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Emlékszerűség és egyöntetűség. Hauszmann, Stróbl, Lotz és a budapesti Igazságügyi palota központi csarnoka

Monumentalness and homogeneity Hauszmann, Stróbl, Lotz and the central hall of the Budapest Palace of Justice

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
János Jernyei Kiss

The Palace of Justice opened in 1896 is among the country’s most important public buildings; its central hall is one of the most grandiose spaces of late historicism in size and decoration. A year after its inauguration Alajos Hauszmann, the architect, summed up the construction history and programme of the building, and the work appeared in ornate folio edition in 1901. the architect designed the central hall in the style of Rome’s baroque architecture reviving the spirit of antiquity, and also drew on the tradition of the space type of salles des pas perdus. As regards space forms and structures, its relatives are the halls of the palaces of justice in paris, Antwerp and Strasbourg.

The placing of the Justitia statue dominating the space was probably inspired by the central hall of Vienna’s Justizpalast and is permeated with the memory of antique temple interiors abounding in giant cultic statues. With its hieratic character, Stróbl’s statue reminds us of classical Rome’s enthroned Minerva and Dea Roma statues, the modelling of the dress and mantle imitating the Hellenistic and Roman baroque drapery styles.

The 19th century reconstructions of the rich mosaic and sculptural decorations of the spaces, walls and vaults of the Roman baths must have fertilized Hauszmann’s imagination and inspired him to envision the colouring and gilding of the surfaces and painted decoration of the ceiling, although the latter was also influenced by Roman baroque fresco painting. Károly Lotz designed the illusory architecture of the ceiling painting after Andrea del Pozzo by taking care to align the painted architectonic details with the framing mouldings and ornaments.

A cardinal element of the architectural program was the deliberately monumental effect and “homogeneity” of which – in Hauszmann’s view – fine arts were the “precondition and the instruments”. He himself chose the painter and sculptor for the decoration of the hall, because he deemed it important to give them “direction” and “enlightenment” through his personal influence to achieve a “homogeneously harmonious creation”. As a result, both the sculptor’s and the painter’s adaptation to Roman models and to the grandiosity of the formal idiom and dimensions of the hall can be perceived.

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„Gyönyörű volt szál alakja”. Szent István király ikonográfiája a sokszorosított grafikában a 15. századtól a 19. század közepéig - Pótlások (új ábrázolások, adalékok és javítások)

“His stately figure was Beautiful” Iconography of king saint Stephen in graphic prints from the 15th to the mid-19th Century - Complementations (New representations, additions and corrections)

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Éva Knapp

More than twenty years ago, in the “millennial year” (1 January 2000–20 August 2001), a representative work of scholarship was released in honour of the millennial anniversary of the foundation of the state (budapest, boda Antikvárium, 2001) about the representations of the first king of Hungary, Saint Stephen, in the medium of graphic prints. The publication was reviewed by noted scholars and has been referred continuously in special literature ever since.

It is common knowledge that the “image” of king Saint Stephen has been closely tied to Hungarian history, as a decisive personage at its turning points. After the publication of the book I have therefore kept tabs on and collected the data that enlarge, supplement and at a few times rectify its contents. for easier orientation, both the complementary material, the additions, and new representations are adjusted to the item numbers in the iconographic catalogue attached to the volume.

From among the addenda, one picture is a complementation to item 71, because in 2001 no copy of its first publication (1692) could be had. Among the sixteen addenda (27, 37, 46, 49, 62, 70, 79, 95, 96, 104, 108, 126, 153, 188, 191, 219) item 46 also received a new picture which arose as the “b” variant of the copperplate engraving (first published in 1626) in a so-far unknown, unique function in 1632. Another six items of the addenda also contain corrections (69, 76, 94, 100, 139, 139, 208), of which two (76, 100) name the original publication (1609 and 1612, resp.) of the two prints in the Hungarian Historical portrait Gallery removed from their original function. Six items of the corrigenda (5, 61, 75, 179, 187) make the description more accurate, with a picture added to one (187), restoring a cut-out copy kept in the Hungarian Historical picture Gallery now to its original function.

