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A tanulmány az Athós-hegyi Iviron 463-as jelzetű kétnyelvű (ógörög-ófrancia) bizánci kézirat különféle rétegeinek (ógörög főszöveg, miniatúrák, lapszélen szereplő ófrancia fordítás, ófrancia címsorok) összefüggéseit vizsgálja újabb megközelítésből, korábban nem vizsgált szempontok bevonásával: a miniatúrák és az ófrancia szövegben szereplő piros tintával kiemelt címsorok közötti kapcsolat feltárásával. A tanulmány a Barlám-regény görög változatait megőrző kódexek – ivironi kézirat szempontjából fontos – magyarázó címeit is áttekinti, a kéziratok közötti közös elemeket vizsgálja. Az elemzés az ivironi kódex készítésének körülményeivel kapcsolatban újabb fontos összefüggésekre világít rá.

The study examines the relations between different aspects (Ancient Greek main text, miniatures, Old French translation on the margins, Old French headlines) of the manuscript Iviron № 463, which is a bilingual (Ancient Greek-Old French) Byzantine manuscript kept on Mount Athos, from a new perspective by including formerly not investigated viewpoints: by exploring the relationship between the miniatures and the headlines that are highlighted by red ink in the Old French text. The study also mentions the explanatory inscriptions in codices that preserved the Greek versions of the Barlaam-romance and are relevant in connection with the Iviron manuscript, furthermore, it investigates the common features of the manuscripts. The analysis reveals new important relations regarding the circumstances of the creation of codex Iviron.

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Plutarchos Bruta animalia ratione uti című eleven dialógusából három latin fordítás is készült a XV. század folyamán, melyek csak kéziratban maradtak fenn. Hogy a fordítások belső viszonyait felfedjük, a kézirati szövegek mélyreható elemzésére van szükség. Egy korábbi tanulmányunkban feldolgoztuk Giovanni Regio időben legkésőbbi fordítását (1488), kimutatva azokat a szálakat, amelyek elődje, a milánói Lampugnino Birago fordításához (1465–1470 körül) fűzik. Most a szicíliai Antonio Cassarino legkorábban készült fordításának (1440–1445 körül) a vizsgálatát kívánjuk elvégezni párhuzamosan utódja, Lampugnino Birago negyed évszázaddal későbbi fordításával, hogy összehasonlítsuk módszerüket és stíluseszközeiket. A két fordító megközelítése között lényeges különbség figyelhető meg. Míg Cassarino a humanista fordításeszményt követve „értelem szerinti” (ad sententiam) fordításra törekszik, addig Birago inkább a „szó szerinti” (ad verbum) fordítás követelményének tesz eleget. A fordításelmélet általános kérdései mellett tárgyaljuk a latin fordítások kézirati hagyományának, görög forrásszövegének, valamint szóhasználatának problémáját.

Plutarch’s lively dialogue Bruta animalia ratione uti was translated in the course of the 15th century by three different persons whose works are only extant in manuscripts. For establishing the connections between these translations a thorough study of the texts of the codices is needed. In a previous article, we have dealt with Giovanni Regio’s translation, which is the latest in time (1488), and found traces of the latter’s dependence from the translation of the Milanese Lampugnino Birago (c. 1465–1470). The aim of the present paper is to inquire into the text of the earliest translation by the Sicilian Antonio Cassarino (c. 1440–1445) in parallel with the text of Lampugnino Birago’s translation which followed it after two and a half decades. The different translation methods and devices used by the translators provide ample space for comparison. Whereas Cassarino’s approach is more in keeping with the humanist ideal of ‘translation by sense’ (ad sententiam), Birago as a rule follows a principle of ‘translation by word’ (ad verbum), keeping close to the letter. Beyond the questions of translation theory in general problems relating to the textual tradition of the Latin codices, the possible Greek sources of the translations, and a number of lexical matters are discussed.

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Coluccio Salutati Állami Levelei És Magyarország.

Történeti adalékok egy kritikai kiadáshoz

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: Armando Nuzzo
Open access

Az ókori római művészettörténet egyik leggyakrabban vizsgált műalkotása az Ara Pacis Augustae. Az avatatlan szem egy kiválóan formált, részletes, domborművek sokaságát felvonultató, páratlan műalkotást lát, azonban a történettudomány és a különböző társtudományok ezen apró részletekből az Augustus-kor kiváló lenyomatát tudják nyújtani. Az Ara Pacis reliefj einek részletgazdagsága miatt mind a római politikatörténet, mind a vallás- és eszmetörténet kutatásának kiváló forrása. Jelen tanulmány elsődleges célja állást foglalni az ikonográfiai sajátosságok és a szakirodalom segítségével abban a kérdésben, hogy ki a panel főalakja.

Ara Pacis Augustae is the most frequently studied work of art in the ancient Roman history of art. The uninitiated eye sees an exquisitely crafted, detailed, multitude of reliefs, a unique work of art, but history and different collaborative sciences can render an excellent imprint of Augustus era from these tiny details. Owing to the Ara Pacis’ chiselled reliefs, it is an excellent source for political history, history of religion, and ideology. The aim of this study is to take sides in the question of who is the main figure of the panel by dint of the iconographic features and recent literature.

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Nicasius Ellebodius És Az „Otium Litterarum”.

