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Authors: Erika Gál, László Daróczi-Szabó and Márta Daróczi-Szabó

Abstract

This paper presents results on three medieval avian bone assemblages found at Debrecen-Monostor-erdő and Debrecen-Tócó-part. respectively. Domestic chicken yielded most of the bird remains to evidence the exploitation of adult birds for egg production and flock maintenance in particular. In addition. feather harvesting and fat production could have been the target of goose (and possibly duck) husbandry. Although the goose bone sizes resemble the greylag goose. the keeping of an unimproved form of domestic goose rather than the hunting of the wild ancestor is suggested by the structure of the assemblage and the presence of healed bones. Wild birds seem to have been rarely consumed by the settlers of the two villages. but the feathers or wings or carcasses of diurnal birds of prey and crows may have been used for special purposes. Either killed for their symbolic meaning or only persecuted for protecting the backyard animals. the red kite (Milvus milvus) and the hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) represent new species for the medieval avifauna of Hungary. similarly to the Northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and the Northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) that could have been hunted in the marshy environment provided by the Tócó creek. Moreover. the use of trained saker falcon (Falco cherrug) for hawking cannot be excluded either. In addition to the exploitation of birds for the abovementioned goods and values. two needle cases made from goose bones evidence the utilization of their skeletal parts as raw material for producing artefacts as well.

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Abstract

In his paper the author deals with a lost late Roman funerary text, Constantius’ epitaph. Based on the manuscript tradition, the epitaph was probably erected in Rome or more rather at Ravenna. Constantius was an important military commander of Western Rome in the 5th century and he had an important role in the fifth century history of Roman Pannonia as he fought against the Barbarians, most probably the Huns who settled down in Pannonia. The earlier identifications must be rejected but his person – unfortunately – cannot be identified with Flavius Constantius Felix. On the other hand, the events (fights against the Huns and the sea-going Vandals) mentioned in the funerary epigram fit perfectly into the period at the beginning of Valentinian III’s reign.

Open access
Authors: Beáta Tugya, Katalin Náfrádi, Sándor Gulyás, Tünde Törőcsik, Balázs Pál Sümegi, Péter Pomázi and Pál Sümegi

Abstract

We present the results of the environmental historical and geoarchaeological analysis of Rákóczifalva-Bagi- földek and Rákóczifalva-Rokkant-földek archeological sites in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County. They were discovered in the course of several hectares of archaeological excavations related to the Roman Age and Migration Period, especially the Sarmatian and the Gepids era. A significant number of Gepids sites and finds were found in both the investigated areas and the wider area of the site, in the middle reach of the Tisza valley. So the geoarchaeological and environmental historical analysis of the Sarmatian and Late-Sarmatian and Gepids sites in Rákóczifalva can also provide a model for the settling strategy and lifestyle of the Sarmatian and Gepids communities. The purpose of our work is to present how geoarchaeological and environmental historical factors impacted local settling and lifestyles in the Gepids communities and Sarmatian-Late Sarmatian communities as well during the Roman Age and the Migration Period. In addition, to demonstrate the relationship of the Sarmatian and Gepids communities and their environment in the Rákóczifalva site compared to other Gepids and Sarmatian and Late Sarmatian communities in the Great Hungarian Plain.

Based on the number of objects containing animal bones and the amount of bones found in them, we can reconstruct considerable settling in the Celtic, Sarmatian, Gepids, Avar and Arpadian periods. The number of objects from the Linear Pottery culture (Great Hungarian Plain) and the Bodrogkeresztúr culture is high; however, the number of animal bones is low. On the basis of the bones discovered, we can count on a smaller settlement during the Tiszapolgár culture, the Hunyadihalom group, the Halomíros culture, the Gava culture and during the Scythians period.

In this paper, we present the results of the Sarmatian, Late Sarmatian and the Gepid findings since the largest number of animal bones (except the Avar period) turned up from these periods. Our aim was to compare the animal husbandry, meat consumption and hunting habits of the Oriental origin Sarmatians and the Germanic Gepids communities. Bone artefacts and bone anvils have been found in the archaeological material of both ethnic groups.

Open access
Author: NEMES SZILVIA

A görög jogon alapuló hellenisztikus Egyiptom szerződési gyakorlatában a halasztott adásvételi szerződések egy sajátos konstrukciójaként emlegetik az ún. fi ktív kölcsönszerződéseket. Amíg a római jog jól ismertún. konszenzuálszerződéseiről, ekként az adásvételről (emptio venditio), ahol a halasztott adásvételi konstrukciók is peresíthetőek, addig a görög jog mindvégig megmaradt a készvételnél, és ehhez képest csak pótlólagos megoldásokat alkalmazott. Ezen megoldások egyikét jelentették az ún. fi ktív kölcsönszerződések (συγγραϕὴ δανείου), amelyeknél – miként Fritz Pringsheim hangsúlyozza – amennyiben az eladó meghitelezte a vevőnek a vételárat, és az adásvételt kölcsönnek „álcázta”, a vétel alapján nem, de a kölcsön alapján perelhet. Több dokumentum is fennmaradt, amely ezt a gyakorlatot tanúsítja, ugyanakkor a legújabb papirológiai kutatások eredményeként ezen okiratok közül némelyek felülvizsgálatra szorulnak a tekintetben, hogy milyen szerződést is tartalmaznak.

