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Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.

Arts and Humanities

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Abstract

Bronze vessels as grave goods in the burial of the Vicus at Biatorbágy. In the eastern area of Biatorbágy, north of the Autostrada / No 100, around the tenth kilometer stone in 1991, 1995, 2004 heading the planned construction works rescue excavations were carried out. Here several Roman bronze vessels, probably grave goods, were excavated. This necropolis belonged to the Roman vicus at Biatorbágy. Different types of vessels, a wine jug with a round opening, a handled dish for hand washing, on which are a depiction of a sleeping African and Bacchic attributes, a water jug with a spout, some fragments belonging to bucket or cauldron, a second water jug with sharp projecting shoulder, a jug with round mouth and decorated handle, a bath-saucer came to light. The first jug – compiled from old parts – a strange creation by a local master, was originally produced at the end of the 1st century A.D. The handled dish and the bath-saucer were fabricated at the end of the 1st century A.D.–beginning of the 2nd century A.D. Both water jugs were made around the middle of the 2nd century A.D.

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Near Biatorbágy, along the northern side of Road 100, Éva Maróti, archaeologist of the Ferenczy Museum of Szentendre, excavated a part of a cemetery in 2004. 36 early and late Roman graves were found with Avar Period burials mixed in between. The cemetery was used from the second half of the first century to the end of the fourth one. An early Roman horse burial and several undamaged bronze vessels are among the most significant finds. The cemetery begins with three indigenous skeletal burials followed by four cremation ones from the 2nd and 3rd centuries and 27 skeletal burials appearing in the second half of the 3rd century. The richer part of the 4th-century population was buried in stone or brick walled graves. Most grave goods were in the stone walled graves. Glazed jugs and female jewellery must be highlighted amongst these grave goods. The cemetery most likely belonged to the Roman settlement excavated on the border of Biatorbágy and Törökbálint being inhabited for several centuries. The burials fit in with the cemeteries of the vici (Budaörs, Biatorbágy, Páty) in the southwestern area of Aquincum.

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Abstract

The paper is dealing with 194 Aucissa brooches from 27 sites in the Roman province of Pannonia, based on the results and methodology of international archaeological and historical research. Aucissa fibulae, as costume items, are one of the leading artefacts of the early imperial period, initially used mainly by soldiers (sagum), and are therefore an important archaeological source for the Roman expansion, occupation and Romanisation. In Pannonia 98% of the Aucissa fibulae were recovered from settlements, mainly from the early layers of military forts and later towns. The material of the fibulae is bronze, there is only a single known item being silver-plated. The formal, technological and chronological analysis of the Aucissa fibulae in Pannonia is followed by a costume, historical and archaeological analysis. The Aucissa brooches in Pannonia can be dated from the beginning of the 1st century A.D. to the first decades of the 2nd century A.D. The earliest types (subtypes A242.1,2,3) are found in military forts along the Roman expansion trail. The Aucissa brooches come from the areas of the East–West military expansion route (the Drava-Save interfluve, Siscia, Sirmium, Gomolava), the North–South expansion route to the Danube (Amber Road, Salla, Savaria, Carnuntum) and the Danube limes (Brigetio, Matrica, Rittium). The smaller number of later types of fibulae (subtypes A242.4,5,6) found in the interior of the province of Pannonia (vici) indicates a process of Romanisation of the local population (Bátaszék, Csákberény, Mezőörs). The Aucissa brooches can also refer to cultural and trade relations with the Barbaricum (Púchov culture); they can indicate the movement of the Roman army (Devín, Mušov) and also the mobility of people (Veresegyház, Szeged). In some places Aucissa brooches later appeared in the clothing of civilians and women (Emona).

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Abstract

Copper is one of the most important raw materials in the Carpathian Basin, and its extraction, processing and trade can be traced at least from the Bronze Age to the Middle Ages and beyond. Drawing on a variety of sources and research methods, the authors explore the patterns of distribution of this raw material in Europe. The aim of the diachronic analysis is to uncover the networks of connections – commercial, cultural, and migratory – that can be traced over the long term in the Central European region. It also draws attention to other, less stable links in the Carpathian Basin, which have also influenced the history of the region in certain periods.

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Abstract

This paper covers the mould-blown scallop bowls from Late Roman Pannonia (Hungary), which merit a discussion because compared to other regions of the Roman Empire, scallop bowls have a relatively dense distribution in this province (Fig. 6). All the bowls described and discussed here were part of the grave goods recovered from burials, providing a good context for these vessels.

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Abstract

Elephant ivory, a prestigious and valuable raw material in the post-Roman West and Byzantium between the 5th and 7th centuries AD, may originate from various sources. While both written and art historical evidence suggests that in the case of early medieval artefacts, African provenance is more likely than Asian, no data at hand is conclusive. The present paper investigates, with the help of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, carbon and nitrogen concentration and nitrogen isotope (δ15N) analyses, the material resources of elephant ivory artefacts discovered in 6th- and 7th-century AD archaeological context in the Carpathian Basin to contribute to our understanding of late antique long-distance trade networks and economic relations.

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Abstract

The Gepid Period row cemetery at Tiszaug-Országúti bevágás was unearthed in 2018–2019. Grave 301 was one of the outstanding burials amongst the 194 graves unearthed thus far. It kept the remains of a 9–11-year old boy, who was laid to rest in a scale-down burial created according to the funerary customs of the area and era but dressed in a mortuary costume and provided with goods befitting adult men. He had a purse hanging from his belt, containing an iron knife, and some pieces of flint. A double-row antler comb was placed beside his head. A cast copper alloy belt buckle with a shield-shaped pin base and punch-mark decoration fastened his clothing on the front. While buckles of this type were widely used at that time, the closest analogies to the punch-mark decoration could be collected from the Carpathian Basin. Based on those, the burial could be dated to the mid or late 6th century AD. Another outstanding feature of the cemetery was the four burials (including Grave 301) where the deceased were laid to rest in coffins made from or imitating log boats.

Grave 301 also contained a rounded conical ivory object. The optical microscope and vibration spectroscopy analyses confirmed the initial hypotheses of the finders about the raw material of the artefact. Despite carrying out a comprehensive survey for analogies and an analysis of production and use-related marks, we could not determine what the object could have been used for; it may be a semi-finished product, but it could also be a toy or amulet. At any rate, it was made from a raw material which was extremely rare in the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin in the period in question. Grave 301 was positioned in a cluster comprising more child burials, with the graves of two adult women at the fringes; the ongoing archaeogenetical investigations may shed light on the connections between them.

Open access

The paper constitutes part of a long-range series aiming, step by step, to identify the inherited Afro-Asiatic stock in the etymologically little explored lexicon of the Omotic (West Ethiopia) branch of the Afro-Asiatic family displaying the least of shared traits among the six branches of this macrofamily, which suggests a most ancient Omotic desintegration reaching far back to the age of post-Natufian neolithic.

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Abstract

This paper serves as the postscript to the present special issue, in which I briefly report on my impressions of reading the papers. I start with the theoretical models guiding the empirical studies in the special issue. Then, I review the contents of the papers and discuss their findings. Finally, I conclude this postscript with suggestions for future research.

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Abstract

In this introduction to the present special issue, we first define the notion of Small Talk from a pragmatic point of view and interconnect Small Talk with interaction ritual. Following this, we point out why a speech act-based approach is particularly useful to study Small Talk in a rigorous and replicable way. We also introduce the speech act framework used by all the studies in the special issue. Finally, we introduce the contents of the special issue.

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