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Abstract

In movement I of String Quartet no. 5 inversion shapes of the themes are recapitulated in reverse order – probably the most daring concept of a palindromic structure of a sonata-form movement in Bartók's realm. After all, for him a strict hin und zurück form with strong thematic characters was unthinkable. Already the strategy of this opening movement involved danger. If Theme I after a transition leads to Theme II, which leads to Theme III, as a dramatic series of actions, how could the reverse order of these themes be “natural”? To minimize the danger, in this movement Bartók reconsidered the usual dramaturgy of the exposition. Instead of a continuous growth of the musical “scenes” welded together, he presented three thematic blocks very much different in character, heavily punctuated by fragments of the first theme. Therefore, dramatic contrast rather than organic development is the key term, and so the reverse order of the thematic blocks in the recapitulation is less artificial.

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Abstract

The present paper is a preliminary study to a deeper understanding of Bartók's compositional process: how he filled the music paper even if the notation appears continuous. He did not always write the draft from the top-left corner to the bottom-right corner but occasionally skipped some measures or phrases that he intended to write down later. Thus, the continuity draft is not necessarily regarded as a continuity; it might have consisted of fragments but they have been eventually concealed in the final form of the draft. This may directly affect our interpretation of Bartók's creative process. The present research takes the visual appearance of a draft as a clue to examine its hypothetical fragmentariness. Beginning with the examination of some actual blank spaces that were never filled, the paper deals with cases where the original existence of fragments is suggested by the extraordinary appearance of the draft, such as a blank space at the end of a system, notations in the margin, re-organization of bar-lines, etc. Besides systematic approaches to fragmentariness, the author offers some interpretation concerning the reasons why Bartók did not write the draft in an ordinary way. There might have been different explanations for the interruption of the linear compositional process. One of the important findings of this paper is that Bartók's bar-lines do not always mark metric accents but sometimes simply facilitate the performers' orientation. Even though the occasional special function of some of his bar-lines as mere markers of orientation is explained by Bartók in a letter to Rudolf Kolisch, the existence of philological evidence to this effect may further underline its validity and importance.

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Abstract

Although Sándor Veress achieved his first significant successes in Hungary and abroad at the turn of the 1930s and 1940s, musicological research still remains indebted to the detailed analysis of the composer's career related to the history of Hungarian music and cultural life. Based on press and archival documents, letters and recollections, and the historical literature of the period as well, the present study attempts to explore the socio-cultural environment that characterized and helped to unfold Veress's development. My study looks at the composer's network of contacts, his family ties and the political-ideological movements and relations with the Reformed Church that promoted his career, and examines their direct influence on Sándor Veress's works composed during this period, especially The Miraculous Flute (1937), the Japanese Symphony (1940) and Térszili Katica (1943).

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Abstract

As already pointed out by László Somfai in the late 1980s, Béla Bartók's first fully developed five-movement realization of the so-called “bridge” or “palindrome” form was only an afterthought, a further development of a composition originally intended as a cycle of four movements only. As also discussed briefly by Somfai, the evolution of the Allegretto, pizzicato movement itself had distinct stages. A recently surfaced source further clarifies these compositional phases, among others confirms the existence of a 140-measure-long version without a proper conclusion, which, at one point, the composer considered as a definitive version (for which only the ending needed to be composed) and tested with the Waldbauer-Kerpely Quartet. The present article re-examines the compositional process of Bartók's String Quartet no. 4 with an emphasis on its additional fourth movement and discusses the different compositional phases of the Allegretto, pizzicato.

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Abstract

The miracle narrative of the first oratorio by C. P. E. Bach – the escape of the people of Israel from the thirst death by Moses – comes from the Book of Exodus. In the course of the second part of the work, however, the figure of Moses is unexpectedly taken over by the Redeemer. The place turns out to be a paraphrase of Genesis 3:15. In the context of the German Enlightenment the biblical story can be interpreted as a reference to the assimilation process of the Jewish community. The composed libretto includes an interpolation, which speaks about the real advent of the Messiah, thus placing the work among the representatives of the messianic-cult of the Enlightenment. The interpolated text section focuses on the religion above religions as imagined by the latitudinarianism of the leading philosophers of the Enlightenment and testifies to the Masonic spirit in it. The text of the final chorus re-interprets the church dedication (the original function of Bach’s oratorio) as the dedication of the invisible Church: the soul.