In the past two decades, the material of the volume has been enlarged by twenty five unpublished depictions, i.e. nearly by 10%. These pictures and descriptions collected on the basis of autopsy affect the period between 1493 and 1852, adjusted to the earlier chronology of the data. Their item number received the number of the preceding bibliographic description with the addition of an ‘a’ or two (5a, 35a, 55a, 70a, 79a, 81a, 90a, 90aa, 97a, 105a, 116a, 128a, 155a, 155aa, 187a, 188a, 192s, 193a, 215a, 216a, 216aa, 228a, 238a, 251a, 254a). The new representations are always attached pictures, and their description adopted the structure of the data in the 2001 volume.

Order of new information after the number of the item:

  1. Title or iconographic type of the representation

  2. Title of the print without the religious texts. Latter only given when there is no title.

  3. Form of appearance

  4. Date of making

  5. Technique of production

  6. Place of making, signature

  7. Size by the producing technique and by the state of the sheet

  8. Bibliographic description of the source containing the representation, with the accurate place of the print in the work at issue

  9. Place of preservation and mark of the copy about which the description is made

  10. Remarks

  11. Bibliography

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Magyar történelmi témák 18. századi bécsi festői: adatok Wenzel Pohl munkásságához és az August Rumelnek tulajdonított mohácsi csata-képhez

18th century viennese painters of Hungarian historical themes: addenda to Wenzel Pohl’s work and the battle of mohács painting attributed to August Rumel

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Júlia Papp

Media news made the name of Wenzel Pohl known in Hungary in the early 2000s, for the two large history paintings (The Battle of Mohács, Saint Stephen converting the Hungarians to the christian faith), which had cropped up in the art trade and which were purchased by the Hungarian state and deposited in the Hungarian embassy in Vienna, were attributed to him. Although more recent research has proposed that the painter of the cycle once consisting of six pieces was most probably August Rumel and not Pohl, it is worth knowing of Pohl’s artistic activity irrespective of the Hungarian relevance, too, because his person is gradually fading out of art historiography – for example, his name is missing from the 96th volume of the Saur Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon published in 2017.

The best-known Pohl portraits are the ones he painted of the noted Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and physicist Miksa Hell. A full-figure portrait shows the scientist in traditional Sami costume during his research trip to the North, and we know of a portrait showing Hell is a monk’s frock. His engraved copies of paintings in the Viennese imperial collection, real forerunners to the representative 19th century album of prints presenting the collection, probably belong to a series. In the cycle of paintings about the coronation of Joseph II as Holy Roman Emperor (Frankfurt, 1765) he was assigned the painting of architectural details, which is confirmed by the fact that he was sent on a study trip to Frankfurt to make drawn sketches of the venues of the event. After the representative painting of Martin van Meytens he made a small-scale version of the group portrait of Maria Theresa and her family. His chef d’oeuvre is the representative painting series showing the events of the coronation of Maria Theresa in Pozsony in 1741 painted for the Hungarian court chancellery in Vienna. He painted it with Franz Messmer in the second half of the 1760s. In contrast, the three portraits of monarchs in Riesensaal in Innsbruck so far attributed to him by researchers were actually painted by Jakob Kohl.

The other part of the paper contributes a few new viewpoints to the examination of the painting about the battle of Mohács earlier attributed to Pohl. In addition to contemporaneous woodcuts of the tragic battle of 1526 in news-letters and pamphlets in German, to 16th century Turkish miniatures, and diverse 16–18th century European manuscript and book illustrations, a ceiling fresco in Garamszentbenedek and several large paintings – including Rumel’s work – also conjured up the battle in the 18th century. Since in the nation’s historical consciousness and cultural memory the battle of Mohács did not acquire its symbolic, mythic position represented to this day before the 19th century, the two works of art were way ahead of their time in anticipating the salient position of the tragic event, because, unlike, for example, István dorffmaister’s late 18th century pictures ordered in Mohács, they show the battle as a fatal even in the history of the entire nation. on the other side, by the terminating piece of the series ordered for the Transylvanian court chancellery being the battle of Mohács, the client departed from the 18th century imperial, dynastic outlook which presented as positive parallels to the battle of Mohács and the capture of Szigetvár by the Turks the victorious battles of the late 17th century liberating war led by the Habsburg Empire: the second battle of Mohács and the recapture of Szigetvár, partly as examples of divine justice and partly as legitimation of the Habsburg Empire’s territorial expansion “earned with blood”. It is noteworthy that the right side of central scene of Rumel’s Battle of Mohács resembles the composition of leonardo da Vinci’s Battle of Anghiari surviving in copies only. It is presumable that the renaissance battle scenes served as a model example for the painter.

