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Итоги работы по созданию «Электронного исторического словаря заимствованной лексики в русском языке XI–XVII вв.» Часть первая: грецизмы

The Results of the Compilation of The Electronic Historical Dictionary of Loanwords in the Russian Language of the 11th17th Centuries. Part One: Greek Loanwords

Studia Slavica
Authors:
М. И. Чернышева
and
Е. И. Державина

Статья представляет собой первую часть работы, где показаны итоги работы по созданию «Элек-тронного исторического словаря заимствований в русском языке XI‒XVII вв.: грецизмы и поло-низмы» – первого электронного словаря заимствований в русской исторической лексикографии объемом около восьми тысяч лексем. Грецизмы и полонизмы в силу своих генетических, хронологи-ческих и функциональных показателей являются совершенно разными пластами лексики. Каждый пласт требует самостоятельного описания и использования индивидуальной методики исследова-ния. Они представлены в двух отдельных очерках.

Первая часть посвящена грецизмам (в «Электронном словаре» описано более четырех тысяч лек-сем). Показана структура электронного словаря, его параметры (поля). Основными задачами, кото-рые решались в ходе создания первой части, были следующие: идентификация с греческим языком; расширение объема описываемой лексики; выявление многообразных фонетических и морфологи-ческих вариантов; определение первых фиксаций и hapax legomena; установление, уточнение и / или исправление семантики в известных лексикографических описаниях; введение этимологических сведений; выявление «греческого пласта» в непереводной русской письменности и его словообра-зовательного развития и др.

В ходе исследования был расширен пласт описываемой лексики за счет более широкого понима-ния «грецизмов». Это позволило показать сложную картину освоения греческой по происхожде-нию лексики во всем многообразии фонетических и морфологических (в том числе, неадаптиро-ванных) форм, которые встретились в русской письменности XI–XVII вв. Был обнаружен и описан ряд лексем и лексических форм, не представленных до сих пор в русской исторической и славянской лексикографии. Показаны особенности адаптации и отражение показателей средневекового грече-ского языка в заимствованной лексике.

В «Электронный словарь» были включены производные слова. Два параметра «Электронного словаря» («переводные источники» и «оригинальные источники») – с указанием на конкретный источник и дату появления – дают возможность проследить момент вхождения и дальнейшее бы-тование лексемы греческого происхождения, а также ее приживаемость и словообразовательное развитие в оригинальной русской письменности XI–XVII вв. Эта тема нуждается в дальнейшем исследовании и заслуживает отдельного описания.

Электронный словарь позволяет проводить многочисленные поисковые операции, которые соз-дают многостороннее представление о путях проникновения, приживаемости и функционирова-нии лексики греческого происхождения в русском языке на широком хронологическом поле семи веков.

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A középkori vaseszköz leletek keltezése

The dating of medieval iron tool finds

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Róbert Müller

Absztrakt

Bognár Katalin Boglárka dolgozta fel a Balatonőszöd-Temetői dűlőben előkerült, tíz darabból álló vaseszköz leletet. Szerintem azt nem a 13–14. században rejtették el, hanem a kora középkorban, feltehetően a 9. század folyamán. A középkori vaseszköz leletekről közölt térképét korrigálva bemutatom a Magyarország területén előkerült kora középkori, döntően 9. századi, az Árpád-kori – nagyrészt a tatárjáráshoz köthető – és a késő középkori, a török kor folyamán elásott vaseszköz leleteket.

Restricted access

Abstract

Since the start of the new millennium, there has been a marked turn in nutrition-related ethnographic research in Hungary. Following the reconstruction of the historical and regional processes of change in Hungarian dietary traditions, professional attention has increasingly shifted towards the present day. In this study, I first summarize the most important aspects of contemporary gastronomy and the respective research opportunities, before exploring the question of the relationship between contemporary food culture and public catering for children. The conclusion reached is that public catering for children and the food on offer in school canteens cannot be discussed without an understanding of the changes taking place in contemporary food culture, which in turn cannot be understood without taking into account contemporary social and cultural developments. Until the slowly changing culture of public catering becomes more closely aligned with the rapid changes in eating at home and in restaurants, fewer and fewer children will make use of school canteens, and where they do, they will barely touch the food but prefer to go hungry.