Egy flamand filológus viszontagságai Pozsonyban (1571–1577)

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: Orbán Áron

A tanulmány Nicasius Ellebodius életének utolsó, pozsonyi időszakát (1571–1577) dolgozza fel, bepillantást nyújtva a flamand humanista izgalmas személyiségébe és sokoldalú tevékenységébe. Ellebodius, aki a francia-flandriai Casselben született 1535-ben, és Leuvenben, Rómában, illetve Padovában tanult, a XVI. századi Európa egyik legjobb klasszikus filológusává vált. Radéczy István püspök és helytartó patronáltjaként élete utolsó időszakát Pozsonyban töltötte. Számos klasszikus görög – főleg aristotelési – mű redakcióján, latin parafrázisán dolgozott. Míg nagyobb filológiai teljesítményeit már értékelte a nemzetközi szakirodalom, élete és személye háttérbe szorult a kutatásban. Fennmaradt levelezése viszont – melynek nagyobb része a pozsonyi időszakból való – kiváló alkalmat nyújt arra, hogy a művek mögé pillantva rálássunk személyiségére és tevékenységére. A tanulmány különösen arra a kérdésre keresi a választ, mennyire tudta megvalósítani Pozsonyban az olyannyira áhított otium litterarumot, és milyen egzisztenciális problémákkal kellett szembenéznie Magyarországon.

The study revisits Nicasius Ellebodius’s life and character as can be outlined from the sources of his Bratislavan (Pozsony) period. Ellebodius, who was born in Cassel in French Flanders in 1535 and studied in Leuven, Rome and Padua, became one of sixteenth-century Europe’s best classical philologists. Patronised by Bishop István Radéczy, he spent the last period of his life basically in Bratislava. He worked on editions or paraphrases of several – primarily Aristotelian – classical Greek works. While his major philological achievements have already been assessed by international research, scholars have not delved deep into his biography. His surviving correspondence – the majority of which belongs to his Bratislavan period – provides an opportunity to look behind the works and gain insight into his activities and personality. The study focuses on the problem how far he could realise the otium litterarum that he yearned so much and what challenges he had to face in his everyday life in Hungary.

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Vergilius Kallimachosi Pindarosa.

Királyság és gyermek-Iamos a negyedik eklogában (23-25)

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: Adorjáni Zsolt
Open access

This study deals with the history of the Hungarian cottage industry co-operatives with applied folk art profile after World War II. Since publications in this topic concerning Hungary are scarce, this framework is dedicated to the circumstances under which these co-operatives which employed a high number of people and operated quite successfully up to the beginning of the eighties, came into existence, their operations and the scope of objects produced by them, which are identified as applied folk art today. Having the economic, political and cultural environment of the Rákosi- (1949–1956) and Kádár-era (1956–1989) in mind, just as well, as the current approach of creators and ethnographers to the activity of the co-operatives.

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The dance house and folk artisans movements have developed into such a youth subculture in the cultural scope of the socialist Hungary, which the Kádárian cultural policy could support only partially, it was rather placed at the borderland between the ‘tolerated’ and ‘banned’ categories. The so-called Nomadic Generation was attached to the developing domestic dissident opposition just as well as to the cross border Hungarian intelligentsia through many threads, which seemed to be undesirable for those in power. This study outlines a general picture on the characteristics of the folklorist-movement of the 1970s and 1980s, thought to be dissident in nature, then it will show through examples of different life courses and case studies how the search for new paths materialized in folk handicrafts, and what impact this era exerted on the folk artisanship in the period after the political transition.

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The paper focuses on the case study of a settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Hungarian capital, which became nationally recognized in the second half of the 20th century through the staging of the community’s wedding customs, known as Wedding at Ecser. Over the decades, the element lifted out of the local lifeworld – and ultimately constructed – has become linked with various community meanings and interpretive structures, through the examination of which the underlying historical, economic, and socio-cultural processes are being presented. Not only has the cultural relic – initially constructed by and through external actors – appreciated for local society, it soon developed into a central element of self-representation. At the same time, the cyclically growing interest in the staged custom and the repeated re-articulation of the wedding in new ways were closely linked with the social changes of the given period and the transformation of the local community and also dependent on the nature of power discourses at the local level. However, the wedding became not only an economic, ideological, political resource for the local community but also a valid meaning structure beyond the local level. This study pays special attention to discussions of the role that this phenomenon – which has nearly 60 years of history and many layers of meaning – may have played in the heritagization practices of the 21st century. There is particular emphasis on how the wedding as a heritage element and – more broadly – heritagization are linked to local experiences of a changing rurality.

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Social Change, Dress and Identity

Observations on the Disintegration of Peasant Culture as Exemplified by Rural Women’s Clothing in Hungary from the First World War to the End of the Kádár Era Socialism

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Ágnes Fülemile

The article, based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork, studies the process of the disintegration of the traditional system of peasant costume in the 20th century in Hungary in the backdrop of its socio-historic context. There is a focused attention on the period during socialism from the late 1940s to the end of the Kádár era, also called Gulyás communism. In the examined period, the wearing and abandonment of folk costume in local peasant communities was primarily characteristic of women and an important part of women’s competence and decision-making. There was an age group that experienced the dichotomy of peasant heritage and the realities of socialist modernisation as a challenge in their own lifetime – which they considered a great watershed. The author interviewed both the last stewards of tradition who continued wearing costume for the rest of their lives and those who pioneered and implemented changes and abandoned peasant costume in favor of urban dress. The liminal period of change, the character and logic of the processes and motivations behind decision-making were still accessible in memory, and current dressing practices and the folklorism phenomena of the “afterlife” of costume could still be studied in real life. The study shows that costume was the focus point of women’s aspirations, attention, and life organization, and how the life paths of strong female personalities were articulated around clothing. It also reveals that there was a high level of self-awareness and strong emotional attachment in individual relationships to clothing in the rural context, similar to – or perhaps even exceeding – the fashion-conscious, individualized urban context. Examining the role of fashion, modernization, and individual decisions and attitudes in traditional clothing systems is an approach that bridges the mostly distinct study of folk costume and the problematics of dress and fashion history research.

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This study focuses on a theme that until now has only been addressed to a lesser degree in dance folkloristics, namely the relationship between dance and politics. I examine two types of Central Transylvanian folk dance, the local variations of the dance group called eszközös pásztortánc (Herdsmen’s Dance with implement) and the local variations of the dance group called lassú legényes (slow male dance), attempting to study their transformation in terms of form and function during the 20th century in a traditional and revival context. Using two case studies, I also reflect on the unique system of relations between folklorism and folklorisation in an attempt to illustrate Hungarian and Romanian socio-economic factors and cultural policy underlying the transformation of these dances.

