above.

Open access

Abstract

Advanced control of variable speed horizontal wind turbine was considered in the high wind speed range. The aims of control in this region are to limit and stabilize the rotor speed and electrical power to their nominal values, while reducing the fatigue loads acting on the structure. A new nonlinear technique based on combination between sliding mode control and radial basis function neural network control was investigated. The proposed hybrid controller was implemented via MATLAB on a simplified two masses numerical model of wind turbine. By applying the Lyapunov approach, this controller was shown to ensure stability. It was found also to be robust and able to reject the uncertainties associated to system nonlinearities. The obtained results were compared with those provided by an existing controller.

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Abstract

Cement replacement materials are commonly used in concrete technology. Several researchers have examined high-performance concrete after adding mineral admixtures to it, but further studies are still needed to provide the optimum dosage of these materials for instance fly ash and silica fume. This study compares three types of concrete and the mechanical properties (compressive strength, flexural strength, and splitting tensile) of these types at the age of 28 and 90 days. The test results designate that adding the mineral admixtures commonly affects the mechanical properties of all the tested types. However, silica fume is more operative than fly ash. Furthermore, adding the fly ash and silica fume in the same concrete type slightly improves the mechanical properties.

Open access

Abstract

Contact with groundwater in the disposal geological site will induce the creation of an amorphous corrosion layer on the high-level radioactive glass. This is connected to silicate saturation conditions in the surrounding medium, and it is influenced significantly by geochemical processes in the near-field minerals at that depth. The international simple glass is a six-oxide borosilicate glass that is commonly used in nuclear interest. It is a simple glass generated from its composition to be an international benchmark glass. The results of the standard materials characterization center leaching tests in double deionized water at 90 °C and an initial pH value of 6.3 showed that it reacts with Ankerite for a short period of time. The effect of Ankerite on borosilicate glass durability through magnesium-silicate precipitation has been investigated and confirmed in this study.

Open access

Abstract

Visual identification of objects is an important challenge today. Main target of frequently applied methods is to identify or classify complex objects. These methods are far less effective when objects are small and less complex, and thus less descriptor features are on hand. The main reason for this is that these features can significantly change on object occlusion or appearance of noise.

The presented solution performs identification of simple, small (size is 17 × 13 pixels) objects with elliptical shape. High pass filtered normalized cross correlation is used for region of interest detection and a simple deep neural network is used for classification of selected regions. The proposed method detected objects on a noisy image with accuracy of 96.2%.

Open access

Abstract

The displacement of a loaded pile could be vertical (axial) or horizontal (lateral); these displacements are sensitive to groundwater presence within the soil mass. This paper presents a theoretical study to investigate vertical and horizontal displacement of piles embedded in a clayey soil for different levels of groundwater under the ground surface. The study was performed using the commercial finite element package PLAXIS-3D. Three diameters of the concrete piles were considered: 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m, and were subjected to 1,000 kN axial load. The effect of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 m groundwater along the 20 m pile in length from the ground surface on the vertical and horizontal displacements was investigated. The results indicated that the vertical and horizontal displacements increase when the ground water level increases towards the base of pile. Also, there is a significant increase in the horizontal displacement up to 15 m of groundwater level from ground surface and decreased at levels from 15 to 20 m.

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Abstract

The reduction of energy consumption is a major issue nowadays that should be considered during the design process. High-rise buildings represent a building type with significantly high energy consumption. They serve typically as offices with fully glazed façades, generating considerable energy demand. This study aims to optimize the envelope and the shading systems of a high-rise office building (Middle Europe). For this purpose, multiple façade variants were tested by assessing the thermal and visual comfort, as well as energy demand. The IDA ICE 4.8 building energy simulation program was used for thermal and lighting modeling and to carry out building physics calculations. Results revealed the best performing, optimized façade configuration in terms of comfort and energy efficiency.

