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The gallows in Holíč (Skalica district, Slovakia) archaeological research and virtual reconstruction

Šibenica v Holíči (okres Skalica, Slovensko). Archeologický výskum a pokus o virtuálnu rekonštrukciu

Akasztófa Holicsban (Skalicai járás, Szlovákia). Régészeti kutatás és kísérlet a virtuális rekonstrukcióra

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Daniel Bešina
,
Stanislava Bönde Gogová
, and
Pavol Šteiner

Abstract

The archaeological research of the gallows in Holíč is one of the first purposefully surveyed sites of this kind in Slovakia. The issue of research on execution sites is only marginally dealt with in our territory. The research confirmed the presence of a simple brick gallows with two supporting posts. Skeletal remains of human bodies discovered in the excavated area are no less important in this context. The information and the finds can contribute to the study of capital execution and types of gallows not only in the territory of today's Slovakia, but also in the wider area of the historical Kingdom of Hungary. The features datable to the Second World War are also worth mentioning and provide an ideal opportunity to compare archaeological finds of modern military history with the available written sources.

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The investigation of ninth–eleventh century burials from Himod (NW Hungary)

Physical anthropology data in the light of artifact typology

Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors:
Piroska Rácz
and
Péter Langó

Abstract

This study presents the results of a classic physical anthropological and paleopathological study of the early medieval human bone material from the Himod-Káposztáskertek site. A smaller part of the graves can be dated to the ninth century but the majority of graves dates to the tenth–eleventh century. Since the possibility of population continuity was raised, the archaeological data related to the question were also reviewed (with special emphasis on the typology of a knife found in Grave 68), with the intent of seeing whether the anthropological data supported this hypothesis. Both samples represent only a small number of cases and the remains are poorly preserved. The ninth century series especially provided very little data, ultimately making comparison impossible. The remains of 25 individuals were found in the Carolingian cemetery section: childburials number 15, the juvenile age group is not represented by any skeletons, there are ten adult burials (4 males, 5 females, 1 of undeterminable sex). The skeletons from 87 individuals were excavated from the tenth–eleventh century section of the cemetery, of which 25 were children, 5 were juveniles, and 57 were adults (29 males, 28 females). For both men and women, people of tall stature form the majority; male skulls are characterized by large absolute dimensions, mainly a broad forehead and a broad face. Fractures, degenerative changes of the spine and extravertebral joints (especially the elbow joint) were common. Tuberculosis infection was suspected in the case of one individual. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease with bilateral involvement and a rare developmental disorder, congenital scoliosis, occurred in the material as well.

Open access

Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to study a specific element of women's depicted costumes. Pictures on stone monuments present local, so-called native women wearing complex attire of cloth, headwear, brooches, jewels, and other dress accessories. Thirteen stone monuments from Hungary depict local women with headwear-related accessories. The main questions are: what kind of accessories are they, and how can we evaluate their presence on depicted attires? I collected analogous depictions from other Provinces and studied archaeological material. Finally, I concluded that these headwear-related accessories connect to new cultural effects and the complex phenomenon of acculturation.

Open access

Abstract

In his paper the author summarizes the research of Roman Pannonia in the recent decades, mainly after 1986 when Pavel Oliva edited his volume of the series Tabula Imperii Romani, He examined the most important historical and administrative events of the province. Kovács also delt with the new historical monographs that studied the entire history or administration of Pannonia and the most important towns. The author separately examined the new epigraphic works, corpora and the new inscribed finds. In the last part of his paper he delt with the new archaeological discoveries from Brigetio to Sirmium.

Open access

Abstract

This paper covers the glass bowl fragments brought to light at Intercisa (Dunaújváros, Hungary). Bowls occur in relatively high number among the finds from the vicus and the military fort of Intercisa. The open vessels assigned to this category have a rim diameter exceeding the vessel height or exceeding the vessel height by at least 60%. Of the roughly 700 glass fragments known from the site, no more than 72 represent bowls, accounting for about 10% of the vessel glass, a relatively high proportion. Facet-cut bowls are the most frequent type among bowls: 40 pieces can be assigned to this category. Mosaic and ribbed bowls, as well as some cast and mould-pressed bowls are typical of the early Roman period. The vast majority of the bowls are blown vessels and date to the later second and the third centuries, with a few exemplars dating to the fourth century. Two bowl types stand out from among the finds, namely the facet-cut bowls and the scallop bowls of the late Roman period, which, judging from their regional distribution, had probably both been produced in a glass workshop active on the Intercisa settlement. One remarkable fragment from a hemispherical bowl bears a male head with a hedgehog hairstyle; it is paralleled by several vessels not only from the Cologne area, but also from Pannonia.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this article is to better define how changes in the Latin vowel system evolved over time in the stressed vs. the unstressed syllables in the Latin of Rome. To this end, the cases of <e> for /i/ and <o> for /u/ in an epigraphic corpus of 6,599 inscriptions from this city have been analysed by comparing the number of epigraphic errors occurring under and out of stress in five different periods. Our results indicate that, until about the 4th cent. CE, cases of <e> for /i/ and <o> for /u/ occur mostly in the unstressed syllables in our inscriptions, which is consistent with the view that the reorganisation of the vocalic qualities in the Latin vowel system affected the unstressed vowels before it affected the stressed ones. However, the same results also indicate that the number of epigraphic deviations concerning the stressed vowels /i/ and /u/ in our corpus increases from about the 4th–5th cent. CE onwards, and that this fact should be linked to the dephonologisation of contrastive vowel quantity (in the stressed syllables).

Open access

Abstract

The main scope of the present study is the semantic and syntactic analysis of the use of the Latin demonstratives based on quantitative and qualitative data from the volumes I, II, CXVIII of the Chartae Latinae Antiquiores (ChLA). These volumes contain original parchment charters between the 7th century and 801, written in St. Gall or in its vicinity. For the current analysis, 133 private legal documents were selected. The underlying principle of the examination is concerned with the ‘genre’ of the legal documents, namely the formulas, i.e. the strict set of words embedded in the tradition of charter composition that can only be changed when difficulties in understanding emerge and prevail. Therefore, anomalies presented 3–4 times in the corpus are evaluated, if they differ in the identity of the scribe, in the place and time of the composition, although, statistically, they could be excluded from the examination as outliers. Thus, the analysis focuses on the following anomalies: determiner multiplication, substitution, additional metalinguistic participles and articuloїde cases.

Open access

Abstract

The present paper deals with a marginal divergent spelling consisting in the geminatio of a consonant littera in pre- or post-consonantal position. The phenomenon is found in both Latin and Greek non-literary texts. The analysis is conducted on two levels, one grapho-phonological and one historical. In fact, the phenomenon results to be particularly relevant as for the relation between spelling and syllabic representation of heterosyllabic clusters and as for the dimension of contact between Latin and Greek scripts. First, a synchronic cut of Latin non-literary texts is examined to evaluate the occurrence of this geminatio and its ratio of distribution along the different types of clusters. It can be stated that the geminatio at hand represents a metagraphic signal of syllab(ific)ation indeterminacy, as is further corroborated by the examination of metalinguistic sources. Secondly, the historical perspective is then addressed. This spelling can be interpreted as a feature, albeit marginal and stemming from ephemeral slips, of writing koine, as is further evidenced by the examination of two sample clusters of texts.

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