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In this paper, I present a short excerpt from an 18-hour-long Bru life history recorded in 1989 in the Central Vietnamese Highlands among the Bru/Vân Kiều of Quảng Trị. The excerpt sheds light on the circumstances of Christian evangelization among the Bru through the recollections of a Bru man who was not Christian himself but was in contact with the key protagonists of the events, the missionaries and the evangelized Bru people. The interview reveals on how the evangelized and non-evangelized viewed the evangelists. What were the ways of promoting evangelization? Were the Bru impressed by the world of the evangelizers? How did the Bru conceive of the evangelizers? How convincing did they find their arguments? Beside its immanent value, this intercultural encounter has a significance beyond itself insofar as it is situated in and reflective of the icy political and ideological milieu of the Vietnam War in the 1960s–1970s, the impacts of which were still lingering when the recording was made.

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ABSTRACT

Building on collaborative work with Stefan Baums, Ching Chao-jung, Hannes Fellner and Georges-Jean Pinault during a workshop at Leiden University in September 2019, tentative readings are presented from a manuscript folio (T II T 48) from the Northern Tarim Basin in Northwest China written in the thus far undeciphered Formal Kharoṣṭhī script. Unlike earlier scholarly proposals, the language of this folio cannot be Tocharian, nor can it be Sanskrit or Middle Indic (Gāndhārī). Instead, it is proposed that the folio is written in an Iranian language of the Khotanese-Tumšuqese type. Several readings are proposed, but a full transcription, let alone a full translation, is not possible at this point, and the results must consequently remain provisional.

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ABSTRACT

This contribution argues that Zhu Quan’s (1378–1448) apotheosis must be interpreted as a paratextual discourse on authorship. Substantiating this claim, this article discusses how the extant editions of the Divine Pivot Ready to Hand construct the king’s divine authorship. In its three sections, the article examines the physical, paratextual and ritual dimensions of his apotheosis. Focusing on the last chapter of the Pivot, it demonstrates that calendars serve as a material cum textual media through which to posit Zhu Quan’s divine status. In a dialogue with the field of ritual studies, the article explains to what degree Zhu Quan’s calendars may be interpreted as an act of ritual textualisation.

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When Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály began systematically collecting folk songs, they almost exclusively encountered monophony, which subsequently featured as their compositional inspiration. As a musical phenomenon, monophony differed sharply from the harmonically based, often overharmonized, polyphonic universe of Western music. However, they also encountered coordinated folk polyphony, in the context of instrumental folk harmonizations. Taking into account the instrumental folk music both Kodály and Bartók collected, this study compares the two main types of folk harmonizations with folk song harmonizations in the works of Kodály, whose related theoretical statements are also considered. This study offers an in-depth analysis of six fragments from Kodály’s major folk-song arrangements to highlight the features of Kodály’s folk song harmonizations.

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The Hungarian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric linguistic family, but several pre-Conquest strata of Hungarian folk music are connected to Turkic groups. Intrigued by this phenomenon, Hungarian folk music researchers launched thorough comparative examinations. Investigations authenticated by fieldwork have also been ongoing to the present day, parallel to theoretical research. Initially, the main goal was to explore the eastern relations of Hungarian folk music, which gradually broadened into the areal research of the Volga-Kama-Belaya region. I further expanded this work to encompass the comparative investigation of Turkic-speaking groups living over the vast Eurasian territory. This paper provides a summary of the findings of this field research examining the folk music of Anatolian Turk, Azeri, Karachay, Kazakh, Turkmen, Uzbek and Kyrgyz people. I briefly describe the sources, the fieldwork, the methods of processing the collected material, and most interestingly, I summarize new findings. After providing an overview of traditional songs of several Turkic peoples, selected results are provided in three tables: 1) a grouping of Turkic folk-music repertoires; 2) Turkic parallels to Hungarian folk music styles; and 3) the current state of Turkic folk music research conducted by Hungarian scholars.

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This study focuses on the use of the parlando rubato style of Hungarian folk music in György Kurtág’s compositions. Kurtág applies the terms parlando, rubato,and molto rubato several times, and these designations always refer to a clearly defined meaning in his compositions, connected to “Hungarianness” and sexuality. This study aims to reveal these meanings, aided by Kurtág’s compositional sketches and notes preserved in the Paul Sacher Foundation in Basel, as well as through analysis of vocal works such as the Four Songs (op. 11), S. K. –Remembrance Noise (op. 12), Attila József Fragments (op. 20), Seven Songs (op. 22), Eight Choruses (op. 23), Kafka Fragments (op. 24), and Three Old Inscriptions (op. 25).

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This paper focuses on the smallest units and micro-structures of traditional dance. I propose a new approach that ventures beyond the identification of simple syntagmatic relations derived from the temporal succession of movements: a former practice of dance analyses that relied on theories borrowed from linguistics and music. The following discussion, based on the analysis of movement content as spatial change, demonstrates the existence of independent but simultaneous movement events in dance: each event possesses an expressive potential and the capacity for performance as a single rhythmical unit. Identifying events creates the possibility of separating parallel running, autonomous movement themes. Amongst the examined structures, an exceptional one, here termed contrakinesis, emerges, which represents spatial opposition as a recurring, characteristic phenomenon in East Central European traditional dance. The theory of simultaneous events and parallel themes reveals that concepts of expression in traditional dance can be comprehensively recognized only through a content-oriented exploration relying on movement analysis: an approach derived from investigating the dance itself.

