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Abstract

Conservative critic John Borstlap cited Ligeti as a partisan in his fight against the modernist myth of progress in the arts, based on the famous citation “I am in a prison. One wall is the avant-garde, the other is the past. I want to escape.” Ligeti's ambivalence reflected his distaste for art linked to utopian socialist ideals, and for all that was reactionary. Yet he admitted that his own youthful utopian strivings evolved into a desire for complex music that often defied audibility. This essay traces Ligeti's reception history from the late 1950s onward as a reaction to the thwarted utopian strains in his music. For some, Ligeti's music of the 1960s seemed to define “the contemporary problem itself.” But the composer's increased visibility in the 1990s led to demands that he deal with his Jewish heritage and wartime trauma, and cease writing music with a broad appeal. I argue that Ligeti's works reinscribe the past, the personal, and the extramusical as a conscious expression of his prison. They express the nonlinear notion of progress that defines modernism: a vast “tear in the historical process” able to lift music above the scrum of political-aesthetic skirmishes, to a “region which lies elsewhere.”

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Abstract

On several occasions, Ligeti spoke about an early literary memory that he credited with the origins of his meccanico style. He recalled reading a short story by Gyula Krúdy (1878–1933) at the age of five, in which Krúdy supposedly wrote about a widow who lived in an old house filled with constantly ticking clocks. To date, the best Krúdy experts have been unable to identify the story in question, and it is reasonable to assume that in Ligeti's mind, actual elements from the writer's work were freely recombined and reimagined at a time when the compositions partly inspired by the Krúdy experience had already been written. Ligeti's published interviews contain references to Krúdy that go beyond the story with the clocks, it may be assumed that the writer's influence on the composer goes deeper than what has been acknowledged so far.

In addition, there is an aspect of Ligeti's recollection of the Krúdy story that has not received all the attention it deserves. In his conversations with Péter Várnai, the composer spoke of machines that were working or not working (emphasis mine), and elevators stopping at the wrong floor, or not starting at all. Some of the meccanico works are worth revisiting in search of such “malfunctions” as we try to reimagine the old house where not all the clocks might have been running like clockwork.

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Abstract

Children are a vulnerable group in terms of obesity: nearly 20% of Hungarian kindergarten and school-aged children are overweight or obese. School catering plays a decisive role in shaping children's nutritional behavior. To support the prevention of obesity and to increase the quality of children's diets, legislation passed in 2014 included provisions on school catering. This paper provides a qualitative content analysis of a roundtable discussion on the school catering system that took place at an interdisciplinary conference, with the aim of identifying the most important messages about school meals conveyed by the discussion. During the qualitative analysis of the roundtable discussion, seven main categories emerged: factors supporting the acceptance/implementation of public catering; factors hindering the acceptance/implementation of public catering; everyday problems in the implementation of public catering; the task of caterers and public catering; the transformation of public catering; cooperation among parties with an interest in public catering; and factors helping children to cooperate. The co-occurrence network of subcategories and values can be broken down into one large component and several separate, small components. Thus, it can be concluded that the majority of subthemes and values are grouped into a coherent system. The results point to the key role of school catering in healthy nutrition and nutrition education, and the importance of close cooperation among parties with an interest in school catering to promote the social acceptance of catering and the prevention of childhood obesity.

Open access

Abstract

The starting point for the present study is the thematization of the concept of “Jewish cultural heritage” and, in this context, the outlining of the role and position of cemeteries in Jewish tradition. The case study focuses on the Hungarian village of Apc, which was home to a Jewish community of just over a hundred people before World War II. After the Holocaust, only a few survivors returned to the settlement; some of them emigrated, while others remained in Apc for the rest of their lives. In recent decades, what has become of the cemetery, one of the most important sites for the former Jewish community of Apc? This paper explores the process of the heritagization of the local Jewish cemetery, one of the activities carried out by the Together for Apc Association, a civil society initiative launched two decades ago. In 2003, the dilapidated and abandoned “Israelite cemetery” was the first of the settlement's deteriorating assets to be declared as local cultural heritage. With the involvement of various actors from the local community (volunteers and local entrepreneurs), and in contact with Jewish organizations (the Federation of Hungarian Jewish Communities, the Foundation for Hungarian Jewish Cemeteries), the cemetery was restored over a period of two years and was “inaugurated” in 2006 in the presence of a rabbi, a cantor, a Jewish secular leader, Holocaust survivors and members of the local society. In the fifteen years since then, care has been taken to ensure that the achievements are sustainable and maintained, and the cemetery has been kept open not only for the descendants of the Jewish community but for all interested parties. But the salvaging of the Apc Jewish cemetery is not only an example of the preservation of the built heritage of a single community: while for the village residents it forms part of their local identity, for the Jewish organizations it represents part of their Jewish identity. What happens when two communities stake a claim to the heritagization of the same site? As a shared goal, or “cause,” the “bipolar” process of the heritagization of the Jewish cemetery in Apc has provided an opportunity for dialogue, collective thinking, and problem solving between Jewish and non-Jewish society, even if the various heritagization goals, coming from different directions, have in many cases generated tensions.