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Abstract

Several types of mineral beads can be found among the 11th–12th-century grave assemblages of the Carpathian Basin. This paper examines the distribution of fluorite beads representing one type in Central and Eastern Europe. The distribution patterns have enabled the identification of the source of the raw material and they also outline the period’s main trade routes

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Hypereidés Euxenippos mellett Polyeuktosszal szemben hazaárulás ügyében elmondott védőbeszédét az első kiadó, Churchill Babington Kr. e. 334-re keltezte. Domenico Comparetti azonban hamarosan Kr. e. 330 és 324 közé szorította a keletkezés lehetséges dátumát. Érvelése szerint a szónok csak úgy idézhette Olympiasnak, Alexandros anyjának az athéni néphez írt leveléből a „Molossia az enyém” kifejezést, ha Olympias már valóban a terület ura volt, tehát Kr. e. 331, azaz fi vére halála után. A keltezést jó másfél évszázada tényként kezelik, olyannyira, hogy a kiadók több szövegjavítást és értelmezési alternatívát is ehhez az elképzeléshez igazítottak. A tanulmány amellett érvel, hogy a hagyományozott, jól értelmezhető szövegnek megfelelően a beszédet Kr. e. 334/333-ra kell datálni, javításokra nincs szükség, Churchill Babingtonnak igaza volt.

Open access

Jelen tanulmányban Michaél Kritobulos jellemábrázolási módszereit elemzem. Azt vizsgálom, hogy a bizánci történetíró munkájában található jellemleírások milyen kapcsolatban, illetve kölcsönhatásban vannak a szöveg stílusával és bizonyos szerkezeti sajátosságaival, valamint hogy a szerző honnan merített szereplői jellemének megrajzolásánál. A dolgozatban választ keresek arra a kérdésre is, hogy milyen célt szolgáltak a történeti szereplők jellemábrázolásaiban előforduló nyelvi formulák.

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Abstract

Pottery at the late Roman fort of Visegrád-Gizellamajor contains both forms common in the 4th century as well as new ones, which appear at the turn of the 4th and 5th centuries. On traditional Roman household pottery and glazed vessels new surface ornaments (incised and notched) and new designs (fired yellowish-white, very gritty fabric) appear. Additionally, there are vessels with smoothed and smoothed-in ornaments. Although the excavators distinguished various layers in the fort, pottery from the layers often fit together. What survived to the greatest extent were the materials from the upper destruction debris. Room III of the north wing was a later addition to the fort; hence its pottery can be dated from the Valentinian period until the Hun period.

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MINITRAE ET NUMINI EIUS

Egy kelta istenség a vulgáris latin Aquincumban

Author: VÁGÁSI TÜNDE
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NATURA ÉS CULTURA

Vulgáris és klasszikus latin Afrikában: africanismus-e a labdacismus?

Author: Bohacsek Dóra
Open access

Prostorne modulacije i dezeni materija

Prilozi za tumačenje poezije Janoša Siverija

Author: ZOLTÁN VIRÁG
Open access

Abstract

This paper describes the distinctive features of cultural back-translation. This term is employed here to refer to the translation of source texts into a target language from which most or all of the culture-specific elements of the source text were drawn. It makes an attempt to provide a systematic analysis of the distinctive features of this type of translation with special reference to the concepts of domestication and foreignization. The findings show that cultural back-translation is necessarily domesticating, or more precisely, re-domesticating. Re-domestication has several types: re-domestication proper, repatriation and additional domestication. Domesticating and foreignizing strategies work out differently in cultural back-translation: domestication does not mean adjustment to a different culture but restoring the original cultural context. In re-domestication the distribution of translation strategies used is different from those used in domestication and the purpose and effects of various strategies are different. The whole process from text composition to back-translation may be described as a process of double domestication. It is claimed that while domestication in general reduces readers’ processing effort by sacrificing some contextual effects, redomestication reduces processing effort and at the same time may increase contextual effects. It is concluded that the study of cultural back-translation is worthy of more serious attention and further lines of inquiry are suggested.

Open access

Abstract

In this paper, the author publishes a Roman funerary stela from Bölcske found in 2015. Only two highly fragmentary rows have survived of its inscription. The execution of the stela (proportions, arrangement, the framing of fields) and the rider scene of the relief field provide more information than the incomplete funerary inscription: based on three analogous tombstones belonging to soldiers of the ala Frontoniana, one may assume that the person mentioned on the Bölcske gravestone had also served in this unit. Unit history, style analysis arguments and palaeographical reasons all point toward the dating of the monument to the early reign of Emperor Trajan.

Open access

Abstract

The study aims to contribute to the medieval environmental history of the eastern periphery of the Transylvanian Plain (Câmpia Transilvaniei/Mezőség). With the help of archaeological and historical data and the multi-aspect analysis of undisturbed core sequences, the economic life of the Pauline Monastery founded in the 14th century near Sâncraiu de Mureş (Marosszentkirály) and the surrounding villages was investigated. The multidisciplinary research focuses on the paleochannels of the Mureş and the artificial watercourses (ditches) that branch off the river, and the mills built on them. The work also provides new data on the general environmental changes in the middle course of the Mureş river during the Middle Ages and the early modern period, which are largely due to the very intense human activity here.

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A tanulmány egy ókori eredetű görög–latin szótár, az ún. Pseudo-Kyrillos egyik XV. századi példányát elemzi, melyet a Cambridge University Libraryben őriznek Kk. v. 12 jelzettel. A cikk szövegkritikai eszközökkelkel igyekszik elhelyezni a befejezetlenül maradt példányt a szöveghagyományban, és feltárni a szótár keletkezésének körülményeit, időpontját és helyét.