Open access

Abstract

In addition to folk music, Zoltán Kodály was interested in folk dance. This is evidenced not only by his writings dedicated to the subject – some relevant ideas are to be found in his publications mainly focused on other topics. In this article, the author collects both Kodály's writings explicitly related to folk dance as well as the “hidden” ideas, presented partly chronologically, partly in thematic groups. Topics include: Kodály's dance experiences, his practical dance knowledge, his work of exploring data of historical dance music, his role in the emergence of Hungarian ethnochoreology as a scholarly discipline, his critical views on the use of folk dance on stage, etc. In contrast to the earlier literature, this article no longer considers the Hungarian shepherds' horn signals as the inspirational sources for Bécsi harangjátek [Viennese Clock], a movement which imitates a musical clock in Kodály's Singspiel Háry János. The movement entitled Branle de village, part of seventeenth-century Austrian composer Johann Heinrich Schmelzer's Partita ex Vienna, contains some bars that bear a close resemblance to the repeated main motif of Kodály's Viennese Clock. It is safe to assume that Branle de village was Kodály's source of inspiration, given that there is evidence that he studied the DTÖ-collection of Schmelzer's works: he referred to this volume where he found a Styrian version of a Székely dance tune.

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Abstract

We look at the presuffixal vowels occurring after adjectival and nominal stems in Hungarian. We show that their “low” or “nonlow” status depends not only on the morphological category and arbitrary lexical properties of the stem, but also on its semantic properties and syntactic position, as well as the identity of the suffix and the typical environments in which the suffix occurs. Syntactic positions can be arranged in a scale ranging from more adjectival (less nominal) to less adjectival (more nominal). The same scale may be applied to suffixes typical of these syntactic positions. The lowness of the presuffixal vowels neatly follows these scales, with no variation at the two edges and a zone of variation in the middle of the scale.

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Abstract

The paper presents the interpretation and explanation of the findings of two pieces of experimental research within the framework of Varga's (2016) pitch-tier model of the Hungarian declarative sentence. One of the experiments was established to investigate the information-structural contribution of quantified expressions (such as mindhárom barátom ‘all three of my friends’ and Csaba is ‘Csaba also’). The other experiment explored the acoustic features of the spontaneous-speech specific discourse marker hát ‘well/so’. The two topics can be regarded as interconnected if Varga's model is interpreted in the strong sense that pitch – presumably in a more or less strong correlation with intensity – is responsible for indicating the topic–comment dichotomy and other factors of the discourse-embedding of sentences. Thus, the reconciliation of our data with Varga's model requires the consideration of the pitch-tier substructures in their complex dynamism. The experiments support the plausible hypothesis that the variants of the discourse marker hát as part of the preparatory contour primarily differ in duration, while is-quantifiers in different pitch-tier parts differ in terms of pitch values.

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Free access

Abstract

The Hungarian question tag mi? is subject to more special contextual restrictions compared to ugye?. An utterance that features mi? i) tentatively commits the addressee as a source for the anchor proposition of the tag question, and ii) it commits the speaker as a source for the addressee's being a source for p, which is a pragmatic presupposition. A speaker is a source for a proposition p if that speaker's commitment to p does not depend on any other discourse participant's commitment (Gunlogson 2008). The results of an online survey of a minimal set of pragmatically relevant contexts support claim i), and indirectly, claim ii). The effect of mi? on the immediate context of the discourse is modeled on a conversational scoreboard (Farkas & Bruce 2010; Malamud & Stephenson 2015).