Open access

Abstract

Gastronomy and meals have always played a key role in shaping cultural characteristics, and it is for this very reason that cultural anthropology pays particular attention to these topics. In this paper, we present several analytical dimensions that can be applied to the analysis of food culture, partly from a cultural anthropological perspective and partly from a socio-semiotic perspective. Firstly, we review those aspects of gastro-semiotics that help us to organize foods according to various dichotomies and polarities. We discuss, on the one hand, those aspects that may indicate differences between cultures and subcultures, and on the other those that relate to temporal differences in food consumption and those that are rooted in material differences among foods. We then list the dimensions that, in the form of general status symbols, may also play a role in the analysis of food. In the present paper we also discuss our longitudinal study The Symbols of Hungarianness (1997 and 2021/22), conducted on a nationwide representative sample of 1,000 people, in which we asked about foods and drinks that are characteristic in terms of national identity and that are thus also suitable for presenting certain typical features of Hungarian cuisine.

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Egy új megközelítés az árokkeretek szarmata temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepének vizsgálatához

New approach to the study of the role of encircling ditches in Sarmatian burial rites

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Balázs Wieszner

Absztrakt

A tanulmány a szarmata árokkereteknek a temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepének újfajta megközelítését célozza meg, amely elsősorban a bennük elhelyezett különböző típusú deponálások strukturális mintázatait figyelembe vevő térhasználati modellen alapszik. Az árokkeretekben viszonylagos gyakorisággal kerülnek elő különböző típusú áldozati jellegű edény- és állategyüttesek. A korábbi kutatások ezeket a leleteket csak másodlagosan említették a különböző interpretációkban és azokat az őskultusszal vagy a halotti lakomával hozták összefüggésbe. Pedig az árokkeretekben elhelyezett deponálások egy olyan kötött, szelektivitáson alapuló, ismétlődő viselkedési mintázatot mutatnak, ami az árokkeretek strukturális különbségeinek ellenére is egységesnek tekinthető. Emiatt az árokkeretek temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepét célszerűbb a bennük elhelyezett deponálások, illetve azok ismétlődő, standardizáló térhasználati mintázatai révén értelmezni. Az elemzés eredményeként az árokkereteknek a temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepében egy olyan egységes társadalmi logika mutatható ki, ami hozzájárulhat a szarmaták társadalmi szerveződésének felvázolásához és megértéséhez.

Open access

Abstract

Bronze vessels as grave goods in the burial of the Vicus at Biatorbágy. In the eastern area of Biatorbágy, north of the Autostrada / No 100, around the tenth kilometer stone in 1991, 1995, 2004 heading the planned construction works rescue excavations were carried out. Here several Roman bronze vessels, probably grave goods, were excavated. This necropolis belonged to the Roman vicus at Biatorbágy. Different types of vessels, a wine jug with a round opening, a handled dish for hand washing, on which are a depiction of a sleeping African and Bacchic attributes, a water jug with a spout, some fragments belonging to bucket or cauldron, a second water jug with sharp projecting shoulder, a jug with round mouth and decorated handle, a bath-saucer came to light. The first jug – compiled from old parts – a strange creation by a local master, was originally produced at the end of the 1st century A.D. The handled dish and the bath-saucer were fabricated at the end of the 1st century A.D.–beginning of the 2nd century A.D. Both water jugs were made around the middle of the 2nd century A.D.

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Abstract

Near Biatorbágy, along the northern side of Road 100, Éva Maróti, archaeologist of the Ferenczy Museum of Szentendre, excavated a part of a cemetery in 2004. 36 early and late Roman graves were found with Avar Period burials mixed in between. The cemetery was used from the second half of the first century to the end of the fourth one. An early Roman horse burial and several undamaged bronze vessels are among the most significant finds. The cemetery begins with three indigenous skeletal burials followed by four cremation ones from the 2nd and 3rd centuries and 27 skeletal burials appearing in the second half of the 3rd century. The richer part of the 4th-century population was buried in stone or brick walled graves. Most grave goods were in the stone walled graves. Glazed jugs and female jewellery must be highlighted amongst these grave goods. The cemetery most likely belonged to the Roman settlement excavated on the border of Biatorbágy and Törökbálint being inhabited for several centuries. The burials fit in with the cemeteries of the vici (Budaörs, Biatorbágy, Páty) in the southwestern area of Aquincum.

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Abstract

The paper is dealing with 194 Aucissa brooches from 27 sites in the Roman province of Pannonia, based on the results and methodology of international archaeological and historical research. Aucissa fibulae, as costume items, are one of the leading artefacts of the early imperial period, initially used mainly by soldiers (sagum), and are therefore an important archaeological source for the Roman expansion, occupation and Romanisation. In Pannonia 98% of the Aucissa fibulae were recovered from settlements, mainly from the early layers of military forts and later towns. The material of the fibulae is bronze, there is only a single known item being silver-plated. The formal, technological and chronological analysis of the Aucissa fibulae in Pannonia is followed by a costume, historical and archaeological analysis. The Aucissa brooches in Pannonia can be dated from the beginning of the 1st century A.D. to the first decades of the 2nd century A.D. The earliest types (subtypes A242.1,2,3) are found in military forts along the Roman expansion trail. The Aucissa brooches come from the areas of the East–West military expansion route (the Drava-Save interfluve, Siscia, Sirmium, Gomolava), the North–South expansion route to the Danube (Amber Road, Salla, Savaria, Carnuntum) and the Danube limes (Brigetio, Matrica, Rittium). The smaller number of later types of fibulae (subtypes A242.4,5,6) found in the interior of the province of Pannonia (vici) indicates a process of Romanisation of the local population (Bátaszék, Csákberény, Mezőörs). The Aucissa brooches can also refer to cultural and trade relations with the Barbaricum (Púchov culture); they can indicate the movement of the Roman army (Devín, Mušov) and also the mobility of people (Veresegyház, Szeged). In some places Aucissa brooches later appeared in the clothing of civilians and women (Emona).

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