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„VITIUM AFRORUM FAMILIARE”?

A latin magánhangzók kvantitásrendszerének átépülése Afrikában és Rómában a metrikus feliratok tanúsága szerint

Author: PAULUS NÓRA
Open access

Yavuz Sultan Selïm (1512-1520) and his imitation strategies

A case study of four Häfiẓ ghazals

Author: Benedek Péri

Abstract

Unlike his Ottoman contemporaries, Yavuz Sultan Selïm composed his poems almost exclusively in Persian. A great part of his poetic output consists of poetic replies inspired by the classics of the Persian poetic canon as it was perceived by Ottomans. Through an in depth analysis of four imitation poems inspired by four ghazals by Häfiẓ the present paper aims at highlighting the poetic strategies Selïm used when he composed poetic imitations.

Open access

A JANGAR-CHAPTER CHANTED BY THE BAARIN KHUURCH RINCHIN

NEW DATA ON THE FOLKLORE GENERIC TRANSITION OF MONGOLIAN HEROIC EPIC

Authors: Chaogetu, Sarina and Ágnes Birtalan

In the present paper, one chapter of the Jangar epic, chanted by the famous storyteller, khuurch Rinchin of Inner-Mongolian Baarin origin, is discussed from two main points of view: (1) the spread of Jangar among Mongols not belonging to Oirats and Kalmyks, and (2) how contemporary social circumstances transform the traditional heroic epic into another folkloric genre, i.e. the so-called khuuriin ülger. The chapter ‘Minggan, the Beauty of the World’ told by khuurch Rinchin—discussed here—is well known from other Jangar publications like the ‘Mingyan the Beauty of the World’ (published in the Thirteen Chapters Jangar/Jinggar: Takil ǰula qaγan-u üledel Tangsuγ bumba qaγan-u ači Üǰüng aldar qaγan-u köbegün üye-in önöčin Jingγar-un tuγuǰi arban γurban bölög). The life story of Rinchin and his creative innovation in traditional folklore genres are typical phenomena of the contemporary transitional period in preserving and sustaining folklore genres and performance.

Open access

In the fourth part of this series of papers the authors investigate the way how the Khitan Small Script rendered the dental stops in initial position. They conclude that the main opposition was between the postaspirated and not postaspirated dental stops.

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This paper explores topics and techniques of prognostication as recorded in medieval Buddhist historical literature, with an emphasis on the Gāosēng zhuàn 高僧傳 (GSZ) and Xù gāosēng zhuàn 續高僧傳 (XGSZ). The paper first provides a short survey of how prognostication is treated in Chinese Buddhist translated texts. In these ‘canonical’ sources there is clear ambiguity over the use of supernatural powers: on the one hand, such practices are criticised as non-Buddhist or even heterodox; on the other, narratives on Śākyamuni’s former and present lives as well as accounts of other buddhas, bodhisattvas, and the Buddha’s disciples abound with descriptions of their special abilities, including knowledge of the future. In contrast, the GSZ and XGSZ display a clear standpoint concerning mantic practices and include them as integral aspects of monastics’ lives. The two texts articulate that the ability to predict the future and other supernatural powers are natural by-products of spiritual progress in the Buddhist context. This paper discusses the incorporation of various aspects of the Indian and Chinese traditions in monastics’ biographies, and investigates the inclusion of revelations of future events (for example, in dreams) and mantic techniques in these texts. In addition, it traces parallels to developments in non-Buddhist literature and outlines some significant differences between the GSZ and the XGSZ.

Open access

Abstract

Albasty is one of the most commonly known malevolent beings among Turkic peoples from the Altay Mountains via the Caucasus and up as far as the Volga River. This article focuses on Turkic data from the Volga region (Chuvash, Tartar, Bashkir) and the Eurasian Steppe (Kazak, Kyrgyz, Nogay, Uzbek). Various areas can be ascertained on the basis of verbal charms and folk-belief narratives. On the Eurasian Steppe, for example, Albasty was first and foremost a puerperal demon. In this territory, specialists (kuuču) were called in to keep away or oust the demon at birth. Many recorded legends and memorates concern healing methods and the process of becoming a healer. In contrast, epic texts or narratives are rarer,in the Volga region, yet there are certain verbal incantations against the Albasty, which here is rather a push or disease demon.

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Állattartók a Neolitikumtól a késő bronzkorig

Esettanulmány Budapest XVII. kerület Rákoscsaba–Major-hegy Dél lelőhely állatcsontleletei kapcsán

Author: P Csippán

A Rákoscsaba – Major-hegy Dél lelőhelyen feltárt több korszakos régészeti lelőhelyen tizenegyezernél több meghatározható állatcsontmaradvány látott napvilágot. A tanulmány célja ezek vizsgálata az egykor hasonló ökológiai feltételek mellett létező települések állattartásának és húsfogyasztásának tükrében. A tanulmányban különös figyelmet kapnak a hasznosítási szokások, mortalitási profilok, illetve a főbb gazdasági haszonállatok megjelenési változatai.

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A tanulmány az esztergomi vár három kályháját mutatja be. Mindhárom a vár 1686. évi keresztény visszafoglalását követő időszakból származik, külföldi, magas technikai színvonalon dolgozó mesterek terméke.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive report on the cadastral works of mounds in the central part of Tiszántúl (the region east of the Tisza River), taking the burial mounds of the Late Copper Age Yamnaya entity as a starting point. Theoretical and field research began around the beginning of the 19th century, and in the second half of the 20th century systematic site registration took place, mainly due to the so-called ‘Archaeological Sites of Hungary’ project. Later on national surveys and local initiatives were carried out, but they are of very different quality. In addition to the main characteristics and results of the creation of these cadastres, we also outline further scientific studies on mounds.