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Abstract

This paper investigates hitherto unnoticed variation in the linguistic coding of spatial anaphora in locative PPs in Hungarian. While Hungarian primarily employs reflexives in these configurations, it is well-known that pronouns are the default strategy in English, and the reflexive anaphor is allowed in locative PPs only in the presence of certain licensing factors. One such factor is the availability of body-oriented readings (Rooryck & Vanden Wyngaerd 2007, 2011), and we argue here that this plays an important role in Hungarian, too. The paper reports the findings of a corpus study and an online questionnaire study and shows that pronouns are not only acceptable in Hungarian spatial anaphora, but either outperform or form a viable alternative to reflexives when the location denoted by the PP is not close to the referent of the antecedent. A secondary effect of structure building is also observable in two configurations of the extended PP. We argue that the employment of a possessive structure in certain PPs, and moving a P-element to a CPPP cap may also contribute to saving pronouns in contexts of spatial anaphora.

Open access

Abstract

During the period of Ottoman rule in Hungary (1541‒1686), palisaded castles of differing sizes were typical elements in the border-castle networks on both sides of the battlefront: the Ottoman and the Christian. Archaeological remains (post-holes, beam structures, parts of palisades) complement the data in the written sources, making perceptible and measurable the great quantities of timber used in the building of castles. In the case of the Ottoman palisaded castle at Barcs and in that of the royal palisaded castle at Bajcsavár (southern Transdanubia), attempts were made ‒ on the basis of archaeological observations and reconstructions of ground plans ‒ to determine the number of palisade stakes used for the walls at the time of building, as well as to establish the number of trees felled in order to make them. By way of environmental history researches, an answer was sought to the question of how much the construction of these palisaded castles impacted on the forests in their respective districts. In the case of Barcs Castle, investigations were conducted into whether forest clearance in its vicinity can be reconstructed on the basis of pollen samples. Other issues examined are how far forest clearance extended from the two fortifications, its intensity, and the approximate quantities of timber yielded by it.

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Abstract

The present study outlines the most important results of the aerial archaeological prospection surveys conducted by Zsuzsa Miklós (1948–2014) in South Transdanubia, with special regard to the fortifications, settlements, and landscapes along the Drava photographed between 2008 and 2013. This is a completed and edited version of the paper left to us from 2014.

Open access

Abstract

In his paper the author deals with the Acts of the Council of Chalcedon where a certain Valerian, the bishop of a settlement called Bassiana emerged several times. As he attended the synod of 448 at Constantinople as well, he lived in Constantinople most probably as refugee. Following E. Schwartz's correction, the author also comes to the conclusion that Valerian was mistakenly identified as the African bishop in the original Greek list and he was rather the bishop of the Pannonian Bassianae. He had to flee from his hometown to Constantinople because of the Hun occupation in 441 as his province already belonged to East Rome.

Open access

Abstract

This study explores the life-mode of Hungarian migrants in their destination country, England, particularly London in the last decade, focusing on their housing conditions and working experiences. Relying on her participant observations and interviews, the author formulates a picture through the eyes of Hungarian migrant laborers regarding how both the real estate and labor market exploits them (micro level). She explains the motives of the main economic actors (entrepreneurs, real estate and employment agencies, employers) leading to exploitations (meso level) in addition to discussing how all of these fit into the wider socio-economic context (macro level).

Open access

Abstract

The self-definitions of today's folk artists, as well as the concept(s) of folk art of official umbrella and quality assurance organizations, are rooted in complex, interrelated processes. In my study, I focus on the post-World War II concept of folk art, which is full of contradictions, but, despite all protests, has had an undeniable impact on the folk art of today. The system of applied folk arts paradoxically fostered the prominence of individual creators, in contrast to the communication of its novel cooperatives in the decades after World War II, which emphasized communal work. These creators – often possessing truly authentic folk art knowledge (some having gained their reputation before World War II) but no longer following the peasant way of life – were depicted by the media in rural or bucolic genre situations, thereby heavily aestheticizing the concepts of folk and folk art. At the same time, socialist cultural policy also emphasized their status as artists and creators, making them key figures in the cooperatives' work for decades as lead designers, prompting them to revitalize their local motif stock. At this point, another paradox of the Applied Folk Arts Council's perspective emerges, as the representation of the folk art of emblematic regions can increasingly be seen as the representation of the style of an individual (lead designer or charismatic artist). In my opinion, considering the 19th-century roots of the process, the definition of today's folk artists' products as unique works of art and the profound respect for design skills is rooted in this perspective that focuses on the work of iconic personalities, as I also point out in my case study analyzing Tiszafüred pottery through the work of several generations, a style that was adapted by Sándor Kántor and became known as Karcag pottery.

