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Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.

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Acta Linguistica Academica
Authors:
Sabine Sommer-Lolei
,
Veronika Mattes
,
Katharina Korecky-Kröll
, and
Wolfgang U. Dressler

Abstract

Cognitive processing strategies can explain general word-formation preferences that influence the structures and their developments. They are based on simplicity, transparency, iconicity, salience, and frequency. We present and discuss evidence from our data on first language acquisition for how these cognitively based general preferences can explain the course of development of word formation and how they interact or compete. The analysis is based on the development of distributions of word formations in longitudinal data and panel data of child speech and their input from high and low socio-economic status families. In order to evaluate the productivity of a word-formation pattern in child speech, we applied the mini-paradigm criterion. Age-of-acquisition effects will be presented according to our own processing studies and to literature.

Open access

7. századi temetkezések Békés vármegyéből – Adatok a Tiszántúl avar kori lószerszámos temetkezéseihez

7th century graves from Békés County (SE-Hungary): Data for Avar-age burials with horse harness from the Trans-Tisza region

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Csilla Balogh
,
András Gulyás
, and
Gábor Lőrinczy

Absztrakt

A dolgozat a Békésszentandrás-Benda-tanya és Szarvas-Kovács-halom lelőhelyről nyolc, a 7. század második és harmadik negyedéből származó temetkezés régészeti elemzését adja. A nyolc temetkezésből öt ún. lószerszámos temetkezés, vagyis a sírokba csak a lószerszám került elhelyezésre. Ezek nemcsak a Tiszántúlról eddig ismert lószerszámos temetkezések számát növelik, hanem új adatokat is szolgáltatnak e temetkezési szokás értékeléséhez.

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The study of ‘Ammār’s understanding of freedom complements previous research on Arabic Christian formulations of the subject. Studies either relate them to the concept of ḥērūṯā in Syriac tradition or the context of Christian-Muslim controversy. I demonstrate that in ‘Ammār’s discussion, on a terminological-lexical level, engagement with Islamic thought is less evident while Syriac influences and Patristic and Greek philosophical parallels can be identified. I reconstruct the meanings of his terms through a close reading of extensive passages and group the occurrences lexically-thematically into the following units: 1. freedom (ḥurriyya, derivations from ḥ-r-r, related or synonymous expressions); 2. capacity, choice (istiṭā‘a, iḫtiyār); 3. acquisition, deserving, necessitating (iktisāb, istiḥqāq, istīğāb); 4. intentions, moral responsibility.

Open access

The Chinese term rou doukou has generally been taken to mean ‘nutmeg’. This identification dates from the nineteenth century. However, there is reason to think that rou doukou was originally not nutmeg, but the fruits of a plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. Early descriptions and illustrations of rou doukou are clearly not of nutmeg: in Chinese pharmacopoeias, it is usually listed with herbs, not trees. The earliest reference to nutmeg is probably in the Zhu fan zhi of 1225. However, most Chinese references to rou doukou long after that date still refer to a plant of the ginger family.

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The Naxi manuscripts are generally religious texts used by the Dongba priests in southwest of China. The interpretation of colophons has often been underappreciated in previous studies. This paper reviews previous research on colophons in Naxi manuscripts and redefines the concept of the ‘colophon’ as a term used in the study of Naxi manuscripts. In this paper, the colophons of some of the Naxi manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek zu of Berlin are discussed, revealing when and where the manuscripts were copied, and the events associated with the copying process. When reading the colophons, one often encounters translation errors and other problems, but their correct interpretation will help shed more light on the circumstances of the production of the Naxi manuscripts, which make up a unique component of the world’s literary heritage.

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After discussing some thus far unknown examples of inner-Tocharian borrowing processes with direction TA >> TB, the present paper argues that also the substantive B lek* ‘gesture’ represents a loanword from Tocharian A, in particular from the Tocharian A form lek ‘shape; gesture’. Under the assumption of a semantic development ‘equality, identity, correspondence’ ⇒ ‘figure, shape’ ⇒ ‘gesture’ – for which parallels are available –, A lek is etymologically connected with the independently reconstructable root PIE *leig-‘(be[come]) equal’ and thus traced back to a nominal pre-form *lóig-u- or *lóig-o-.

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Religious texts are written in understandable language due to their instructive and preaching characteristics. Although different methods are used in these texts, the form of ‘narration/storytelling’ is prominent. In this article, two stories, ‘The House of Hasan’ and ‘The Story of the Nightingale,’ which were published in Eastern Turki by Swedish missionaries in the East Turkistan region with the Swedish Mission Press, are evaluated by considering their stylistic features. While these stories were written in Eastern Turki, Arabic and Persian words, which the public often saw in works related to the Islamic religion, were also frequently used. Such linguistic choices are related to the source person’s message to the receiver and the importance of the receiver’s easy understanding of the text.

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Inscriptions in the highly calligraphic and still undeciphered śaṅkhalipi or ‘shell script’ have been found by the hundreds in most parts of India except the far south, typically in conjunction with sites and monuments dating from around the Gupta period and succeeding centuries. To date, four specimens have also been discovered in the Indonesian archipelago, in West Java and West Kalimantan (Borneo). Another specimen of śaṅkhalipi inscription, engraved on a pillar and exceptionally ornate, was recently discovered in Thailand at the site of Si Thep, a moated early settlement in Phetchabun Province. The article reviews the historical and cultural contexts of shell-script inscriptions in India and discusses the significance of this remarkable first specimen found in mainland Southeast Asia.

Open access

Abstract

The present paper aims to examine the role of the oil lamp (λύχνος) in the daily life of the residents of Egypt through the documentation of Greek papyri and ostraca from the Graeco-Roman and Byzantine periods. Due to the fragmentary condition of the archival material, the sources of ancient Greek and Latin literature are also taken into consideration with a view to corroborating some uncertain points of detail. Specifically, careful scrutiny is given to aspects such as the oil lamp's price and material, its domestic uses, its role as pledge (ἐνέχυρον) and part of inheritance, as well as its function in various activities performed at night. The matters of its importance in the realm of theatre, its connection to theft, the side-effects of its use, and the exploration of the figurative use of the term λύχνος as a literary device are also examined.

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Abstract

The study explores the perceptions of small talk shared by the users of a Japanese online community, seeking information on their expected speech and behaviour in small talk and factors contributing to positive/negative evaluations of small talk. The study investigates a discussion thread consisting of 73 responses to a contributor's request for advice on improving small talk capabilities from the perspectives of interaction ritual (Goffman 1967), balancing obligations (Ohashi 2008, 2013, 2021) and typology of speech acts (Edmondson & House 1981; House & Kádár 2022b).

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