Open access

Abstract

“Virtue wands” do appear in Argentinean folk narrative as useful devices used by the hero to achieve his dreams. Using the correct charm and waving his wand, the Argentinean folk hero John the Lazy manages to marry the princess and to live without working. Charms show in this way how to do things with words, pronouncing the proper words in the right situation. In this presentation, I deal with the formulaic use of a magic charm in this Argentinean folktale, collected in fieldwork in 1988. This charm deals with an invocation to the “Wand of virtue” given to the hero by God`s mercy, whose proper use shows the performative force of language. The tension between the absence of effort and the need of working is solved in this tale in a world of dream, in which the real effort is to learn how to use the correct words. Social beliefs in the supernatural are expressed in this tale, in which the wand is a God`s gift that allows the hero to avoid struggling. But the main gift is actually the knowledge of language which permits the hero to make an accurate usage of formulaic discourse, structured in the charm in an epigrammatic way. In this way, I propose a metapragmatic consideration of such charms that, as Urban (1989) says, deal with “speech about speech in speech about action”. In the Argentinean context in which I collected this folktale, the hero is the young son of a rural peasant family, poor and struggling, like the narrator and his audience. The lazy poor boy who marries the princess thanks to the force of the dreams shows how the language is the key both to repair social gaps and to restore collective order.

Open access

A leggyakrabban a germán vandál etnikummal azonosított Przeworsk-kultúra magyarországi településeinek kutatása az elmúlt évtizedben fontos új eredményeket hozott. A tanulmány e római császárkori kultúrkör Magyarország területén feltárt településeinek legújabb kutatási eredményeit foglalja össze, illetve ennek alapján foglakozik a település terület kiterjedésével, a relatív kronológia problémájával, az anyagi kultúra fejlődésével és a kultúra kapcsolatrendszereivel.

Open access

Abstract

In Latvian folklore, the Devil is a relatively common image, represented in all the genres. This paper analyses the verbal charms that mention the Devil or Thunder together with the motif of pursuing the Devil. The corpus of charms consists of texts taken from the first systematic collection of Latvian charms, published in 1881. Examples of charms are accompanied by a comparative analysis of folk legends and beliefs. There are correspondences in charms, legends and beliefs regarding the appearance and traits of the Devil as well as his activities and dwelling places. These genres also share the motif of pursuing the Devil. Texts from different genres complement each other by providing missing narrative fragments and aspects of meaning. In the legends and charms, black and red dominate in the Devil’s appearance, and the Devil can also appear in the form of animals. The Devil’s activities and presence are linked with the origins of evil and associated with a variety of diseases which, like the Devil himself, are overcome by similar techniques. These legends and beliefs help us understand the similarities expressed in the charms, deepen and expand the semantics of the images, and explain the associative links and anchoring of specific actions in the broader folklore material. The plot and length of texts in charms are determined by the specific style, structure, and function of this genre. Therefore, content is not expanded in detail; instead, only key figures or images, the foundation of the plot, and its most important elements are mentioned. The comparative material found in legends and beliefs provides more in-depth explanation of the concise messages expressed in the charms.

Open access

Die bis heute konsensuale Auffassung der Nationalliteratur in Ungarn wird durch die sprachliche Homogenität bestimmt. Elemente, die eine Provokation für die Homogenität bedeuten, werden entweder in bipolaren Gegensätzen eingeordnet, und dadurch vom Zentrum ferngehalten, oder sie werden vertuscht und ausgeschlossen, wie man es im Falle der auf Fremdsprachen geschriebenen Werke der ungarischen Literatur erfahren kann. Innerhalb der Struktur der ungarischen Nationalliteratur verdient die Emigration eine besondere Aufmerksamkeit, weil sie es notwendig macht, dass wir über die ungarische Literatur in Überlappungen mit anderen Literaturen sprechen. Wenn wir über Überlappungen sprechen, müssen wir in die Problematik auch die Theorie des Transnationalismus mit einbeziehen. In der ungarischen Fachliteratur wird diese Theorie auf die Fälle der geographischen und politischen Grenzübergänge beschränkt, die die mentale Einprägung der Grenzen als Reflexionsobjekte immer voraussetzen. Die Grenzphänomene verbinden sich mit den Vorstellungen der Differenzen, dadurch bleiben sie die Kulminationspunkte der Macht und der Kontrolle. Die Theorie des Transnationalismus kann aber auch dabei helfen, dass die Vorstellungen der Nation aus dem Bereich der homogenisierenden Aspirationen der Macht entfernt werden, damit die Heterogenität des von der Macht territorisierten Raumes, in diesem Fall des literarischen Raumes klar gezeigt werden kann. Die literarischen Räume von Ost-Mittel-Europa hatten schon immer eine mehrsprachige und polikulturelle Ausdehnung, erst nach dem ersten Weltkrieg wurden die Differenzen im Interresse der Homogenisierung der Machtbereichen als Gegensätze instrumentalisiert. Das Aufgreifen des Problems der Emigration macht es möglich, diese räumliche Struktur neuzugestalten, weil die Emigraton nicht einmal als eine periphere Erscheinung am Konzept der ungarischen Nationalliteratur teil hat. Die Emigration kann nicht zuletzt auch die Kräfte des inneren Zusammenhalts im Raum der Nationalliteratur verstärken, denn sie lässt das Aufheben der lokalen Kontexte und die Beseitigung der Differenzen nicht zu, die als Voraussetzungen von Ähnlichkeiten immer ins Spiel gebracht werden. Worüber ich hier spreche, ist eine Hypothese für eine mögliche Selbstkorrektion. Auch diese Hypothese muss ihre Begrifflichkeit der Kritik aussetzen. Wenn aber die Raumstruktur der ungarischen Nationalliteratur als Modell einmal neugestaltet wird, wird die Verwendung des Begriffs der Emigration ihre Gültigkeit verlieren.