Open access

Abstract

The emerging popularity of telemedicine solutions brought an alarming problem due to the lack of proper access control solutions. With the inclusion of multi-tiered, heterogeneous infrastructures containing Internet of things and edge computing elements, the severity and complexity of the problem became even more alarming, calling for an established access control framework and methodology. The goal of the research is to define a possible solution with a focus on native cloud integration, possible deployment at multiple points along the path of the healthcare data, and adaptation of the fast healthcare interoperability resources standard. In this paper, the importance of this issue in offline use cases is presented and the effectiveness of the proposed solution is evaluated.

Open access

Abstract

This work, presents a novel optimizer called fertilization optimization algorithm, which is based on levy flight and random search within a search space. It is a biologically inspired algorithm by the fertilization of the egg in reproduction of mammals. The performance of the algorithm was compared with other optimization algorithms on CEC2015 time expensive benchmarks and large scale optimization problems. Remarkably, the fertilization optimization algorithm has overcome other optimizers in many cases and the examination and comparison results are encouraging to use the fertilization optimization algorithm in other possible applications.

Open access

Abstract

Telemedicine is one of the most rapidly developing areas of healthcare and it plays an increasing role in modern medicine. As the amount of data and demand for features increase, the data paths are becoming ever-more complex. Owing to this, it is vital in telemedicine to find a proper balance between consistency and availability under any given circumstances. However, making a trade-off can significantly influence the quality of the data. This study seeks to get an in-depth view of the problem by considering a real-world telemedicine use-case and elaborating the formal system specification of the scenario. After evaluating the specification, the constructed state graph is examined using graph coloring and other graph algorithms.

Open access

Abstract

Distinct technological trends seriously influence the modern software architectures. In this paper, four different software architectures and framework combinations were generally compared. The basis for the analysis is the developer's productivity.

In a 3 year-long research and development project, a real-world telemedicine application was efficiently implemented four times with various software architectures and architectural patterns. More than 5,000 person-hours were spent on carrying out them.

At present, a unique dataset is available, which provides the opportunity to compare the cost of spent person-hours in different approaches.

The goal of this research is to describe the measurement approach, the dataset and the applied architectures considering the software developer's productivity.

Open access

Abstract

Scours creation in riverbed at the Hričov weir is a permanent problem since its construction. It is caused by the shortened stilling basin of the weir. In almost all cases of flow control at the weir the energy is not dissipated sufficiently. A 3D physical model was built in the hydraulic laboratory to investigate the measures for reduction of the scour creation. To simulate uneven loads on the downstream riverbed, a flood discharge controlled by the weir in symmetric and asymmetric operations was used for simulations. The scours were evaluated using short-range photogrammetry for contactless measurements. Based on this method digital models of the riverbed for each simulation were created and the scours were assessed to determine the effect of the investigated measures on scour reduction.

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Abstract

With the rise of the urban renewal motion in recent years in China, more and more cities have shifted the focus of construction to the renovation and renewal of old areas. The renewal of the old community plays an essential role in the urban upgrading of China, which is related to the quality of a city, as well as a crucial criterion for evaluating the comfort of the living environment. The old community to retain their vibrancy and culture is needed to renew by a way of modernization. The paper will discuss how to use micro-renewal design to improve the quality of the old community, awaking the historical memories of the community simultaneously, thereby balance the relationship between history and use-value.

Open access

Abstract

Imageability is the quality of a place that makes it distinct, recognizable, and memorable. It defines the character and identity for cities. However, the fast expansion of urban development affects the image of city and its fabric toward the mega scale and transforms cities local cultural life as loosing most of their historic fabrics. These make cities loose there images gradually. Hence, the aim of this paper is to explore the main physical elements that contribute toward attractiveness as one of imageability character in Salt City in Jordan. Historical review and site analysis were the main methodology used in this study. This paper show some of the physical elements that contribute to attractiveness connected with image of the Salt City in Jordan, these elements are: building appearance (material, façade design) and landscape (topography).