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Based on a fresh study of all primary sources of Bartók’s The Miraculous Mandarin (composition: 1918/19, orchestration: 1924) the article reconsiders the entire history of composition and repeated revisions of the work. The original choice of genre (expressive “pantomime” in contrast to “ballet”) seems to have played a significant role in this troubled history, which shows the composer’s efforts to transform sections of the original “gesture” music into a more symphonic style often making the music more succinct. Puzzlingly, the first full score of the complete work and a revised edition of the piano reduction published posthumously in 1955 by Universal Edition present an abridged form of the work, which cannot be fully authenticated and was finally restored to its more complete form in Peter Bartók’s new edition of 2000. Looking for the possible origin of the more obscure cuts, discussions with choreographer Aurelio Milloss in 1936 and Gyula Harangozó in 1939/40, both of whom later directed and danced productions of the work under the baton of János Ferencsik with great success (in Milan in 1942 and in Budapest in 1945, resp.), should probably be taken into consideration as these might have resulted in the integration of cuts into the published full score. Apart from trying to understand the different stages of the work’s long evolution, the article argues that it is essential to study the original version in the compositional sources since it reveals Bartók’s first concept of the piece composed in his period of highest expressionism.

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Considering the appearance of the musical cryptogram “B-A-C-H” (B-flat– A–C–B -natural) in well-known works up to the time of his First String Quartet (1908/1909), Béla Bartók knew Liszt’s Fantasy and Fugue on the Theme B-A-C-H, presumably also Schumann’s Sechs Fugen über den Namen Bach, and Reger’s Fantasia and Fugue on B-A-C-H for organ. Such compositions quoted the celebrated motive, typically as a starting point, with the relevant (aforementioned) pitches because the musical cryptogram in this way allowed immediate recognition of the reference to the name of the Leipzig composer. However, Bartók’s planned “B-A-C-H” quotation in the development section of the sonata-form second movement of his First Quartet was not a typical homage to Johann Sebastian Bach but rather a vision: a distorted reference to the symbolic “B-A-C-H” motive. Undoubtedly Bartók liked this episode. There is reason to believe that his friend Zoltán Kodály advised him to leave out the inorganic and distorted “B-A-C-H” allusion.

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György Ligeti and his wife fled Hungary in December 1956, travelling through the night of the 11 and 12, and finally reaching Vienna the following day. The existing materials dating from Ligeti’s early emigration demonstrate particularly dynamic correspondence with three Hungarian expatriates: composers Sándor Veress and Mátyás Seiber, as well as the critic John S. Weissmann. 33 letters and postcards and a further 11 replies, held in the Paul Sacher Foundation in Basel, comprise a body of Ligeti’s correspondence with these colleagues dating between the final month of 1956 and the end of 1958. Although evidently incomplete, this unique collection offers novel perspectives surrounding the beginnings of Ligeti’s Western career. Reflecting expectations and future aspirations, these documents trace the excitements as well as challenges of “wiping the slate clean.” Encapsulating Ligeti’s evolving compositional interests and recounting the processes through which he forged new professional relationships, this correspondence reveals insights relating to the composer’s newly- emerging public image. Emigration brought many trials, yet upheaval simultaneously presented an opportunity to radically break with the past. Ligeti could redefine his professional identity as a composer. Although Ligeti felt uneasy in Cologne, it quickly became apparent that engaging in an official capacity with the Electronic Music Studio of the West German Radio (WDR) provided an extraordinary opportunity to establish himself in avant-garde musical circles. Initially shocked by these musical experiments, it was clear to Ligeti that his own creative path lay separate from the avant-garde scene with which he became acquainted in Cologne. Ligeti’s correspondence dating from these encounters indicates that he left Hungary with preconceived musical concepts and aspirations. His experiences with contemporary music rather provided the technical tools through which he could construct and articulate his own concepts, in a manner appearing current in the context of the Cologne-Darmstadt avant-garde.

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Abstract

This paper discusses two Hungarian verbal particles that belong to the semantic group of repetitive elements. The main focus is on the verbal particle újra ‘again’, which has primarily been discussed as an adverb with repetitive and restitutive meanings (with the exception of Csirmaz 2015) but can be a verbal particle, which is distinct both from the adverb and from most other verbal particles. The verbal particle vissza ‘back’, which expresses counterdirectionality will be claimed to be like typical, primarily directional verbal particles and to be a part of the result component of the argument structure. Újra ‘again’ as a verbal particle is analyzed on a par with some non-directional particles and idiomatic resultative phrases that are inserted into the structure in a functional projection below the external argument.

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Abstract

This paper aims to advance a comprehensive theory of binding, which can account for all binding patterns found in Polish, some of which are particularly puzzling for traditional and novel formulations of Binding Theory. Namely, Polish reflexive pronouns/possessives are typically (nominative) subject oriented but they can also have dative Object Experiencers, OEs, as antecedents. Yet, OEs are also appropriate local antecedents for pronominal possessives. Our analysis explains the complementarity of pronouns and reflexives and lack thereof by assuming that the Spell-out form of the reflexive/pronoun is determined by its covert movement, while a binding dependency is established via Agree for [var(iable):_] feature.

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Abstract

This paper sheds light on the treatment of initial gemination in Qassimi Arabic (QA), a Najdi dialect spoken in the Al-Qassim region in central Saudi Arabia, within the framework of Parallelism, an Optimality Theory (OT) model. The study concludes that initial geminates, which are non-actual surface forms in QA, result from the assimilation of the prefix /t-/ to stem-initial consonants of Arabic verb forms II and III, as well as hollow verbs, to avoid violation of the Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP). On the other hand, initial semisyllables, as moraic consonants, originate from initial gemination and consequently motivate prosthesis; that is, the purpose of prosthesis is to affiliate a semisyllable to the syllable node without causing violation of the Strict Layer Hypothesis (SLH). Sequences of assimilation of prefix /t-/ plus prosthesis do not occur simultaneously, whereas regressive assimilation feeds the prosthetic vowel [i], which, in turn, feeds the prosthetic glottal stop [ʔ] to concur with the Onset Principle. These sequences thus indicate transparent rule interactions, that is, feeding. Parallel OT is then successfully utilized to account for this type of phonological derivation.