Open access

Abstract

During the corpus-building operation of the Digital Database of Hungarian Verbal Charms we tried to augment the available material by the inclusion of witness statements of witch trials conducted in early modern Bihar County and the town of Debrecen. My paper explores the kinds of dilemmas and issues we were faced with concentrating especially on generic questions of verbal charms. As regards the exploration of early modern written sources of vernacular language use the most relevant recent approaches came from historical speech act research. Therefore, in the context of the corpus building project I shall also discuss to which extends the results of historical pragmatics, historical speech act research can offer any help (and if so, what kind of help) in solving the generic problems and questions of verbal magic.

Open access

A Dumuzi és Ĝeštinanna című szöveg a sumer elbeszélő költemények problémás darabjai közé tartozik. A szokatlan megfogalmazások hátterében az állhat, hogy a szöveg ókori szerkesztője Dumuzi isten történetének problémáit a narratíván belül próbálta kommentálni. A szöveg „szerzője” nem explicit módon fogalmazta meg a teológiai kérdéseket, hanem hermeneutikai technikákkal juttatta ezeket kifejezésre: például mely ékjelekkel írjon szavakat, hogy azok Dumuzi lényegére utaljanak. Több helyen szokatlan fordulatokat használtak, amelyeknek intertextuális vonatkozásai lehetnek: ezek Dumuzi isten és a király, illetve Dumuzi és a felesége kapcsolatával hozhatók összefüggésbe.

Open access

Egy középső bronzkori balta Csernátonból (Cernat, Ro)

Adatok a „Pădureni” típusú balták tipológiájához és deponálási szokásához

Author: J Puskás

A bemutatott balta egy 2009-ben végzett fémkeresős kutatás során került napvilágra Csernátonban (Kovászna megye, Románia), és egy jellegzetes erdélyi, középső bronzkori fegyvertípust képvisel. A tanulmány első felében kitérünk a balta és szűkebb környezetének vizsgálatára, a deponálási szokásokra, majd a különböző altípusok elterjedését vizsgáljuk tágabb kontextusban.

Open access

Abstract:

Although belief narratives and charms are regarded as two different folklore genres with different modes of transmission, performance and function, they are both in a constant dialectical relationship, yielding mutual feedback. One of the main forms of this interactive relationship concerns the etiology of a dis-ease (construction of a dis-order, i.e. belief narratives) and its therapeutic treatment (restoration of order, i.e. charms). This relationship between the cause of diseases and their treatment is clearly reflected in a Christian content belief narrative closely associated with incantations used to heal abdominal diseases. The basic personage embodying this belief narrative – registered in many and different areas of Greece – is the figure of a monk or Christ himself, who, often disguised as a beggar, is hosted by a family. Violations of both religious norms associated with fasting and social ethics connected with accepted behaviour towards a guest have as a result the manifestation of an abdominal disease, which eventually the monk or Christ treats using an incantation. This article shows that the parallel analysis of legends and charms, where possible, is necessary since it can provide useful information, not only on the ways by which the charm text is produced and reproduced, but also on the position and status of the genre in the context of a wider folk religious system. Furthermore, it could contribute to the understanding of the charm text, without which the knowledge of the belief narrative is often incomprehensible, if not nonsensical.

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L’article retrace les débuts de la carrière d’Aurélien Sauvageot, « l’homme de France qui connaît le mieux hommes et choses de Hongrie ». Elève d’Antoine Meillet, figure-clé des relations culturelles franco-hongroises de l’entre-deux-guerres, premier titulaire, en 1931, de la Chaire des langues finno-ougriennes à l’Ecole des langues orientales à Paris, Sauvageot fait son entrée sur la scène scientifique, littéraire et politique française et hongroise à la sortie de la première guerre mondiale dans laquelle la Hongrie et la France étaient dans les camps opposés. L’arrivée de Sauvageot à Budapest (en 1923) et ses débuts dans le milieu de la linguistique finno-ougrienne permettaient de croire, pour la science et la politique françaises, que ce jeune linguiste bientôt hungarophone serait capable de servir la propagande intellectuelle, c’est-à-dire « la cause » française en Hongrie. Dans le sens inverse, aux yeux des autorités hongroises, on espérait qu’il pût disséminer la propagande intellectuelle hongroise en France. Or les objectifs communs (le rapprochement intellectuel) ne pouvaient compenser les contradictoires entre les deux pays, ces dernière se sont constamment imposées sur le chemin d’Aurélien Sauvageot.

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Abstract

The eponymous site of the Jankovichian industry was found at the Öreg kő cliff, in the northern part of the Transdanubia, Western Hungary. From the thick layer complex of the Jankovich cave, however, only 104 lithics were collected and the scarce data showed that the pieces belong to several archaeological entities. At the same time, the nearly total lack of the field documentation allowed the reconstruction of the stratigraphic position of each artefact only in a few cases. The stratigraphic integrity is missing from the archaeological material of the Kiskevély and Szelim caves as well as the Csákvár rock shelter, and according to the recent evaluations the bifacial tools from the Dzeravá skála (Pálffy cave) and Lovas belong to the Micoquian and the Late Palaeolithic period.