Open access

Succus Prudentiae: Hevenesi Gábor neosztoikus emblémáinak festészeti recepciója

Succus Prudentiae: applied emblematic reception of Gábor Hevenesi’s neo-stoic emblems

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Ágnes Kusler

The Hungarian Jesuit Gábor (Gabriel) Hevenesi’s emblem book Succus prudentiae (The Seed of Wisdom) was published in 1690 in Vienna and then in 1701 in Nagyszombat (Trnava, Slovakia), containing fifty emblems. He compiled a collection of Christian wisdom and virtues with the help of quotations and paraphrases from the Stoic philosopher Seneca. In this article, I present two instances of applied emblematic reception of the emblems of Hevenesi’s Succus prudentiae in Transylvanian buildings. The first example is the painted decoration of a room in the castle of Nagyvárad (Oradea, Romania). The program survived only in fragments, yet, three emblems could still be identified. The use of a Jesuit emblem book points towards the conception of the decorative program during the Habsburg occupation of the castle during the first half of the eighteenth century. The second example is the former wall and furniture decoration of the Daniel manor house in Szasznagyvesszős (Michelsdorf/Veseuș, Romania). The inner decoration of this building was destroyed before the twentieth century, but it was preserved by the detailed description of the writer József Ponori Thewrewk from 1817. Based on his account, the walls and several pieces of furniture (including a folding screen and a cabinet) were decorated with Hevenesi’s emblems. This program was most possibly ordered by István Daniel the elder, a state official during the Habsburg rule in Transylvania. As an appendix, I draw attention to a surviving cabinet with emblematic paintings based on Jesuit Herman Hugo’s Pia desideria, now in the collection of the Sárospatak Catholic Museum.

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Graves of the early medieval nomads from the eastern Azov region

Kora középkori nomád temetkezések az Azovi-tenger keleti partvidékéről

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Pavel Sokolov
and
Bence Gulyás

Abstract

Described and discussed here are the “nomadic” burials of two sites, Serbin and Udarnyi (Krasnodar Krai, Russia). A total of four graves were found at the former Serbin site, while an early medieval grave dug into a prehistoric kurgan was excavated at Udarnyi. The burials broadly date from the fourth–seventh centuries AD on the basis of their poor grave inventories and are culturally related to the so-called post-Hunnic- and Sivashovka-type burials. Three burials contained the skulls and limbs of various domestic animals, indicating that the animals had been skinned. “Head and hooves” deposits were quite common in early medieval Eastern Europe. There are several different traditions of skinning, indicating different cultural traditions. The study describes the burials and their finds, and presents their regional parallels.

Open access
Acta Linguistica Academica
Authors:
Zongfeng Xia
,
Fengguang Liu
,
Dániel Z. Kádár
, and
Juliane House

Abstract

In this study, we examine ritual Small Talk in Chinese, which is a regretfully understudied phenomenon. We investigate recurrent pragmatic features of Chinese Small Talk in an audio-recorded corpus through the lens of speech acts. We interpret the use of speech acts with the aid of interaction ritual theory and linguistic politeness. As a case study, we examine instances of Small Talk taking place in the vicinity of a Chinese primary school where parents and grandparents engaged in casual phatic conversations to kill the time while waiting for the children. The study of our corpus of Small Talk conversations allows us to unearth linguaculturally embedded patterns of language use in a complex participatory setting where parents and grandparents interact in front of a school.

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