Open access

Abstract

The growth in Budapest's population at the end of the 19th century was based on the influx of migrants from the countryside, mostly industrial workers. The examination of the social tensions generated by their arrival provides a good illustration of the changes in social policy, one element of which was the operation of soup kitchens. In the mid-19th century, the main driving force behind the founding of soup kitchens was individual religious charity, although by the end of the century, social solidarity and state involvement also contributed to the relief efforts. The present study examines the development of soup kitchens in Budapest based on the historical sources: official documents, and the contemporary press. Using the ethnographic findings of food culture research, it seeks to explain why official soup kitchens were not popular. From an ethnographic point of view, the process of lifestyle change among workers newly breaking away from peasant life and moving to Budapest and its metropolitan area has been little explored to date, and the same applies to the embourgeoisement of the peasantry. When interpreting the processes that accompany labor migration, parallels can be drawn between the eating habits of the workers' regions of origin, the value systems connected with work and food, and the common meals organized for agricultural workers when working away from home. Through a historical and ethnographic approach, the transitional, evolving features of urban foodways emerge in the context of soup kitchens in parallel with the change in lifestyle.

Free access

Abstract

The introduction of school meals in the 20th century has its roots in several parallel but independent initiatives. The common source of these initiatives was the practice of philanthropy and charity, based on religious upbringing. Public catering for children was first institutionalized in Budapest by a charitable organization, the Children's Society (Gyermekbarátok Egyesülete), after which several denominational associations followed suit. In the early 20th century, the City of Budapest itself also took the initiative, setting up its first daycare centers where needy children were not only fed but also participated in educational and recreational activities. Resources for social welfare were eroded during the war, thus foreign aid organizations stepped in to help the children of Budapest immediately after the war, while childcare became the sole responsibility of the public authorities from the 1920s. From then on, the state covered the entire costs of providing meals, similar to the system of soup kitchens established specifically for supplying food to destitute adults.

Open access

Abstract

The Hungarian writer Sándor Petőfi (1823–1849) achieved the union of the Hungarian people thanks to the verses of his National Song (Nemzeti dal), which have always been quoted and recited with great interest. Therefore, the following paper aims to analyse some problems with the poem's translation into Spanish and present a new version of this emblematic poem for the Hungarians.

Open access

Fructus, Attianus, Ariomanus

Restoring two altar-inscriptions from Poetovio

Fructus, Attianus, Ariomanus

Két poetovioi oltárfelirat kiegészítése
Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Melinda Szabó

Abstract

The study includes two inscriptions from Poetovio both on altars, one dedicated to Mithras, the other to Isis, both erected for the wellbeing of a person. In addition to the findspot they have in common that both persons mentioned in them were employees of the publicum portorium Illyrici customs office. This insight is the basis for the new additions to the study, as for both inscriptions it was possible to reinterpret the previously known inscriptions based on the pattern used by customs post employees, which could be observed on other inscriptions. The new addition will allow the two inscriptions to be included in the research on the operation and staffing of the Illyricum customs district.

Open access

Abstract

Prescribed and supported by the state, public catering in Hungary fulfils a common social need; its aim is to meet the nutritional requirements of consumers in terms of both quantity and quality. Public catering is legally regulated and is also important from the perspective of health policy. As the smallest unit of common catering, family meals differ from public catering in several respects. One fundamental difference is that public catering rests on scientific foundations: it is planned, organized, and controlled by a qualified manager. This manager may be a trained dietitian or a catering manager, according to the National Qualifications Register. The training for these two roles is interlinked and goes back more than a century.

Open access

Abstract

The present study examines the Hungarian practice of public catering for children from an economic perspective, bearing in mind that the production and consumption of food is, at the same time, an economic activity. Taking this approach, we focus on which institutions contribute to or hinder efficiency, by which we mean the efforts of economic agents to generate maximum welfare from the available (meager) resources. For social reasons, the supply of public catering for children is a statutory obligation on the part of local authorities, where efficiency must be combined with social considerations. The study reviews the rationing mechanism of school meals catering as a public service, looking first at the main factors determining the level of demand for public catering for children, and then at the main factors that influence supply.

Open access

Abstract

The study examines the provision of school-holiday meals for children and shows how it is embedded in society. Proper nutrition is very important for children's physical and cognitive development. However, international research shows that children's social and cultural background has a significant impact on their nutrition. To reduce these disparities and ensure that all children have a healthy diet, effective government intervention is necessary. In Hungary, school canteens and free meals during school holidays for children in need serve this purpose. The latter service is of great importance for the children of families affected by food poverty. Yet, statistics show that some of these children are unable to use this service. This study examines the period before 2016 and highlights the social embeddedness of the service and its consequences on the provision. Whether child food poverty is perceived as a social issue and a common cause generating community intervention largely depends on the local actor's correct perception of the issue, the local appraisal of need, and the consideration of parents' “deservingness.” The study also makes some suggestions about areas where further interventions should focus to improve the nutrition of children affected by food poverty.

Open access