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Abstract

The present paper offers a critical reflection on folk inspirations in Polish design in the early 21st century. It discusses the question of folk as an artistic form, pointing to conceptualizations of folk style and its formal qualities within the field of modern artistic production to which design and craft practices belong. It also touches on the role of the rural actors involved in the processes of the construction of folklore and their attitude towards folk conceived as esthetics, artistic form, and style. For rural producers, folk style was a question of conscious choice, sometimes motivated by conformism and sometimes by a deliberate effort to contribute to local/class/national self-presentation, very often in contradiction to the individual's own taste and that of their peers. The paper then examines the involvement of Polish folk-inspired design (etnodizajn) in the early 21st century with national self-presentation, as well as the various folk (lore)-inspired design strategies followed by contemporary Polish designers. It concludes with the observation that 21st-century design practices drawing on folkloric inspiration are part of a long sequence of cultural appropriations, where appropriation can mean both the alienating inequality experienced by the rural manufacturers of folk, as well as a necessary condition for the understanding of alterity by both sides in the cultural exchange.

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Abstract

The legend of Ovid’s Hungarian tomb appeared in the historiography in the 16th century: besides the numerous Ovid-tombs that turned up all across Europe, Wolfgang Lazius was the first who mentioned in his work Commentarii Reipublicae Romanae that the grave of the poet destined to a tragic fate was discovered in Savaria-Szombathely. Then – at the end of the 16th century, probably through Polish influence – a four-line ‘epitaph’ expanded the narrative. In my paper I aim to enlighten how the legend of Ovid’s tomb appeared in the Hungarian historiography of the 16–18th century, how the authors tried to eliminate historical contradictions, and also, I intend to present the different concepts on the creation and the authenticity of the alleged epitaph today.

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Abstract

In the paper, I am revisiting the complicated and many-layered interpretation of Ven. Fort. Carm. 5. 6, letter and figure poem. I am adding another layer by including the role of St. Symphorian, who is implicitly present in the poem through the addressee Syagrius, the bishop of Autun, Symphorian’s hometown. The presence of the saint plays together with the story of father and son that is told in the letter; the parallelism of the story in the letter and the saint’s legend could have laid additional pressure on Bishop Syagrius to give into Fortunatus’s plea.

Open access

A Barlám és Jozafát regény 26-27. fejezetében Nákhór ál-tanúságtétele nem más, mint Aristeidés eltűntnek hitt Apológiájának átirata. A tanulmány az Apologia utóéletének áttekintése, és a „kölcsönzött szöveg" elbeszélésen belüli szerepének vizsgálatán túl, a védőbeszéd Iviron kódexben megőrzött - ez- idáig kiadatlan - görög és ófrancia nyelvű változatából is közöl részleteket.

The speech in the Barlaam and Josaphat novel, Nachor’s pseudo-testimony, is in fact a transcription of Aristides’ Apology, previously thought to be lost. Although it is mentioned by Eusebius and St. Jerome, the sermon was considered lost until 1878. In the 19th century, Armenian and Syriac translations came to light, as well as Greek papyrus fragments, also preserving excerpts from the original text of the sermon. In the light of the Greek fragments, it became clear that the romanced saint’s biography Barlaam and Josaphat also preserved a metaphrase of the sermon in Greek. Codex Iviron 463, which contains the Greek abridged version of the Barlaam novel, includes not only the Greek transcription of the Apology, but also its Old French translation. In addition to an overview of the afterlife of the Apology and an examination of the role of the “loaned text” within the narrative, this paper will also provide extracts from the heretofore unpublished Greek and Old French versions of the apology preserved in the Iviron codex.