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Abstract

We analyse two reduplication processes in Saraiki, an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Pakistan. The two processes are only minimally different: the first type involves total reduplication and the second type involves overwriting with an initial consonant (“fixed segment reduplication”). The goal of the paper is to expose the difficulties of analysing both processes in a single grammar, i.e. with a single constraint hierarchy in Optimality Theory: we finally opt for an analysis based on allomorphy for the second type, to capture the morpheme-specific nature of the processes involved.

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Summary

This study compares the Vulgar Latin Raetia, Noricum, Venetia et Histria, Pannónia Superior, Pannónia Inferior and Dalmatia with each other and their provincial capitals in relation to the hypothesized large dialectal isoglosses of Vulgar Latin, and in turn, to the modern Romance languages located in those areas, such as Western Romance, Northern Italian, Southern Italian and Eastern Romance dialects. The analysis is done on the palatal and velar vowels, the V∼B merger, intervocalic V drop, sonorization, degemination, assimilation, palatalization and final /-s/ drop. The territories of the Alps-Danube-Adria region will be classified according to their similarities to each other and their similarity to the Vulgar Latin or Romance dialects.

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Summary

This paper compares the romanization of Gaul in the 1st century BC and the gallicization of the island of Martinique during 17th-century French colonial expansion, using criteria set out by Muf- wene's Founder Principle. The Founder Principle determines key ecological factors in the formation of creole vernaculars, such as the founding populations and their proportion to the whole, language varieties spoken, and the nature and evolution of the interactions of the founding populations (also referred to as “colonization styles”). Based on the comparison, it will be claimed that new languages arise when a language undergoes vehicularization and subsequently shifts from one speech community to another. In other words, linguistic genesis would be a complicated case of language contact, where not only one, but sev- eral dialects of both superstrate and substrate varieties are involved, in a historical context where the identity function of language, or the norm, is overriden by the need to communicate. Research also indicates that language varieties spoken at the time of the shift did not pertain to normative usage, but to popular varieties, dialects, or both, since the emerging vernaculars - in Gaul, as well as in Martinique - preserved some of their phonological and lexical particularities.

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Summary:

I examine verbal prefixation analyzing the functional changes of the Latin ad- prefix from Classical Latin to Italian. In order to conduct the research properly I needed to separate the verbs in ety- mological groups directly derived from Latin (Classical, Vulgar or Late Latin) from the verbs created in the Romance period and the Latin loan verbs. The different origin of the verbs influences our expectation regarding the analyzability of a given verb (the recognisability of the prefix as an independent element and its semantic value - which can be different from that of its Latin origin). This division is not as clear cut as it seems to be, because, in the case of the Italian, phonetic evidence in favour of one group or another is often missing. I present the possible solutions I found for the grouping problems using semantic evidence, comparison with the other Romance languages, dating of the given verb, etc. Furthermore, I highlight the general and specific factors which determine the assignment of a certain verb to a certain group in order to obtain a precise but still flexible set of verbal categories.

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Summary

Proto-Romance linguistic transformations are partially hidden by the archaic style that char- acterizes Late Latin documents. However, these texts (e. g. chronicles) permit insights into the changes undergone by the oral language, because authors and scribes can reproduce unconsciously their own speech habits, already different from Classical standard. In our presentation, this curious duality is shown by the example of noun declension, which is undermined, but not yet completely eliminated, in 7th century Latin. A comparison is made between the so-called Fredegarius, a Merovingian chronicle, and an early French poem, the Eulalia Sequence, which manifests the last stage of the declension, just before its disappearance. The morphological change has its counterpart in the restructuration of the sentence: the neighbourhood of subject and verb becomes usual in the surface structure, and certain limitations are im- posed upon the freedom of word order. Thus, the reconstruction process we propose has two aspects: it is necessary to describe the diastratic variation at different moments of the history of Late Latin, and, on the other hand, the results need to be compared with the Early Romance linguistic systems. In this manner, reconstruction can show the coexistence of tradition and innovation in the language, a necessary condition of its normal functioning.

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Summary

We know about a significant number of inscriptions – the major part of them were found in Rome - in which the pronoun idem, the form of the nominative masculine, stands in the place of another grammatical gender or case of the same word (usually a dative), or in the place of the adverb item. In the edited epigraphic corpora, this form is usually interpreted as adverbial and emendated for item. However, in similar context (as for example in the title), we can often see isdem too, the archaic form of the nominative masculine, which cannot be explained on the base of the phonology as derivated from item. In the 19th century, Friedrich Ritschl thought that these forms substituted in reality eidem (dative singular of idem), and explained the change based on phonology (eidem to idem), and then on analogy (idem to isdem). An explanation like this imply the fossilisation of the pronoun, since the variants of the nominative masculine occure in the place of another inflected form of the word, specifically in the dative. In 1907, E. H. Sturtevant published an article (Some Unfamiliar Uses of Idem and Isdem in Latin Inscriptions) in which he intended to refute Ritschl’s claim and to give another interesting interpretation. In his opinion, the fenomenon has different origins in Ostia and in Rome. In his theory, the occurrences of the form idem in a position, which is different from the nominative masculine of the pronoun, are dialectic variants of item if they are from Ostia; though the same forms registrated in Rome are interpreted as consciously used nominatives. In consequence, the fossilisation of the word would be a non-existent fenomenon. The aim of this study is to examine critically Sturtevant’s argumentation concerning the fossilisation of the pronoun idem and its eventual fusion with the adverb item.