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Saja Jamil Alamoush, Nor Haslina Ja'afar, and András Kertész

Abstract

Rapid development has affected the elements of urban spaces adversely, particularly streets. These changes produce faceless cities with high dependency on vehicles for transportation to key ‘consumers’ aside from buildings that are not designed for the local environment and local needs. In urban design, concerns on character affect the sense of place. Thus, this paper assesses the crucial element of streets with respect to design and character in the urban setting, the subsequent issues, and the recommended solution. This study focuses on the scenarios that threaten today's street design. This work will discuss the advantages of traditional streets, which could be a potential solution to the issues mentioned earlier. Finally, a street design based on the traditional street model is proposed to fulfill the criteria necessitated by the local community.

Open access

Abstract

Despite the clear benefits of maintaining a human relationship with nature, people increasingly live in urban settings. As a result of urbanization, numerous urban communities are confronting social and natural problems, which have genuinely compromised residents’ wellbeing and health. Thus, holistic planning and designing are needed to tackle these problems, integrating nature-based thinking into urban environmental development. The aim of this paper is to explore components of a sustainable city and biophilic design patterns and analyze the relationship between them. Finally, the conceptual model of a sustainable city has been proposed based on biophilic design approaches.

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Abstract

In Hungary a lot of people live in condominiums or in block of flats where fire often occurs despite of precise design and effective fire protection arrangements. This means a hazard for the people living there, for the building constructions and also for the environment. A deeper knowledge of the burning process and examining the negative effects of fire load on building constructions with scientific methods are actual questions nowadays. In order to get to know the phenomena more accurately, fire spread in a bedroom was modeled and numerical simulation was carried out, which is presented in this paper in detail. These experiences may help increasing the fire safety and preventing fires in apartments. The simulations were carried out considering the characteristics of the Hungarian architecture.

Open access

Abstract

In order to develop the quality of urban spaces, street furniture seems to be the significant element that defines the city’s social attraction points. It stimulates outdoor spaces because of its location, buildings and sidewalk meet. This study explores the issues of design criteria that introduce sustainability into street furniture design in urban public space in Tunisia. This research is based on the role of street furniture and its importance in urban public spaces, and the possibility of supplementing a recycling design. This paper aims to explore the necessary criteria to design sustainable street furniture in order to present its importance in a way that helps to ameliorate the quality of living in urban areas and cities.

Open access

Abstract

Bitumen is a critical component in asphaltic pavements and is often the cause of many road failures. The commercial modifiers that are being used to enhance the properties of bitumen are quite expensive; therefore, this article is dedicated to explore the potential of local crumb rubber as bitumen modifier. Two grades of bitumen pen grade (60/70 and 80/100) were modified with local crumb rubber. Rheological properties of modified and unmodified bitumen were evaluated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The results indicated an increase in the rutting resistance of bitumen. This indicates that Local crumb rubber can be used to enhance the properties of bitumen.

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Abstract

In watershed modeling research, it is practical to subdivide a watershed into smaller units or sub-watersheds for modeling purposes. The ability of a model to simulate the watershed system depends on how well watershed processes are represented by the model and how well the watershed system is described by model input. This study is conducted to evaluate the impact of watershed subdivision and different weather input datasets on streamflow simulations using the soil and water assessment tool model. For this purpose, Cuhai-Bakonyér watershed was chosen as a study area. Two climate databases and four subdivision variations levels were evaluated. The model streamflow predictions slightly effected by subdivision impact. The climate datasets showed significant differences in streamflow predictions.

Open access

Abstract

Present paper focuses on the modeling of size effect on the compressive strength of normal strength concrete with the application of discrete element method, considering specimen of different concrete mixes and shapes. An equation was derived to estimate the parallel bond strength from the compressive strength. The results showed a good agreement with the literature and the derived estimation models showed strong correlation with the measurements. The results indicated that size effect is stronger on concretes with lower strength class and that it is more significant on cube specimens than on cylinders. The relationship of model size and computational time was analyzed and a method to decrease the computational time (iterations) was proposed.