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Az észak-afrikai latin szerzők sajátos írásmódjára vonatkozó megjegyzéseket már késő ókori grammatikusoknál is olvashatunk, az afrikai latinság kérdése pedig hosszú múltra és változatos tudománytörténetre tekinthet vissza. Sokszor maguk a szerzők - így Apuleius, Szent Ágoston - térnek ki afrikai származásukra, többnyelvűségükre, sok esetben mentegetőzve az őket ért vádak miatt, melyek az általuk használt latin sajátosságaira vonatkoztak. Élt tehát egyfajta elképzelés a köztudatban az ókortól kezdve, miszerint az észak-afrikai területeken beszélt és használt latin nyelv bizonyos sajátosságokkal rendelkezik. Természetesen a kiejtés és a beszéd tekintetében nincsenek ellenőrző eszközeink, azonban ezek lenyomatain, az afrikai területekről származó szövegeken tetten érhetjük és vizsgálatuk révén közelebb kerülhetünk az afrikai latin nyelv esetleges jellegzetességeihez. A korai keresztény szövegek egyik legfontosabb emléke az úgynevezett Codex Bobbiensisben hagyományozódott, amely amellett, hogy a legrégebbi fennmaradt, a Kr. u. IV. századból származó latin evangéliumfordítás, a Vetus Latina szöveghagyomány afrikai (vetus Afra) tradíciójának fő képviselője is egyben. Jelen tanulmányban annak megállapítására teszek kísérletet, hogy a kódex szövegében esetleg kimutathatók-e olyan (nyelvi) jelenségek, amelyek az eddig - elsősorban az afrikai feliratos anyag elemzéséből - kirajzolódott nyelvi képünk, elképzelésünk alapján valóban afrikai sajátosságnak, africanismusnak tekinthetők.

Comments on the unique writing style of the North-African Latin writers can already be found in the ancient grammarians’ texts. The question of the African Latin language has been around for long and it also has a diverse scientific history. It was often the authors themselves - Apuleius or St. Augustine - who commented on their African ancestry, their multilingualism, and their own use of Latin. They often tried to excuse themselves for the accusations, which their (incorrect?) language use attracted. There was - already in Antiquity - a notion, that both the written and the spoken Latin of North Africa had some unique features, which set them apart from the language used in Rome. Obviously, we do not have any instruments to experience pronunciation and spoken language in antiquity, but through the study of texts written in the region, we can get a closer look on the specific features of Latin used in the region. One of the most important early Christian texts, which has been preserved in the so-called Codex Bob- biensis is a fourth century Latin translation of the gospel. This text is also the main representative of the african (vetus Afra) version of the Vetus Latina. In this article I am trying to investigate this text, to see if there are any linguistic features, which can be (based on the already existing notions we have of the language from studying the inscriptions of the region) called specifically african features („africanismus”).

Open access

A tanulmány Venantius Fortunatus Galsuinthának, egy meroving családba házasodott vizigót hercegnőnek a halálára írt consolatióját vizsgálja. Galsuinthát Tours-i Gergely beszámolója szerint férje ölte meg, az incidens pedig újra testvérháborúhoz vezetett a meroving királyok között. A feszült politikai helyzetben Fortunatus hallgat az erőszakos részletekről. Ezt a magatartást korábban az aulikus költő óvatosságával magyarázták, a vers Vergiliusra és Claudianus De raptu Proserpinae-jére történő utalásainak elemzése viszont ennél bonyolultabb olvasatot tesz lehetővé.

In this paper Venantius Fortunatus’ consolation for the death of Galswinth, a Visigoth princess married into the Merovingian family, is analysed. According to Gregory of Tours, Galswinth was killed at the behest of her husband, and this incident led to another civil war among the Merovingian rulers. Fortunatus does not mention any of the violent details, which had been interpreted as the sign of the caution of the aulic poet. However, the references to Vergil and Claudian’s De raptu Proserpinae lead to a different interpretation.