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Summary

Despite the numerous studies carried out on Latin inscriptions from different parts of the Empire, up to date a complete quantitative analysis on the vowel alternations occurring in Latin inscriptions from Sardinia has not yet been carried out. However, such an investigation could shed light on the dynamics of the emergence of the Sardinian vowel system, where the ‘common romance' mergers of ĭ, ē and ŭ, ō did not take place. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the graphemic alternations (o) ∼ (U) and (e)(i) occurring in an epigraphic corpus containing the available Latin inscriptions from Sardinia. The alternations have been examined with reference to four variables: the proportion against standard spellings, the dating of the inscriptions, the position of lexical stress and the amount of other misspellings in the texts examined. The results show a vowel system which seems to foreshadow the Romance development of the Sardinian varieties from early times due to the low number of misspellings. The reconstruction of the sociocultural context of the inscriptions could help us to explain the distribution of the vowel alternations.

Free access

Summary

This paper intends to provide some data about the occurrence of 〈e〉 and 〈o〉 for Classical Latin (= CL) /1/ and /ŭ/ in Latin papyri and ostraca. In order to carry out a study of the incidence of some grapho-phonological phenomena within documentary texts and to examine to what extent they could be related with parameters of sociolinguistic variation, the examined texts have been collected in a corpus which has been tagged for both linguistic and extralinguistic aspects. This corpus is available in the Data-base CLaSSES (http://classes-latin-linguistics.fileli.unipi.it), created at the FILELI Department of the Uni-versity of Pisa (§ 1). The study will focus in particular on the analysis of this graphemic alternance in the Bu Njem ostraca (§ 2.1); then, it will dwell on the qualitative analysis of three lexemes in Egyptian papyri and ostraca in which a proto-Romance merger between /ĭ/ and /ē/ in /e/ and /ŭ/ and /ō/ in /o/ in tonic posi-tion might be documented. Particular attention is paid to interference phenomena with Greek (§ 2.2).

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Summary

This paper intends to show that when grouping the various kinds of omissions of final -m in Väänänen‘s study on the Vulgar Latin of Pompeian inscriptions, the subcategories in his category b) (‘m omis sans raison apparente’ i.e. where -m is omitted due to a phonetic process) as “Accusatifs en -a(m) like Succesus amat ancilla(m) and ad porta(m) Romana(m) or “Accusatifs en -e(m)” such as qu(a)e amas Felicione(m) and ante aede(m) must be rearranged in the following two subcategories: 1) cases after prepositions like ad porta(m) Romana(m) and ante aede(m) etc. where besides the phonetic interpretation a parallel morphosyntactic explanation of case confusion cannot be ruled out; and 2) cases with the objective use connected to verbs like Succesus amat ancilla(m) and qu(a)e amas Felicione(m) where, due to the preference of the phonetic interpretation, the morphosyntactic explanation seems to be less probable or even unlikely.

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Summary:

This paper focuses on the uses and forms of the relative pronouns as evidenced from the Latin epigraphy in Lusitania. Inscriptions are considered from the 1st to the 8th century AD, with special attention being paid to the future developments in the Portuguese language. To this purpose, other in- scriptions or documents of a different nature dated to later chronologies are also considered as a point of comparison.

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Summary:

Jupiter Dolichenus was a Roman god, a so-called ‘Oriental deity’ whose mystery cult gained popularity in the 2nd century AD, reached a peak under the Severi in the early 3rd century AD, and died out shortly after. As for Jupiter Dolichenus, he is sometimes referred to by scholars as ‘Baal of Doliche’ or ‘Dolichenian Baal’.1 The name Baal is derived from the term Ba’al, meaning ‘owner’ or ‘lord’, and the word must have been used as a title for gods in general. Over six hundreds monuments – mainly inscriptions – of the Dolichenian cult have come to light from the Eastern and Western parts of the Empire. The name Jupiter with the epithet Dolichenus – from the original name of Doliche – appears in inscriptions in many incorrect forms including Dolichenius, Dolychenus, Dolochenus, Dolicenus, Dolcenus, Dulcenus, Dolucens.

Which of the above epithets reflects the original Syrian form and tradition? Is it possible that Dulcenus is the original and correct form of the deity’s name, or is it just another vulgar change which appeared separately in time and space? This paper tries to prove the latter with the help of the LLDB. The Dolichenian cult is thought to have first been introduced by Syrian merchants and auxiliary soldiers, including troops from Commagene (the province that includes Doliche). In the light of the names of the priests of Jupiter Dolichenus, Speidel2 states that the Jupiter Dolichenian cult in the army was largely supported by Syrians and other Orientals.

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Summary

This paper gives a short review of the research from recent years on texts of Latin curse tablets from Pannonia. In the last decade, four new lead tablets of quite long and well-readable texts came to light in well documented archeaological context in Pannonia. On one hand, these findings have not only doubled the small corpus, but they presented new data from both the field of magic and linguistics. On the other, in connection with the examination of the new pieces, the reconsideration of earlier ones could not be delayed any longer.

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Summary

Egeria, a 4th century pious woman from the south of present-day Spain, retold, after visiting Palestine with the Bible in hand, her observations to her sisters. If the linguistic aspects of her letters are quite well-known, much less is known about its stylistic value, inappropriately called “simple”.

What seems to be boringly the same again and again, is in fact a constantly renewed and perfectly mastered “variation on a theme”, just as in a well-composed piece of music. Her apparent objectivity is indeed a wish to focus on what she considers the most important, namely to tell her community, as closely to reality as possible, what she observed during her pilgrimage. However, Egeria’s latin is also a testimony of the christian lexicon in construction and of the social changes that were in progress by that time.

Linguistics and stylistics work together here, the choice of a word or a grammatical formula reveals hidden information about the proper style of an author who, despite her supposed objectivity, had real personal purposes.

