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Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.

Arts and Humanities

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Abstract

In this paper I focus my attention on the debate between three renowned Germanists of the interwar period: Elemér Moór, Elemér Schwartz and Walter Steinhauser. Their discussion of the population history of Burgenland can serve as a case study of knowledge production. This was a discourse in which the relationship between science and politics or the boundary between scholarship and dilettantism were often tested. Relying on both published material (their books and papers) and unpublished sources (correspondence, commission reports) I analyse the different standpoints of the three scholars and show the development of their rivalry. At the end of my paper, I will draw some lessons concerning the history of historical writing.

Open access

„Wer um alles in der Welt ist Pom-Pom?”

Platzhalter und recycelte Erinnerung im öffentlichen Raum

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Ferenc Szolar

Abstract

The article deals with the stories of Pom-Pom, which appeared in Hungary from the beginning of the 1980s, initially in the media network of picture books and animated films. Since the 2010s, the characters have increasingly appeared in the public space of Budapest: first in the context of thematic playgrounds, then in the form of mini-sculptures, and finally street art murals. In terms of time, these events coincide on the one hand with the so-called critical threshold, that transition between communicative and cultural memory, and on the other hand they set in at a point in time initiated by the operational end as well as the incipient building decay of the renowned Pannónia film studios. The examples chosen solely according to the criterion of visibility in public space prove to be representations planned, supported and tolerated by the public authorities.

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Abstract

On March 24, 2020, the international flower trade association Union Fleurs issued a statement on the situation of the ornamental plants sector hit by the Covid-19 crisis. In a study published in April 2020, Copa-Cogeca (European Farmers and European Agri-Cooperatives) echoed the findings of the above-mentioned international flower trade association, stating that the flower and ornamental plants sector was the agricultural sector most impacted by the coronavirus in the EU, as in most Member States, including Hungary and Romania, there was a historical drop in demand and consumption of almost 80%, and unfortunately the virus hit at the worst possible time, as the spring season would have been the peak period for ornamental horticulturalists. In my case study, I examine the flower growers of Curteni, a settlement in the Mureș region of Transylvania (Romania). How has this global phenomenon caused by the coronavirus manifested itself locally in a settlement where nearly 60 families make their living from growing and selling ornamental plants? Has this community been able to maintain its territorial/regional competitiveness? Have the people of Curteni joined the group of producers known in economic anthropology as farmers who chose to halt and wait, or did they find a quick and resilient response to the obstacles they encountered? How did this crisis become an identity-shaping factor in their lives? The pandemic has also exacerbated the situation in Curteni, made it more difficult to act and make decisions, and has brought new perspectives and values into play. The example of the florist community of Curteni shows that a new situation, and indeed any crisis, can bring about positive changes in the lives of communities. In any crisis, emergency, or exigency, members of a community may almost instinctively, but mostly also consciously, seek innovative responses to their problems. One way is to discover and exploit the opportunities inherent in a crisis, communally re-assessing and utilizing the available values, opportunities, and resources, and finding truly resilient responses.

Open access

Abstract

Food culture has played, and continues to play, an important role in the definition of identity and community cohesion. Food is not just a matter of sustenance but is also a cultural element with myriad links to the material world and to festive and everyday customs. Meals and individual dishes also function as mediators, providing a means and a channel of communication. Local communities select, reconstruct, or construct their common food heritage through their social discourse on the past, belonging, and locality. This paper presents the institutional framework for the management, preservation, and transmission of food-related traditions at the national and local levels in Hungary and looks at the practice of heritagization through one specific local example.

Open access

Abstract

In his paper the author deals with the contributions of a new volume on the history of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century and added several additional notes to each paper. As several papers studied the relationship of Ravenna and Attila the Hun the author examined the written sources concerning the Huns in detail and came to the conclusion that there was only one foedus concluded with Attila after 433 and Pannonia was ceded to the Huns in this treaty. Attila was formally the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire.

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Abstract

Vessels decorated with domed metal discs were extraordinarily rare and valuable commodities of the Late Bronze Age. Pottery adorned with bronze discs and tin first appeared in Hungary during the earlier Urnfield period (14th/13th century BC). A vessel adorned with three ring motifs inlaid with a high-tin alloy on its belly is known from Nagykanizsa-Bilkei-dűlő and a cup decorated with bronze domed discs was recovered from Grave 222 of the Vörs-Battyáni-Disznólegelő cemetery, both in southern Transdanubia. The decorative bronze discs similarly had a high tin content. The metal composition was analysed with particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. Pendant ornaments of “white bronze”, an alloy with a high tin content, are principally known from southern Transdanubia: the elemental composition of two pendants with bird protomes from Grave 51 of the Vörs-Battyáni-Disznólegelő cemetery and of a funnel-shaped pendant from the Pamuk hoard were examined by PIXE for compositional make-up, which indicated a high tin content for all three. These pendants had been worn as adornments. Tin was an important raw material in the production of bronze. Most of the vessels decorated with bronze discs were brought to light in the late Urnfield cemetery uncovered at Budapest-Békásmegyer (boot- and amphora-shaped vessels, a feeding vessel, resin balls). It seems likely that these vessels had once served ritual purposes. Regrettably, they have not yet been submitted to PIXE analyses.

