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Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.

Arts and Humanities

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Abstract

The introduction of school meals in the 20th century has its roots in several parallel but independent initiatives. The common source of these initiatives was the practice of philanthropy and charity, based on religious upbringing. Public catering for children was first institutionalized in Budapest by a charitable organization, the Children's Society (Gyermekbarátok Egyesülete), after which several denominational associations followed suit. In the early 20th century, the City of Budapest itself also took the initiative, setting up its first daycare centers where needy children were not only fed but also participated in educational and recreational activities. Resources for social welfare were eroded during the war, thus foreign aid organizations stepped in to help the children of Budapest immediately after the war, while childcare became the sole responsibility of the public authorities from the 1920s. From then on, the state covered the entire costs of providing meals, similar to the system of soup kitchens established specifically for supplying food to destitute adults.

Open access

Abstract

The Hungarian writer Sándor Petőfi (1823–1849) achieved the union of the Hungarian people thanks to the verses of his National Song (Nemzeti dal), which have always been quoted and recited with great interest. Therefore, the following paper aims to analyse some problems with the poem's translation into Spanish and present a new version of this emblematic poem for the Hungarians.

Open access

Fructus, Attianus, Ariomanus

Restoring two altar-inscriptions from Poetovio

Fructus, Attianus, Ariomanus

Két poetovioi oltárfelirat kiegészítése
Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Melinda Szabó

Abstract

The study includes two inscriptions from Poetovio both on altars, one dedicated to Mithras, the other to Isis, both erected for the wellbeing of a person. In addition to the findspot they have in common that both persons mentioned in them were employees of the publicum portorium Illyrici customs office. This insight is the basis for the new additions to the study, as for both inscriptions it was possible to reinterpret the previously known inscriptions based on the pattern used by customs post employees, which could be observed on other inscriptions. The new addition will allow the two inscriptions to be included in the research on the operation and staffing of the Illyricum customs district.

Open access

Abstract

Prescribed and supported by the state, public catering in Hungary fulfils a common social need; its aim is to meet the nutritional requirements of consumers in terms of both quantity and quality. Public catering is legally regulated and is also important from the perspective of health policy. As the smallest unit of common catering, family meals differ from public catering in several respects. One fundamental difference is that public catering rests on scientific foundations: it is planned, organized, and controlled by a qualified manager. This manager may be a trained dietitian or a catering manager, according to the National Qualifications Register. The training for these two roles is interlinked and goes back more than a century.

Open access

Abstract

The present study examines the Hungarian practice of public catering for children from an economic perspective, bearing in mind that the production and consumption of food is, at the same time, an economic activity. Taking this approach, we focus on which institutions contribute to or hinder efficiency, by which we mean the efforts of economic agents to generate maximum welfare from the available (meager) resources. For social reasons, the supply of public catering for children is a statutory obligation on the part of local authorities, where efficiency must be combined with social considerations. The study reviews the rationing mechanism of school meals catering as a public service, looking first at the main factors determining the level of demand for public catering for children, and then at the main factors that influence supply.

Open access

Abstract

The study examines the provision of school-holiday meals for children and shows how it is embedded in society. Proper nutrition is very important for children's physical and cognitive development. However, international research shows that children's social and cultural background has a significant impact on their nutrition. To reduce these disparities and ensure that all children have a healthy diet, effective government intervention is necessary. In Hungary, school canteens and free meals during school holidays for children in need serve this purpose. The latter service is of great importance for the children of families affected by food poverty. Yet, statistics show that some of these children are unable to use this service. This study examines the period before 2016 and highlights the social embeddedness of the service and its consequences on the provision. Whether child food poverty is perceived as a social issue and a common cause generating community intervention largely depends on the local actor's correct perception of the issue, the local appraisal of need, and the consideration of parents' “deservingness.” The study also makes some suggestions about areas where further interventions should focus to improve the nutrition of children affected by food poverty.

Open access

Abstract

In Sweden, free school lunch has been served for more than a hundred years, and it is now a democratic right of all elementary school children. The school meal has always been associated with different opinions and subject to much debate. The aim of the study is to explore school meal food and taste memories in a convenient sample of Swedish adults. A web-based survey was carried out in the summer of 2020. The 246 respondents attended school between the 1940s and the early 2000s. The material was collectively analyzed using NVivo 12 Pro (QSR International), resulting in two overarching themes. “The traditional school food heritage” theme consisted of accounts of traditional Swedish food through the ages and meanings attached to it. Memories were connected to likes and dislikes of certain foods and dishes. “The social school food heritage” theme consisted of accounts of coercion, control, and peer pressure, but also joy, friendship, and commensality. The Swedish school meal is a shared experience surrounded by strong feelings and memories regarding the food and the context. It means a lot both culturally and socially, acting as a carrier of a common food heritage.

Free access

Abstract

In the social sciences, it is a classic practice to contrast the development of the countryside and the city as two endpoints of a chain. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, the validity of the rural-urban dichotomy has been increasingly questioned, and we are now talking about two interconnected and complementary systems instead. In examining contemporary school meals, we ourselves observed this close and varied pattern of intertwining between the city and the countryside. Therefore, we believe it is useful to identify rural and urban features in contemporary public catering practices, and to outline mixed models that can be placed between the two endpoints in space and time. All of this can be edifying because urbanized foodways, following current food health and gastronomic trends, sustainability, climate and environmental protection requirements, as well as social considerations, return from time to time to the old village farming practices and foodways in various ways, and utilize knowledge related to traditional farming. Illustrated with specific examples, the study outlines three types of school catering models, from the oldest practice called “rural” to the “urban” (urbanized) type. A comparison of these types of public catering practices reveals the problems observed in today’s public catering.

Open access

Abstract

The present paper has in its focus a letter written in Buda in the mid-1480s by a mysterious Hungarian author, Ioannes Pannonius, whose figure is shrouded in obscurity. After a brief overview of the letter, the paper summarises the misconceptions and uncertainties surrounding the identity of the mysterious author and then attempts to outline his biography on the basis of fragmentary information. Contrary to the Anglo-Saxon scholarly literature, it argues that the Hungarian author is neither a fiction nor an intellectual “avatar” of Ficino, whom he could challenge in the public ring of contemporary intellectual space in order to defend his own Platonic theory. And if he is not a fictional author, the significance of the short letter is not only that the head of the Florentine Platonic school, Marsilio Ficino, anticipating the later theological debates around Platonism in the 16th century, replies to the letter, but also that it is perhaps the first known, highly publicised debate in the history of Hungarian philosophy.

Open access