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Summary

“There are 150 words in Catullus which occur once only in his writings, and of these more than 70 per cent are rare in the whole of Latin literature, and more than 90 per cent do not occur in Vergil at all” – writes J. Whatmough in his work Poetic, Scientific, and other Forms of Discourse, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1956, 41. It is necessary to distinguish between genuine and apparent once-words. The true once-word is a coinage that never recurs; the number of the true once-words is exceedingly small. Catullus’ once-words were well known, but not in writing. Theoretically one would expect such words to be polysyllabic; so are the comic jawbreakers of Aristophanes which fit the pattern of his verse so well. The hapax legomena of Catullus are not genuine once-words of the spoken language, but they are vulgar and in some contexte obscene. We can, therefore, regard them as taboo words. They occur sometimes in similes; cf. Poems 17, 23, 25, 97. In my paper I would like to analyse some vulgar hapax legomena of Catullus.

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Summary

According to the communis opinio, Lat. leuga was a Gaulish loanword, survived in the Romance languages and was borrowed into Old English. However, this scenario faces three unsolved problems: the non–Celtic diphthong –eu–, the Proto–Romance form *legua and the fact that the Old English word cannot continue the Latin form on phonological grounds. This paper argues that all these problems can regularly be solved by the reconstructed West Germanic and Gothic cognates of the Old English word borrowed into Gaulish and early Romance dialects, respectively.

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Abstract

This paper aims to advance a comprehensive theory of binding, which can account for all binding patterns found in Polish, some of which are particularly puzzling for traditional and novel formulations of Binding Theory. Namely, Polish reflexive pronouns/possessives are typically (nominative) subject oriented but they can also have dative Object Experiencers, OEs, as antecedents. Yet, OEs are also appropriate local antecedents for pronominal possessives. Our analysis explains the complementarity of pronouns and reflexives and lack thereof by assuming that the Spell-out form of the reflexive/pronoun is determined by its covert movement, while a binding dependency is established via Agree for [var(iable):_] feature.

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Abstract

This paper sheds light on the treatment of initial gemination in Qassimi Arabic (QA), a Najdi dialect spoken in the Al-Qassim region in central Saudi Arabia, within the framework of Parallelism, an Optimality Theory (OT) model. The study concludes that initial geminates, which are non-actual surface forms in QA, result from the assimilation of the prefix /t-/ to stem-initial consonants of Arabic verb forms II and III, as well as hollow verbs, to avoid violation of the Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP). On the other hand, initial semisyllables, as moraic consonants, originate from initial gemination and consequently motivate prosthesis; that is, the purpose of prosthesis is to affiliate a semisyllable to the syllable node without causing violation of the Strict Layer Hypothesis (SLH). Sequences of assimilation of prefix /t-/ plus prosthesis do not occur simultaneously, whereas regressive assimilation feeds the prosthetic vowel [i], which, in turn, feeds the prosthetic glottal stop [ʔ] to concur with the Onset Principle. These sequences thus indicate transparent rule interactions, that is, feeding. Parallel OT is then successfully utilized to account for this type of phonological derivation.

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Abstract

This paper discusses two Hungarian verbal particles that belong to the semantic group of repetitive elements. The main focus is on the verbal particle újra ‘again’, which has primarily been discussed as an adverb with repetitive and restitutive meanings (with the exception of Csirmaz 2015) but can be a verbal particle, which is distinct both from the adverb and from most other verbal particles. The verbal particle vissza ‘back’, which expresses counterdirectionality will be claimed to be like typical, primarily directional verbal particles and to be a part of the result component of the argument structure. Újra ‘again’ as a verbal particle is analyzed on a par with some non-directional particles and idiomatic resultative phrases that are inserted into the structure in a functional projection below the external argument.

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ERRATUM: MINITRAE ET NUMINI EIUS

Egy kelta istenség a vulgáris latin Aquincumban

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: Vágási Tünde
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Abstract

This paper presents results on three medieval avian bone assemblages found at Debrecen-Monostor-erdő and Debrecen-Tócó-part. respectively. Domestic chicken yielded most of the bird remains to evidence the exploitation of adult birds for egg production and flock maintenance in particular. In addition. feather harvesting and fat production could have been the target of goose (and possibly duck) husbandry. Although the goose bone sizes resemble the greylag goose. the keeping of an unimproved form of domestic goose rather than the hunting of the wild ancestor is suggested by the structure of the assemblage and the presence of healed bones. Wild birds seem to have been rarely consumed by the settlers of the two villages. but the feathers or wings or carcasses of diurnal birds of prey and crows may have been used for special purposes. Either killed for their symbolic meaning or only persecuted for protecting the backyard animals. the red kite (Milvus milvus) and the hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) represent new species for the medieval avifauna of Hungary. similarly to the Northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and the Northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) that could have been hunted in the marshy environment provided by the Tócó creek. Moreover. the use of trained saker falcon (Falco cherrug) for hawking cannot be excluded either. In addition to the exploitation of birds for the abovementioned goods and values. two needle cases made from goose bones evidence the utilization of their skeletal parts as raw material for producing artefacts as well.

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Abstract

In his paper the author deals with a lost late Roman funerary text, Constantius’ epitaph. Based on the manuscript tradition, the epitaph was probably erected in Rome or more rather at Ravenna. Constantius was an important military commander of Western Rome in the 5th century and he had an important role in the fifth century history of Roman Pannonia as he fought against the Barbarians, most probably the Huns who settled down in Pannonia. The earlier identifications must be rejected but his person – unfortunately – cannot be identified with Flavius Constantius Felix. On the other hand, the events (fights against the Huns and the sea-going Vandals) mentioned in the funerary epigram fit perfectly into the period at the beginning of Valentinian III’s reign.