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Abstract

With the development of economic globalization and the information age, architecture has gradually become a kind of seal of politics, capital and culture, and is divorced from the spirit and life experience of the existing places in the region. Therefore, the field of architecture constantly seeks new research paradigm from the interdisciplinary perspective and reconsiders the creative activities of architecture. From the late last century, with the introduction of architecture by postmodern philosophy, semiotics, geographical psychology, phenomenology and cultural anthropology, there has been a cross-research between architecture and narratology. The recent research hopes to conduct an in-depth analysis of the theory of architectural spatial narrative and its development in the context of complex disciplines, and to research spatial narrative as a design methodology for architecture.

Open access

Abstract

Supply chain management intends to integrate supply chains' activities such as material flow, information flow and financial issues. Material flow management is the most significant issue since the inventory level in the whole supply chain could be optimized by an integrated plan. In other words, when one member of the supply chain plans to reduce its inventory level solely, despite reducing inventory in this node the inventory will be stocked in other partners' warehouses. Therefore, in this paper a new mathematical model has been developed to facilitate the process of finding the optimum solution in economic production, purchase and delivery lots and their schedules in a three-echelon supply chain environment; including raw material in suppliers, manufacturer and assembly facility as a customer. The manufacturer with a flow shop system provides its requirements from supplier, assemble multiple products, and delivers products to the customer (automotive OEM alike) on an optimum multiple delivery points. The delivery cycles would be identified through the production common cycle regarding the supply chain flexibility. Finally, a modified real-valued Genetic Algorithm (MRGA), and an Optimal Enumeration Method (OEM) are developed, and some numerical experiments have been done and compared as well.

Open access

Abstract

The axial capacity of light–gauge steel tube columns filled with concrete including recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregates and recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) was investigated. A total of 51 specimens, including 6 bare steel tubes, 30 composite columns and 15 concrete-only columns were tested under uniaxial load. Fifteen concrete mixes were considered by replacing the weight of natural coarse aggregates (NA) with RCA and RAP at replacement levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. In addition, RAP and RCA were combined in the same mixes with replacement levels of (1) 20% RAP and 80% RCA; (2) 40% RAP and 60% RCA; (3) 60% RAP and 40% RCA; and (4) 80% RAP and 20% RCA. Experimental results were analyzed by reporting the ultimate capacities and the patterns of failure. Moreover, the predictions of EUROCODE 4 (EC4) and American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) codes were checked. ABAQUS software was used to perform a finite element analysis (FEA) of the tested composite specimens. The results showed that using recycled aggregates decreased the carrying capacity of columns. Carrying capacity of light–gauge steel tubes filled with concrete including different combinations of RCA, NA and RAP aggregates can be conservatively predicted by the AISC and EC4 recommendations. Results of FEA showed a good agreement with the experimental results.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the study is to create an effective and standard risk assessment tool that provides the company with support and security in purchasing of new products. The goal was to create a tool that complements and standardizes risk assessment forms and shows rapid results. Using the procurement risk management system, the risk associated with a given product can be determined easily and in a short time. In the process, critical areas where hazards may occur can be clearly identified and the risk can be minimized if properly managed.

Open access

Abstract

Fiber Optic Network is an advanced and modern system technology, which is used in sending pulses of laser light inside a glass of fiber over long distances, widely used in every environment with various sorts of applications in a different field. It is well-known that the main material of fiber optics is glass, therefore it is typical that the temperature can affect the glass during the thermal expansion. This effect will be applied to the properties of the optical components such as refractive index, radius curvature of the fiber optics layers, and also there is an effect on the data transfer through the fiber optics network units. In this paper, the effect of temperature degree on the optical signal and the functions of the fiber optic network will be simulated, measured, and analyzed. The result will be discussed and the conclusion will show the serious points of thermal effects on the optical signal of a fiber-optic network.

