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Studia Slavica
Authors:
Валерий Мокиенко
and
Татьяна Никитина

В статье на материале фразеологизмов русского и других славянских языков с привлечением вен-герских фразеологических параллелей рассматривается образная составляющая концепта «Бог». Для анализа отобраны фразеологизмы, образы которых отражают взаимодействие Бога и человека. Цель статьи – показать, как в ассоциативных механизмах фраземообразования и ситуациях, отра-жаемых прототипами идиом и пословиц, реализуются общехристианские представления о миро-устройстве и национально специфические интерпретации взаимодействия человека и Бога.

Анализируются обороты, восходящие к текстам Библии и представляющие сцены земной жизни Христа, его контакты с последователями и преследователями. В народных фразеологизмах, которые также стали объектом сопоставительного анализа, метафорически переосмысляются ситуации вза-имодействия Бога и простого человека. Клишированные обращения человека к Богу как еще один вид взаимодействия человека и Бога, содержат просьбы о семейном благополучии, здоровье, удаче.

Выявлены общие идеологемы, передаваемые конфессионно маркированными фразеологизмами и паремиями славянских языков и венгерского языка. Этот материал свидетельствует о том, что Бог в народных представлениях – заботливый покровитель, помощник человека. Бог определяет судьбу человека, сроки его жизни, отдельные поступки. Бог требует соблюдения определенных мораль-но-этических норм и сурово наказывает за отступление от них.

Анализ нашего материала позволяет сделать предварительные заключения о фраземообразова-тельной активности отдельных библейских мотивов в разных лингвокультурах: страдания Христа, отречение его учеников, карающая сила Бога шире представлены в образах западнославянских фра-зеологизмов. Русские фразеологизмы с компонентом «Бог» чаще строятся на ассоциациях с благодатью, фразеологически представленное общение с Богом зачастую можно охарактеризовать как неформальное, на Бога чаще перекладывается ответственность за опрометчивые или неблаговид-ные поступки. Симбиоз языческих и христианских представлений о мироустройстве особенно ярко иллюстрируют русские и венгерские фразеологические обороты, в которых упоминаются русский бог, венгерский бог. На русском и венгерском материале показаны также механизмы десакрализа-ции слова Бог и его использования в угрозах-обсценизмах.

Особое внимание уделяется анализу народно-этимологических и профессиональных версий про-исхождения конфессионально детерминированных фразеологизмов. Подчеркивается, что резуль-таты проведенного исследования могут быть полезны при составлении лингвокультурологических словарей и словарей библеизмов.

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The important role that the Hašt Bihišt VI of Idrīs Bidlīsī (1457–1520) and the detailed accounts he devoted to the reign of Murād II (1421–1444; 1446–1451) played in the development of early modern Ottoman historiography cannot be denied. Although the work was popular in the Ottoman world, especially its court circles, where its handsome copies were avidly produced, it was never prepared as a critical edition in its original Persian in the modern Ottoman studies departments. The following discussion concentrates on an editorial emendation that shows the carelessness of Bidlīsī in the transmission of his quotations. The formation of the Sufi and Shiite elements within Book VI of Hašt Bihišt is only briefly discussed.

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Mária Radnóti-Alföldi (1926–2022)

Ein Kind des Zweiten Weltkrieges – ein Opfer der europäischen Teilung – eine hochgeschätzte Wissenschaftlerin und akademische Lehrerin

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Gabriele Rasbach
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This study aims to answer the question whether the ancient Cēra kings sailed the seas and, if so, whether their technology was suitable for crossing the Indian Ocean, while it tries to summarize what we know about shipbuilding in ancient Southwest India. On the following pages, an attempt is made to introduce the most important passages of the Old Tamil Caṅkam literary sources in order to analyse their data in the light of Greek and Latin sources, and of Indian and Mediterranean inscriptions. It can be concluded that although inscriptions of Tamil traders can be found from Egypt to Thailand, and the Cēra kings built a maritime fleet for probably the first time in the history of ancient South India in order to punish their enemy, the kaṭampu tribe by sailing on the seas, their nautical contribution to the long-distance trade of the Arabian Sea as well as their engagement in coastal shipping can be classified as moderate and incidental in the antiquity.