In this paper we analyse the following three assemblages, excavated after World War II in Transdanubia: the Pilisszántó rock shelter II, the Bivak and the Remete Felső caves. The chronological, basically, bio-stratigraphic data known from these layers are also evaluated.

The conclusion of the study is that (1) the chronological data of the studied sites do not permit to place the archaeological occupation of each cave into the Early Würm or to the Late Middle Palaeolithic period and (2) the validity of a distinct Jankovichian industry cannot be proved.

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A tanulmány a Szubotci-horizonthoz tartozó szubotci, katyerinovkai és novonyikolajevkai veretek, valamint a dél-uráli isimbaji, a felső-kámai redikori lelőhelyről származó veretek és a Verhnyij Szaltov, Bolsije Tyigani temetőiből ismert párhuzamaik képi motívumainak eredetét kutatja történeti forrásokra, folklorisztikai és vallástörténeti adatokra támaszkodva.

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Authors: Balázs Nagy, Márton Gyöngyössy and Olivér Gábor

2016 tavaszán Mohács-Sárháton egy késő középkori kincslelet került elő, mely összesen 61 dénárból, illetve egy ezüst fülesgombból áll. A kincslelet összetételében kivétel nélkül nova moneta-vereteket találunk, melyeket 1521 és 1525 között bocsátottak ki. Így a legkésőbbi veret alapján elrejtését, illetve földben maradását a törökök 1526. évi kivonulásával hozhatjuk összefüggésbe.

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A Kilian Fleischertől közölt (ZPE 207 [2018] 21–38) új Hypereidés-testimonium (Antipatros követei ellen) elemzése alapján a tanulmány történeti-filológiai érvekkel életrajzi és történelmi adatokat pontosít. Ps. Plutarchos (Vitae X Or. 850A) tudósítását egyértelműen úgy kell értelmezni, hogy Hypereidés Antipatros követeivel szemben Rhodoson Kr. e. 341-ben beszélt az Athénnal kötendő szövetség mellett. Az új töredék másfelől olyan beszédhez köthető, amely Athénban hangzott el a Kr. e. 330-as évek végén, mivel az jól illeszkedik Hypereidés más hasonló, makedónbarát politikusokat támadó beszédeinek sorába.

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Literary societies are in focus both of literary studies and social history. In particular, they played an important role in the modernization of Central Europe in the 19th century. Becoming widespread in this era, they helped develop a democratic political culture and disseminated literature to a wider audience. Hungarian historiography has depicted this period as one of large-scale social segregation and a fragmented middle class which refused to have any contact with the bourgeoisie, while Slovakian historians have emphasized the exclusion of Slovaks from elite society. Kassa (today Košice), which was then situated in northern Hungary and is now the largest city in eastern Slovakia, has, however, been recognized as a more complicated example that challenges these assumptions. For instance, the importance of local citizenry was preserved in the first half of the 19th century, in contrary to other cities in Hungary. The purpose of this article is to examine the composition of the most prominent social club of the town to provide fresh insights into the social history of Kassa in this period, and the larger processes shaping urban life in Central Europe in the period before the First World War. In particular, this article argues that a culture of both pluralism and exclusion was evident in the membership of Kassa’s Kazinczy Circle, and that their affiliations reveal a more complicated social network in the city, which both preserved communal solidarity during a period of rapid urbanization and encouraged the growth of modern democratic values.

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Abstract

The author of this article focuses on a defendant of an Inquisition trial (1641–1644) and its sources, namely a healing hermit and the Saint Cyprian prayer, published in Catalan in 1557 and used by the hermit as a verbal charm. Beyond the philological and folkloristic study of the prayer text, this paper presents the vulgarisation of reading skills and the realization of reading practice in a specific social context in the Principality of Catalonia. The author uses the most important and relevant theological literature of the period and the attestations of the trial as keys of reading. She pays special attention to the context of prayer and its actual social use. Her aim is to analyse the textual elements and gestures of the healing rite; hence, she investigates the probable readings of the healing specialist, which makes possible to reach a deeper understanding of the hermit’s role as a cultural mediator.

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Az alábbi tanulmányban amellett érvelek, hogy Platón Phaidrosának egyik passzusában tudatos és jól megszerkesztett allúzió olvasható Pindaros első pythói ódájára és az abban kulcsszerepet játszó Typhón mitikus alakjára. A nyelvi és gondolati párhuzamok elemzésével feltárulnak a platóni szövegrész eddig rejtett jelentésrétegei, többek között a Pindaroson túlmutató zenei metaforák. Ezzel együtt felszínre kerülnek olyan témák, mint egység és sokaság, zenei éthos és kritika, melyek Platón gondolatrendszerében központi jelentőségűek, és az elemzett passzus kifejezésmódját meghatározzák.