Open access

Abstract

Using alternative fuels (AF) in industry high consuming energy where fossil fuels are largely consumed may be a great solution to decrease CO2 emission and cost production. Or, when using these alternative fuels, the combustion may be difficult to control regarding the different components of AFs compared to fossil fuels. In this case, the use of the computational fluid dynamics CFD tools is a great solution to predict the AFs combustion behavior. This paper represents a computational study of petcoke and olive pomace (OP) co-combustion in a cement rotary kiln burner, established on the commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT. This study presents a useful key to choose an adequate simulation model that well predicts co-combustion problems. The performance of the K-ϵ turbulence models varieties (standard, Realizable, and Re-Normalization Group) combined with the hybrid finite rate/eddy dissipation model and the simple eddy dissipation model for predicting the co-combustion characteristics was investigated. The particle phase solutions are obtained using the Lagrangian approach. The performance of the mentioned model was evaluated based on the mesh accuracy, convergence time, temperature shape, and important chemical elements concentration. The predicted values of species concentrations and temperature are compared to the results obtained from the real case study and available literature. The standard K-ϵ model combined with the hybrid finite rate/eddy dissipation model gives the best results and the lower computational resources required for the 2-D model realized.

Open access

Abstract

Climate change has become a real challenge in different fields, including the building sector. Understanding and assessing the impact of climate change on building energy performance is still necessary to elaborate new climate-adaptive design measures for future buildings. The building energy consumption for heating and cooling is mainly related to the building envelope thermal performance. In this study, the winter heat loss and summer heat gain indicators are proposed to assess and analyse the potential impact of climate change on opaque building envelope elements for different climate zones in Morocco over the next 40 years. For that purpose, a one-dimensional heat transfer model is used to simulate the heat transfer through the multi-layer structure of the wall/roof. A medium climate change scenario is considered in this study. The results showed that the current average walls and roof summer heat gain is expected to increase of about 19.2–54.3% by the 2060s depending on the climate zone, versus a less important decrease in winter heat loss varies between –10.6 and –20.6%. This paper provides a reliable evaluation of the climate change impact on building envelope thermal performance, which leads to better adjustments in future building envelope designs.

Open access

Urban Transformations of Kharkiv’s Large Housing Estates •

Novi Budynky and Pavlovo Pole After 1991

Harkov nagy lakótelepeinek városépítészeti átalakulása •

Novi Budynky és Pavlovo Pole 1991 után
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Hlib Antypenko, Nadiia Antonenko, and Katherine Didenko

Kharkiv is the second largest city of Ukraine with a unique history of urban housing development. In the 20th century it became a field of large housing construction. More than 10 large housing estates were constructed in the period between the second half of 1950s–late 1980s following the Soviet method of prefabricated construction, which was introduced into urban planning in connection with the radical change of all architectural and construction activities in the USSR. This paper explores factors of post-socialist urban development (after the change of political regime in Ukraine in 1991) of the case study large housing areas. For the purpose of the study, two Kharkiv large housing areas were selected – Novi Budynky and Pavlovo Pole, which were designed and built in the same period (late 1950s) and were the first residential areas of Kharkiv built according to the new planning principles of Soviet prefabricated construction. Pavlovo Pole is a large housing estate located not far from the historic center regarded as a good quality housing area, intended for the Soviet “intelligentsia” while Novi Budynky is often a stigmatized area constructed mainly for the factory workers.

Key research questions are: description of the history of construction and development of Pavlovo Pole and Novi Budynky large housing estates; comparison of the specific features of their design and construction; to determine how these large housing estates are connected with the rest of the city spatially and in terms of socio-cultural aspect, in particular with the city center; to identify the reasons and content of key urban transformations in the large housing areas, such as: demolition of houses and new construction, reduction of the area of public recreational function, appropriation of deserted areas, etc.

