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Arts and Humanities

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Abstract

Cover and uncover: is the attempt to unveil and reveal the hidden meaning of the mysteries a paradox (Porph. Antr. 4. 16–17)? The present contribution aims at exploring Porphyry's interest in the commentary Περὶ τοῦ ἐν Ὀδυσσείᾳ τῶν νυμφῶν ἄντρου (Cave of the Nymphs) for the allegorical interpretation of images, symbols and terms variously linked with the Mysteries and encapsulating truths on the nature of the divine, the soul and ultimately the cosmos. More specifically, attention will be drawn mostly (but not only) on features connected with Orphism, here defined and understood as a form of ‘mysteriosophy’. The scope of this analysis falls within the study of Porphyry's use of allegorical exegesis but also within the broader discussion of different forms of philosophical religion in Late Antiquity, underscoring the complex but fruitful relationship between theology, philosophy and the Mysteries.

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Abstract

In Old Catalan, some verbs like beure ‘to drink’ display a velar consonant in the forms that come from Latin perfectum, such as 3sg.prt *ˈbibwit > bec [ˈbek] ‘s/he drank’. This velar was initially a perfect marker. However, the consonant spread analogically from perfective to imperfective forms through an exaptation process. In the present paper, we compare two different verb classes, and prove that the existence of syncretism between the first and third persons of the present indicative (1sg.prs.ind beu [ˈbew] ‘I drink’ vs. 3sg.prs.ind beu [ˈbew] ‘s/he drinks’) is a factor that accelerates the analogical process of velarization.

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Abstract

In the ancient world, visual and verbal σύνθημα appears to be of enormous importance during conflicts. It is one of the elements pertaining to the management and organization of political intelligence. In particular, the signal, declined in the verbal form, for its fundamental function of ‘recognition’ to validate the belonging of a soldier to a particular side, had to be chosen with great care. Its use appears to have intensified and, at the same time, perfected, according to what can be gathered from historiographical evidence and from military treatises, at the time of the transition between the Classical and Hellenistic eras, when the way of waging war also underwent an important transformation.

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Abstract

The study presents the development of the art policy of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party between 1957 and 1985, describing the processes and tendencies supporting it. The art policy of the Kádár era was framed by four documents among the various party resolutions, with different weight and effectiveness: the The Cultural Policy of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (1958); The Vocation of Literature and the Arts in Our Society (1966); Topical Issues in Our Arts Policy (1977); and the On the Current Tasks of the HSWP's arts policy (1984). György Aczél, the main director of the art policy of the Kádár era, played a decisive role in their creation, albeit with age. The appearance of the documents always marked a change in the era of art policy, in close connection with the consolidation after 1956, the attempts at economic reform in the 1960s and the reversal of the 1970s.

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Komödie und Pornographie

Catulls Carm. 10 über die Gefahren erotischer Literatur

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Heiko Ullrich

Abstract

Catullusʼ Carm. 10 seems to present the speaker as a miles gloriosus duped by the girlfriend of Varus, presumably a friend of the poet and fellow Neoteric. While it has been claimed that Plautusʼ Miles Gloriosus is the most influential role model for Carm. 10, the present article shows that the speaker employs a variety of scenes both from Plautusʼ and Terenceʼs comedies to adopt and maintain the mask of the parasitus who suffers from his financial failure and personal humiliation during the time spent with the praetor Memmius in Bithynia. But Varus and his girlfriend want to hear other stories from the famous province of the infamous encounter between King Nikomedes and young Julius Caesar – and the speaker seems to perform according to this expectations when he calls Memmius an irrumator and (one of) his hosts a cinaedior. But in the end he is not willing to write pornography on demand even if some of his friends (including Aurelius and Furius of Carm. 16 as well as Varus of Carm. 10) consider the poet not just up to the task but currently the best choice for such delicate matters.

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Die schwüle Welt des Harems •

Erotische Phantasmagorien der frühen Neuzeit

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Brigitta Pesti

Abstract

In the 18th century, as political and economic relations with the East strengthened, and the first travelogues on Turkey and various other works on ethnological, geographical and cultural topics were published, a particularly positive reception of the Orient became widespread, originating from the southern and south-eastern Europe. As a result, the image of the threatening apocalyptic enemy, the “bloodhound”, was replaced by the stereotype of an attractive and exotic foreigner.

The euphoric reception of Ottoman culture was initially manifested in the presentation of operas and Turkish feasts held in noble and royal courts, but was also exhibited in portraits of people in Turkish clothes, posing among oriental backdrops. Depictions of harems and odalisque (harem ladies) were important motifs of these paintings from the very start. At the beginning of the fashion of Orientalism, the theme of the harem, also known as Turquerie, appeared only in the circles of the highest aristocracy, as a spicy bit of its self-representation, but by the 19th century, the identification of harem and erotica and, in many cases, harem and open sexuality, had become widespread in European fine arts.

In my study, I aim to review briefly the appearances of the motif of the harem in literature and the fine arts, as well as the literary and cultural historical development of its erotic connotations, and offer its interpretation in a Central European context.

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Abstract

This article deals with the enigmatic biography and the controversial oeuvre of Karl Maria Kertbeny (recte: Karl Maria Benkert; 1824-1882). Kertbeny was a representative of the so-called Hungarus identity, a convinced Hungarian of non-Hungarian mother tongue. He worked primarily as a journalistic mediator and literary translator and was largely responsible for the image of Hungary and of Hungarian culture and literature in German-speaking countries, especially in the period from the middle of the 19th century onwards. In the article, the overly critical attitude that posterity took towards Kertbeny is set to some extent straight.

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