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Der Aufsatz analysiert Péter Nádas’ Roman Parallelgeschichten mit Blick auf die Poetik des Raumes. Die Frage nach der Behandlung von Raum und Zeit im Text wird anhand des Motivs des Durchgangs gestellt, der in der Darstellung der Wohnungen eine zentrale Rolle spielt. Durch die detaillierte Schilderung von Zwischenräumen wie dem Entrée und dem Vorraum setzt sich nämlich der Erzähler mit jenen historischen Bezügen von privaten Räumen auseinander, die auf die Wahrnehmungen und Erinnerungsprozesse der Figuren einwirken. Hier erscheinen die funktionslos gewordenen transitorischen Räume als Reste der allmählich entschwindenden bürgerlichen Welt und fallen aus dem einheitlichen Schema der Wohnungseinrichtungen, wodurch der vertraute, Sicherheitsgefühl verströmende Charakter der letzteren angegriffen wird. Es wird gezeigt, dass die Durchgänge im Roman somit zu bedrohenden, verstörenden Räumlichkeiten werden, in denen sich die hier orientierungslos werdenden Figuren gezwungen sehen, sich mit fernen Erinnerungen aus der unverarbeiteten Vergangenheit zu konfrontieren.

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Die Ereignisse der Bücherverbrennungen in Deutschland riefen in vielen Ländern ein großes Presseecho hervor. Die Reaktionen der ausländischen Presse auf dieses Ereignis wurde in mehreren Aufsätzen untersucht, die Untersuchung der Reaktionen der ungarischen Presse war aber bisher ein Desiderat der Forschung. Die vorliegende Studie gibt einen umfassenden Überblick über das Presseecho im Horthy-Ungarn.

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This article aims to reconstruct the reception of Act XVII adopted by the Hungarian Parliament in 1916, which brought about the legal recognition of Islam, from the stance of the Holy See of Rome. The research is based on archival material preserved at the Vatican Archives, namely letters exchanged between the Nunziature of Vienna and the Holy See, which are published and translated here. The presentation of so far unpublished material provides an opportunity to follow the growing understanding of the contents and background of this law; the key points of interest of the Catholic Church in this matter are identified; while lexical references seek to shed light on the perceptions of Islam.

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Abstract

This paper provides a new analysis for the semantics and pragmatics of weak (permission/acquiescence) imperatives. In a significant modification to the To-Do-List (or minimal semantics – strong pragmatic) theory of imperatives (Portner 2007; 2012; von Fintel & Iatridou 2017), I argue that in weak imperatives, the utterance of the imperative is directed not at the To-Do-List of the addressee, but at a separate list which contains the set of possible courses of action contemplated by the addressee (which I term the List of Actions Under Consideration by the addressee). I support this claim by a new detailed analysis of free-choice item licensing in imperatives (based on the dependent indefinite analysis of FCIs put forth by Giannakidou 2001). I also show how my model correctly predicts that strong imperatives are felicitous out of the blue whereas weak imperatives need the prejacent to be already part of the context. It is also pointed out how this new approach helps us cut through the familiar controversy of whether weak imperatives can create obligations. Finally, I argue that the strong vs. weak imperative distinction is orthogonal to the degree of speaker endorsement (pace von Fintel & Iatridou 2017): this claim is also supported by a new look at data from Rhaetoromance (Poletto & Zanuttini 2003), where the strong vs. weak imperative distinction is encoded overtly on the morphosyntactic level in a binary fashion.

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Abstract

This paper is concerned with the situation aspectual properties of creation and consumption verbs. More specifically, it aims to explore how telic interpretations arise in this verbal domain. The analysis which is couched in a scalar semantic framework will focus on how created/consumed themes contribute telicity given the unique, verb-mediated relationship that obtains between these themes and the scales of creation/consumption verbs. Although it is Hungarian verbs that constitute the main data set of this study, examples from English and some other languages will also be discussed for cross-linguistic comparison.

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Abstract

This study analyses the distinctive features of stories of magical healing – thematic (meeting of the natural and supernatural as the core of the narrative), structural (stability of motifs, incorporation of other folklore genres – curses, blessings; didactic statements, cumulativity), and ideological (being based on a system of beliefs). In the genre system of folklore, stories of magical healing occupy a liminal space, right at the crossroads of two semantic fields, the demonologically coded and the secular(ised), as the connection with the supernatural is sometimes only latently present. On the one hand, they introduce mythologicaldemonological elements into the everyday, and on the other, they make abstract demonic content concrete by linking it to the plane of experience. Stories told by cunning folk about successful magical healing are an important factor in their social positioning and the verification of magical practice. The circulation of such stories within a community facilitates the creation of a picture of specific practitioners, the domain of their competences, and the effectiveness of the ritual acts. Viewed more broadly, it also creates ideas about the natural and the supernatural, the worldly and the otherworldly, eschatology, morality, and codes of conduct in the broadest sense, even when tradition is rationalised, subjected to doubt, or disagreed with.

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A tanulmány célja, hogy tájrégészeti szemléletben összefoglalja a tiszazugi és körösszögi halmok (kurgánok) teljességre törekvő kataszterezésének és állapotfelmérésének legfőbb eredményeit. Emellett kitér a kutatástörténeti előzményekre, és bemutatja az egyéb vizsgálati lehetőségeket is (névtan, folklór, tájtörténet, tájökológia).

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Abstract

Snake-thread glass vessels were used from the late 2nd to the mid-3rd century AD. At least two production centres/distribution circles have been identified in the western part of the Roman Empire, which probably owed their existence to Syrian glassmaking artisans migrating to the west. One was located in the Rhine region, the other in Pannonia. Considering the distribution of snake-thread glass fragments known to date from Pannonia, it is striking that 52 of the currently known 112 fragments were found at Intercisa, 45 exemplars came to light at Brigetio and only a few pieces are known from other sites. It is remarkable that in both towns, glass workshops were active during the same period and there is also some evidence that snake-thread glass had been produced in the workshop of Brigetio.