Open access

Abstract

The curious shape of the so-called early Christian mausoleum of Iovia, Pannonia has attracted much attention since its discovery in the 1980s. The main part of the building, a hexagon flanked by alternating semi-circular and rectangular rooms was complemented by a bi-apsidal vestibule and a rectangular peristyle courtyard. The hexagon was a relatively rarely used form in late antique architecture compared to the octagon, however, hexagons can still be detected in all parts of the Roman Empire in all kinds of architectural contexts: they appeared in late Roman villae, baths, funerary buildings, early Christian mausolea and baptisteries.

The architectural parallels of the mausoleum of Iovia are traced among the thin-walled hexagons that were flanked by protruding semi-circular and rectangular rooms. The buildings closest in shape were the pagan mausoleum of Louin in France and the trefoil hall of the Villa of Aiano in Italy. Other related structures include the so-called Stibadium A of the Villa with Peristyle in Mediana in Serbia, the reception rooms of the Keynsham villa in England, the hexagonal hall of the Palace of Antiochus in Constantinople, the Domus delle Sette Sale in Rome, the baptistery of Limoges in France, and the cella quinquichora of Aquincum in Hungary. Although similar in general layout, they had different functions: early Christian mausoleum, baptistery, pagan mausoleum, and foremost dining halls or reception rooms. This warns us that it is essential to study early Christian buildings in the context of late antique architecture in its complexity and not only in the limited context of other early Christian buildings. Late antique architects seem to have been fascinated by the opportunities offered by the different polygonal or central-plan halls and buildings and used them for different purposes.

Open access

The gallows in Holíč (Skalica district, Slovakia) archaeological research and virtual reconstruction

Šibenica v Holíči (okres Skalica, Slovensko). Archeologický výskum a pokus o virtuálnu rekonštrukciu

Akasztófa Holicsban (Skalicai járás, Szlovákia). Régészeti kutatás és kísérlet a virtuális rekonstrukcióra

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Daniel Bešina
,
Stanislava Bönde Gogová
, and
Pavol Šteiner

Abstract

The archaeological research of the gallows in Holíč is one of the first purposefully surveyed sites of this kind in Slovakia. The issue of research on execution sites is only marginally dealt with in our territory. The research confirmed the presence of a simple brick gallows with two supporting posts. Skeletal remains of human bodies discovered in the excavated area are no less important in this context. The information and the finds can contribute to the study of capital execution and types of gallows not only in the territory of today's Slovakia, but also in the wider area of the historical Kingdom of Hungary. The features datable to the Second World War are also worth mentioning and provide an ideal opportunity to compare archaeological finds of modern military history with the available written sources.

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The investigation of ninth–eleventh century burials from Himod (NW Hungary)

Physical anthropology data in the light of artifact typology

Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors:
Piroska Rácz
and
Péter Langó

Abstract

This study presents the results of a classic physical anthropological and paleopathological study of the early medieval human bone material from the Himod-Káposztáskertek site. A smaller part of the graves can be dated to the ninth century but the majority of graves dates to the tenth–eleventh century. Since the possibility of population continuity was raised, the archaeological data related to the question were also reviewed (with special emphasis on the typology of a knife found in Grave 68), with the intent of seeing whether the anthropological data supported this hypothesis. Both samples represent only a small number of cases and the remains are poorly preserved. The ninth century series especially provided very little data, ultimately making comparison impossible. The remains of 25 individuals were found in the Carolingian cemetery section: childburials number 15, the juvenile age group is not represented by any skeletons, there are ten adult burials (4 males, 5 females, 1 of undeterminable sex). The skeletons from 87 individuals were excavated from the tenth–eleventh century section of the cemetery, of which 25 were children, 5 were juveniles, and 57 were adults (29 males, 28 females). For both men and women, people of tall stature form the majority; male skulls are characterized by large absolute dimensions, mainly a broad forehead and a broad face. Fractures, degenerative changes of the spine and extravertebral joints (especially the elbow joint) were common. Tuberculosis infection was suspected in the case of one individual. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease with bilateral involvement and a rare developmental disorder, congenital scoliosis, occurred in the material as well.

Open access