Open access
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Beáta Tugya, Katalin Náfrádi, Sándor Gulyás, Tünde Törőcsik, Balázs Pál Sümegi, Péter Pomázi and Pál Sümegi

Abstract

We present the results of the environmental historical and geoarchaeological analysis of Rákóczifalva-Bagi- földek and Rákóczifalva-Rokkant-földek archeological sites in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County. They were discovered in the course of several hectares of archaeological excavations related to the Roman Age and Migration Period, especially the Sarmatian and the Gepids era. A significant number of Gepids sites and finds were found in both the investigated areas and the wider area of the site, in the middle reach of the Tisza valley. So the geoarchaeological and environmental historical analysis of the Sarmatian and Late-Sarmatian and Gepids sites in Rákóczifalva can also provide a model for the settling strategy and lifestyle of the Sarmatian and Gepids communities. The purpose of our work is to present how geoarchaeological and environmental historical factors impacted local settling and lifestyles in the Gepids communities and Sarmatian-Late Sarmatian communities as well during the Roman Age and the Migration Period. In addition, to demonstrate the relationship of the Sarmatian and Gepids communities and their environment in the Rákóczifalva site compared to other Gepids and Sarmatian and Late Sarmatian communities in the Great Hungarian Plain.

Based on the number of objects containing animal bones and the amount of bones found in them, we can reconstruct considerable settling in the Celtic, Sarmatian, Gepids, Avar and Arpadian periods. The number of objects from the Linear Pottery culture (Great Hungarian Plain) and the Bodrogkeresztúr culture is high; however, the number of animal bones is low. On the basis of the bones discovered, we can count on a smaller settlement during the Tiszapolgár culture, the Hunyadihalom group, the Halomíros culture, the Gava culture and during the Scythians period.

In this paper, we present the results of the Sarmatian, Late Sarmatian and the Gepid findings since the largest number of animal bones (except the Avar period) turned up from these periods. Our aim was to compare the animal husbandry, meat consumption and hunting habits of the Oriental origin Sarmatians and the Germanic Gepids communities. Bone artefacts and bone anvils have been found in the archaeological material of both ethnic groups.

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A görög jogon alapuló hellenisztikus Egyiptom szerződési gyakorlatában a halasztott adásvételi szerződések egy sajátos konstrukciójaként emlegetik az ún. fi ktív kölcsönszerződéseket. Amíg a római jog jól ismertún. konszenzuálszerződéseiről, ekként az adásvételről (emptio venditio), ahol a halasztott adásvételi konstrukciók is peresíthetőek, addig a görög jog mindvégig megmaradt a készvételnél, és ehhez képest csak pótlólagos megoldásokat alkalmazott. Ezen megoldások egyikét jelentették az ún. fi ktív kölcsönszerződések (συγγραϕὴ δανείου), amelyeknél – miként Fritz Pringsheim hangsúlyozza – amennyiben az eladó meghitelezte a vevőnek a vételárat, és az adásvételt kölcsönnek „álcázta”, a vétel alapján nem, de a kölcsön alapján perelhet. Több dokumentum is fennmaradt, amely ezt a gyakorlatot tanúsítja, ugyanakkor a legújabb papirológiai kutatások eredményeként ezen okiratok közül némelyek felülvizsgálatra szorulnak a tekintetben, hogy milyen szerződést is tartalmaznak.

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Abstract

Several types of mineral beads can be found among the 11th–12th-century grave assemblages of the Carpathian Basin. This paper examines the distribution of fluorite beads representing one type in Central and Eastern Europe. The distribution patterns have enabled the identification of the source of the raw material and they also outline the period’s main trade routes

Open access

Hypereidés Euxenippos mellett Polyeuktosszal szemben hazaárulás ügyében elmondott védőbeszédét az első kiadó, Churchill Babington Kr. e. 334-re keltezte. Domenico Comparetti azonban hamarosan Kr. e. 330 és 324 közé szorította a keletkezés lehetséges dátumát. Érvelése szerint a szónok csak úgy idézhette Olympiasnak, Alexandros anyjának az athéni néphez írt leveléből a „Molossia az enyém” kifejezést, ha Olympias már valóban a terület ura volt, tehát Kr. e. 331, azaz fi vére halála után. A keltezést jó másfél évszázada tényként kezelik, olyannyira, hogy a kiadók több szövegjavítást és értelmezési alternatívát is ehhez az elképzeléshez igazítottak. A tanulmány amellett érvel, hogy a hagyományozott, jól értelmezhető szövegnek megfelelően a beszédet Kr. e. 334/333-ra kell datálni, javításokra nincs szükség, Churchill Babingtonnak igaza volt.

Open access

Jelen tanulmányban Michaél Kritobulos jellemábrázolási módszereit elemzem. Azt vizsgálom, hogy a bizánci történetíró munkájában található jellemleírások milyen kapcsolatban, illetve kölcsönhatásban vannak a szöveg stílusával és bizonyos szerkezeti sajátosságaival, valamint hogy a szerző honnan merített szereplői jellemének megrajzolásánál. A dolgozatban választ keresek arra a kérdésre is, hogy milyen célt szolgáltak a történeti szereplők jellemábrázolásaiban előforduló nyelvi formulák.

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Abstract

Pottery at the late Roman fort of Visegrád-Gizellamajor contains both forms common in the 4th century as well as new ones, which appear at the turn of the 4th and 5th centuries. On traditional Roman household pottery and glazed vessels new surface ornaments (incised and notched) and new designs (fired yellowish-white, very gritty fabric) appear. Additionally, there are vessels with smoothed and smoothed-in ornaments. Although the excavators distinguished various layers in the fort, pottery from the layers often fit together. What survived to the greatest extent were the materials from the upper destruction debris. Room III of the north wing was a later addition to the fort; hence its pottery can be dated from the Valentinian period until the Hun period.

Open access

MINITRAE ET NUMINI EIUS

Egy kelta istenség a vulgáris latin Aquincumban

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: VÁGÁSI TÜNDE
Open access

NATURA ÉS CULTURA

Vulgáris és klasszikus latin Afrikában: africanismus-e a labdacismus?

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: Bohacsek Dóra
Open access

Prostorne modulacije i dezeni materija

Prilozi za tumačenje poezije Janoša Siverija

Studia Slavica
Author: ZOLTÁN VIRÁG
Open access