Open access

Abstract

The present study offers a speech-act analysis of the phatic interaction taking place within the ritual frame of casual encounters in the elevator. The corpus consists of 70 encounters that took place in Madrid, Spain, between 2020 and 2023. The analysis draws from Edmondson & House's (1981) originally proposed interactional typology of speech acts, also found in House & Kádár (2021a, 2023) and Edmondson, House & Kádár (2022). The main findings show, among other things, that some acts that are not conceived as phatic in the typology can migrate into the phatic slots, and that the speech-act pattern of this type of encounters can be affected by sociopragmatic variables such as the relational history of the interactants, or the co-created humorous episodes in the encounters.

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Abstract

The current interpretive study aimed to characterize the (non-)ritual, phatic clusters of speech acts that conventionally recur around the opening/closing phases of Persian speaking students' social encounters or occur during the core (or ‘business’) phase of natural interactions as small talk in Persian. The study was conducted in Iran's Persian linguaculture where considerable social-cultural-economic changes have taken place over the last decade or so impacting the form and content of phatic interaction in all sectors of the society. The participants of the study were 97 Persian-speaking university students attending a state-run university located in the southwest of Iran. The students were asked to audio-record their natural interactions in four different social encounters varied based on the standard sociolinguistic parameters of Social Distance and Power (+/−SD, +/−P). We adopted House & Kádár's (2022) pragmalinguistic and speech act-anchored model of phatic interaction to code the (non-)ritual realization patterns of small talks around the opening, closing, and core phases of interaction. The results indicate that small talks which are co-constructed by the Persian interactants at the opening and closing phases of their social encounters are highly ritualized in terms of the speech act types and pragmalinguistic structures employed. Further, interpersonal interchanges which involve differential sociolinguistic P and SD values require more tactfulness and care in adhering to the greeting and parting conventions as more face-threat is potentially implicated. In terms of the medial phase, except for a small number of ostensible realizations of different speech acts such as invites, offers, and apologies, core off-topic phaticity was perceived to be non-ritual and discursive in Persian the interpretation of which heavily relies upon shared sociopragmatic knowledge of the linguaculture.

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In 2017, Further Research on Khitan Small Script was published, which revised and summarized the phonetic value of 300 glyphs. However, with the discovery of new materials and an increasing number of researchers, new progress has been made in the reconstruction of Khitan small script. This paper aims to introduce the latest research results on the reconstruction of 8 glyphs in Khitan small script.

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Győr-Kálvária összevont lelőhely késő vaskori embertani leleteinek biológiai antropológiai vizsgálata

Biological anthropological analysis of human remains from a Late Iron Age burial of Győr-Kálvária merged site

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Katalin Gyenesei
,
Krisztián Kiss
,
Tamás Szeniczey
,
Ferenc Ujvári
,
Krisztina Pesti
, and
Tamás Hajdu

Absztrakt

A tanulmány a Győr-Kálvária összevont lelőhelyen feltárt húsz csontvázas és két hamvasztásos késő vaskori kelta temetkezésből előkerült emberi maradványok klasszikus embertani és makroszkópos paleopatológiai eredményeit mutatja be.

Open access

Ancient Turfan was an important crossroad of languages and scripts on the Northern Silk Road where various languages and scripts coexisted simultaneously. This point is strongly supported by the diversity of languages and scripts attested in the texts discovered in the region and the complex relation between languages and scripts as well as the language use. This paper first examines a colophon to the Chinese premier Qianziwen 千字文 kept in the Berlin Turfan Collection with the shelf number Ch 3716 (T II Y 62) which clearly followed the syntax of Old Uyghur, and then reconstructs the text with the assumption that the text was read in Old Uyghur. After briefly discussing some aspects of Old Uyghur’s use of the Qianziwen, this paper examines another Chinese colophon in the same manuscript. The main aim is to illustrate some aspects of Old Uyghur’s use of Chinese in medieval Turfan.

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