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In the turn of the 1850’s and 1860’s a topic – which generated serious disputes in the reform era – flamed again in Hungary: it was the national clothing. With the slackening political rigour, the traditional Hungarian dress as a symbol of national togetherness was on the agenda yet again in Hungarian-language fashion magazines of Pest.

The Nővilág [Woman’s World] edited by János Vajda aimed to work on women’s aesthetical education since the start of the magazine in 1857. The column named Original Fashion Report was written by the leader contributor of the magazine Júlia Jósika, who has been corresponded up to date French and Belgian fashion from Brussels. Popularity of her articles was unbroken until 1860. The Original Fashion Report in this name was published for the last time in the february of 1860; then the column was renamed, and of results of a slow process until the end of the year Júlia Jósika’s fashion reports frayed from the Nővilág. Her place was taken by a young writer with increasing publicity, Lenke Bajza, who made a stand for national fashion. She – likewise Júlia Jósika – worked for the magazine as fictionist and fashion professional.

This change can be associated not with aesthetical but political decisions. Because of a delicate international political situation in the year 1859 Hungarian revisionists started to hope again in a new revolution for independence from Austria. With a press being stricktly supervised by the police, traditional Hungarian fashion became part of the language of national solidarity.

In my paper I will confer the competition of French fashion and traditional Hungarian clothing through Júlia Jósika’s and Lenke Bajza’s confronting fashion reports and the alteration of Nővilág in the context of the politically charged alternative language of clothing.

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This paper gives a broad overview of the ideas underlying the Chomskyan approach to linguistics. It identifies the main innovation of generative grammar in linguistics and clarifies some recurring misunderstandings about the language faculty, recursion and language universals. The paper also discusses some of the main empirical results of generative syntax.

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Abstract

The results of a general anthropological examination of 140 individuals from a late Roman period cemetery at Somogyszil-Dögkút site are presented in this paper. The population had a more or less balanced sex ratio, lived a fundamentally peaceful life suggested by the low frequencey of bone injuries, and according to their morphoscopic traits, they all belonged to the Caucasoid group. Based on the biological distances calculated from selected linear measurements of male crania, the population of Somogyszil-Dögkút proved to be quite similar to several other late Roman period cemeteries in Transdanubia, as well as to some local Avar period series. This raises the possibility of a significant local continuity between the late Roman and late Avar period on this territory, however other potential explanations cannot be ruled out. Some anthropological characteristics of the human skeletal material unearthed from graves oriented differently than the cemetery's norm suggest the presence of immigrants in the community. Their biological background cannot be traced from the present data, however a few skeletal evidence proposes the probability of a Sarmatian origin.

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„Assurnak, az istenek atyjának, a nagy úrnak…”

II. Sarrukín beszámolója a VIII. hadjáratáról (Kr. e. 714) (Bevezetés és fordítás)

Author: Niederreiter Zoltán
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Abstract

Contemporary Chinese has only one form of first-person pronoun; by contrast, there are at least four different first-person pronominal forms used in Classical Chinese. This makes Classical Chinese first-person pronouns noteworthy to investigate. This co-existence of forms with similar meaning of self-referencing raises two issues, namely the reason behind this co-existence and the relationships among these pronominal forms in terms of sociopragmatic use. Unlike what has been previously argued in the field that address forms rather than pronouns are politeness-related (e.g., Kádár 2007; Pan & Kádár 2011), first-person pronominal forms in Classical Chinese express a diverse set of contextually-situated politeness-related meanings. Furthermore, these pronominal forms are socially indexical, in the sense that they are allocated to speakers depending on their social status. Thus, a central argument of this paper is that the pronominal forms studied reveal information about both the person who uses them and the context in which they are used. The paper compares pronominal forms used in the Lunyu 論語 or The analects of Confucius (475 BC–221 BC) and Shishuo Xinyu 世說新語 (A new account of the tales of the world) (200 AD–400 AD), to understand the pragmatic implications and politeness values of these different first-person pronominal forms over a time-span of 400–600 years and also to provide a glimpse of how eventually only one form came to exist in contemporary Chinese.

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Abstract

This paper explores how the authors to the papers in this special issue of Acta Linguistica Academica (2019/2) understand the performance and evaluation of (im)politeness in various types of Chinese data across different contexts. The paper looks at the long-debated issue of universalism and particularism in (im)politeness research, since interaction takes place within different sociocultural systems, in different situational settings, at different interactive contexts, and with different interlocutors. The paper also brings forward the necessity to enhance the impact of Chinese (im)politeness research.

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‘Family-culture’ and Chinese politeness

An emancipatory pragmatic account

Author: Xinren Chen

Abstract

While researchers have questioned the suitability of classic Western models for accommodating Chinese linguistic politeness phenomena, inadequate attention has been devoted to the role of ideologies in understanding Chinese language use. This study examines the key ideological notion of jia wenhua 家文化 ‘family culture’, and uses it to model some typical discursive practices of (im)politeness in contemporary China. As an ideology, ‘family culture’ has its roots in ancient Chinese philosophy, and it continues to prevail to the present day. Adopting this ideological notion as an analytic construct, this study seeks to formulate a set of new maxims to account for some discursive practices of Chinese politeness, which neither previous Western nor Chinese models have captured. In so doing, it contributes to emancipatory pragmatics by demonstrating the necessity of deploying culturally-grounded ideologies as analytic constructs, such as ‘family culture’ in this study, to rationalize some types of Chinese sociopragmatic behaviour.

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