Harkov Ukrajna második legnagyobb városa, amely egyedülálló történettel rendelkezik a városi lakásfejlesztés területén. A 20. században nagy lakásépítkezések zajlottak: az 1950-es évek második fele és az 1980-as évek vége közötti időszakban több mint 10 nagy lakótelep épült Harkovban az előregyártott építés szovjet módszerét követve, amelyet a Szovjetunióban az összes építészeti és építési tevékenység radikális változásával összefüggésben vezettek be a várostervezésbe. Ez a tanulmány az 1991-es ukrajnai rendszerváltás utáni posztszocialista városfejlesztés tényezőit vizsgálja két harkovi nagy lakótelepen. Novi Budynky és a Pavlovo Pole, a város első nagy lakótelepei, melyeket az 1950-es évek végén terveztek és építettek a szovjet előregyártott építés új tervezési elveinek megfelelően. Pavlovo Pole a történelmi központhoz közeli, ma is jó minő-ségű lakóterületnek tekinthető, amit a szovjet „értelmiségnek” szántak, míg Novi Budynky gyakran stigma-tizált városrész, amelyet elsősorban a gyári munkásoknak építettek.

A legfontosabb kutatási kérdések a következők: Pavlovo Pole és Novi Budynky nagy lakótelepei építésének és fejlődésének története; tervezésük és kivitelezésük sajátosságainak összehasonlítása; annak meghatározása, hogy ezek a nagy lakótelepek hogyan kapcsolódnak a város többi részéhez, különösen a városközponthoz térben és társadalmi-kulturális szempontból; a nagy lakóövezetekben zajló, kulcsfontosságú városi átalakulások okainak és tartalmának azonosítása, mint például: házak bontása és új építés, a nyilvános rekreációs területek csökkentése, elhagyatott területek kisajátítása stb.

Restricted access

Abstract

In this study, a single stage thermoelectric cooler (TER, of size: 21 × 14.2 × 13.5 cm) with thermoelectric module (TEM, of type inbc1-127. 05 with size 40 × 40 × 4.0 mm) and applied electrical power of 30 W and current of 2.5 A, was adopted to estimate the coefficient of performance (COP) of thermoelectric refrigerator (TER). The TER uses a fan to cool the heat exchange region of the TEM. The temperature of the fruit/vegetable samples used in this study was taken before and after cooling for a specific period. The temperatures at both the hot and cold sides of the TEM were also taken at every specific cooling period. The experimented TER can cool vegetable/fruit from about 27 to 5°C within 3 h. The aim of this study is to determine the COP of TER to ascertain the possible applications. The temperature gradient at the heat exchange section of TEM was used to estimate the average theoretical COP to be 0.99, the heat extracted from the cooling chamber and the power supplied was used to estimate the average practical cooling COP to be 0.52; which is within 0.4–0.7 standard COP for a single stage type of TER.

Open access

Abstract

Raw materials requirement is foremost necessary in construction sector. Due to the increase in construction activities, the raw material utilization is also increased, which may lead to depletion of the resources. The usage of M sand also increases day by day. On the other side, waste disposal is posing a major threat to environment and human health. This paper shows the investigation carried out in manufacturing fly ash bricks made by utilizing vermicompost as an alternative material for M sand, the physical and chemical properties of M sand and vermicompost are studied and they seem to be the same. In this study, an attempt is made to check the feasibility of replacement of vermicompost for M sand in brick making. The brick specimens are casted as per the mix proportions and they are tested for strength and durability at the age of 28 days. It has been identified that the vermicompost replacement at 5% and 10%, the compressive strength of the brick is 7.90 and 7.31% respectively, which is found to be nearer to the strength of the control specimen and the water absorption for all the mixes of the brick casted were below 20% as per IS code. Inclusion of vermicompost in the fly ash bricks will tend to reduce the use of M sand.

Open access

Abstract

Digital technologies had an effect on people's lives. The majority of these digital devices rely on cloud storage to meet their memory needs. Hundreds of thousands of images, videos, and audio files are being transferred to cloud storage. Thousands of people around the world access these media every second. Unauthorized access to these media must be avoided. One of the weak points for data breaches is the user-end encryption. This paper suggests a strategy for improving cloud data protection by combining the AES and blowfish encryption and decryption algorithms. AES-256 is used as the first layer, followed by blowfish as the second layer, in the hybrid solution. The output of the first layer is input to the second layer and the final result is analyzed. The proposed method also discusses other combined approaches such as AES with other traditional algorithms but the proposed method gives significant results compared to other approaches.

Open access

Abstract

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an energy compound present in living organisms and is required by living cells for performing operations such as replication, molecules transportation, chemical synthesis, etc. ATP connects with living cells through specialized sites called ATP-sites. ATP-sites are present in various proteins of a living cell. The life span of a cell can be controlled by controlling ATP compounds and without the provision of energy to ATP compounds, cells cannot survive. Countless diseases treatment (such as cancer, diabetes) can be possible once protein active sites are predicted. Considering the need for an algorithm that predicts ATP-sites with higher accuracy and effectiveness, this research work predicts protein ATP sites in a very novel way. Till now Position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) along with many physicochemical properties have been used as features with deep neural networks in order to create a model that predicts the ATP-sites. To overcome this problem of complex computation, this exertion proposes k-mer feature vectors with simple machine learning (ML) models to attain the same or even better performance with less computation required. Using 2-mer as feature vectors, this research work trained and tested five different models including KNN, Conv1D, XGBoost, SVM and Random Forest. SVM gave the best performance on k-mer features. The accuracy of the created model is 96%, MCC 90% and ROC-AUC is 99%, which are the same or even better in some aspects than the state-of-the-art results. The state-of-the-art results have an accuracy of 97%, MCC 78% and ROC-AUC is 92%. One of the benefits of the created model is that it is much simpler and more accurate.

Open access

Abstract

Scarcity of the construction materials, peculiarly the natural river sand has become a serious threat in the construction industry. Though many researchers of developed and developing countries are trying to find alternative sources for the same, the complete replacement of the fine aggregate in concrete is crucial. Geopolymer sand developed from the Industrial waste (Ground granulated blast furnace slag - GGBS) is an effective alternative for the complete replacement of the natural sand. The GGBS based geopolymer sand (G-GFA) was tested for physical and chemical properties. Upon the successful achievement of the properties in par with the natural river sand, the fresh properties (fresh concrete density & slump) and hardened properties (compressive strength, tensile strength & flexural strength) of the concrete specimens developed with G-GFA were studied. The G-GFA is obtained by both air drying (AD-G-GFA) and oven drying (OD-F-GFA) after the dry mixing of the alkaline solution and GGBS for about 10 min. Thus, developed fine aggregates were studied separately for the fresh and hardened concrete to optimize the feasible one. Superplasticizer of 0.4% is included in the concrete mix to compensate the sightly hydrophilic nature of the fine aggregates produced. The mechanical properties of the concrete with G-GFA are observed to be more than 90% close to that of the concrete developed with natural river sand. Thus, both the fresh and mechanical properties of the G-GFA concrete specimens resulted in findings similar to those of the control specimen developed with natural river sand reflecting the plausibility of G-GFA as a complete replacement choice to the fine aggregate in the concrete industry. The flaky GGBS particles merge well with the alkaline solution at room temperature itself since the former gets dried at elevated temperatures. Thus, more feasible fresh concrete properties and mechanical properties were recorded for the AD-G-GFA than the OD-G-GFA.

Open access

Abstract

Construction industry is one of the biggest sectors globally and a wide variety of materials are used to carry out various works. Particularly, cement is a material that is used in the construction of various structures and it is also the major source of emission of CO2 gas into the atmosphere which results in global warming. Many researchers have identified various replacement materials for cement as a partial substitution and carried out experiments successfully. Nano silica is widely utilized as a partial replacement for cement and a lot of research is carried out. This paper reviews the past studies in which nano silica is utilized in various building materials such as cement mortars, normal concrete and special concretes. The fresh concrete properties, strength and durability of the material are the parameters reviewed and it is apparent that by incorporating nano silica in cement it absorbs more water, which makes the mix less workable and it imparts additional strength to the concrete and also provides better durability when compared with the control specimen. Hence it has been revealed that nano silica will be a good replacement for cement as it is pozzolanic in nature and also possessing good microstructure.

Open access