Open access

A Codex Monacensis Graecus 307a Laonikos Chalkokondylés történeti munkája mellett számos lapszéli bejegyzést is tartalmaz. Az egyik ilyen jegyzetet Nikolaos Malaxos írta. Ebben ismerteti, hogy Theodóros, Mistra despotája hogyan adott el bizonyos városokat a velenceieknek és a rhodosi szerzeteseknek. Ugyanez a bejegyzés szóról szóra megtalálható a Chalkokondylés-hagyomány egy másik kéziratában, az Escorialensis Graecus 243 (Y-I-4) jelzetűben. Jelen írás célja, hogy megvizsgáljuk a szóban forgó Chalkokondylés-részletet, Malaxos széljegyzetének szövegét, valamint kisebb javaslatot tegyünk Chalkokondylés kézirati hagyományával kapcsolatban.

Codex Monacensis Graecus 307a contains several marginal notes in addition to Laonikos Chalkokon- dyles’ historical work. One of these notes was written by Nikolaos Malaxos. In this he describes how Theodoros, the despot of Mistra sold certain cities to the Venetians and to the monks from Rhodes. The same note made by the same hand can be found word for word in another manuscript of Chalkokon- dyles’ tradition marked Escorialensis Graecus 243 (Y-I-4) . The aim of the present paper is to examine Chalkokondyles’ passage in question and the text of Malaxos’ marginal note, and to propose a minor suggestion regarding the manuscript tradition of Chalkokondyles.

Open access

A középkori vágánsköltészet legkiemelkedőbb alkotásainak egyike a manapság Phyllis és Flora néven ismertté vált költemény, amely számos, különböző terjedelmű részeit megőrző kéziratban maradt ránk. Ezek között megtalálható egy meglehetősen különös szövegváltozat, amely mind tartalmában, mind terjedelmében jelentős eltéréseket mutat a többi kézirat szövegéhez képest: ez a költemény kezdeti nyolc strófája után mindössze hét hozzáköltött versszakkal le is zárul. Felfedezését követően a kutatás ugyan látóterében tartotta a kéziratot, ám pusztán az első nyolc strófa egy meglehetősen romlott szövegtanújaként tekintett rá. Szerencsés módon azonban nemrég előkerült az említett kézirat egy másik, megközelítőleg azonos időben keletkezett példánya is, amely alapvetően megváltoztatja az említett kézirathoz fűződő viszonyulásunkat: ezzel ugyanis nyilvánvalóvá lett, hogy nem csupán egyszeri, lejegyzője fejéből kipattant alkotásról beszélhetünk, hanem az említett vágánsköltemény egy kései változatáról, amely minden bizonnyal szélesebb körben is ismeretes lehetett, és amely keletkezési ideje okán a formain kívül gyökeres tartalmi, felfogásbeli, sőt műfaji eltéréseket mutat az eredeti költeményhez képest.

Without doubt, one of the most outstanding piece of the goliard poetry is the anonymous poem which nowadays become known as Phyllis et Flora (Altercatio Phyllidis et Florae). It was preserved to us in many manuscripts, whose each one contains parts of diff erent length of this poem. One of these copies especially diff ers from any of others: it preserves a complete poem that begins with the eight initial stanzas of the original poem, and continues with seven new-composed stanzas until its end. After the discovery of this manuscript, it become part of the tradition of the poem although it was considered just as a very corrupt witness of the poem’s fi rst eight stanzas. However, in the recent past, thanks to a lucky occasion, it was discovered a second copy of this variant poem, transcribed at the same period as the already known one. Th e new discovery fundamentally changes our relation to the variant: the new copy has made it obvious, that this is not a peculiar composition of the fantasy of its scribe, but a self-suffi cient late variant of the original poem, which had been supposedly more widespread, than its traces testify. Not only the radical alteration of its length, but – due to its late construction – that of its content and thought is also remarkable.

Open access

A tanulmány Hypereidés Démosthenés ellen című beszédének szöveghagyományát tekinti át a Har- ris-Arden papirusztekercs töredékcsoportjainak bemutatásával. Gianfranco Bartolini fél évszázaddal korábban publikált átfogó elemzését egészíti ki az 1972 óta megismert adatokkal. Az előkészületben lévő Hypereidés-szövegkiadás (Bibliotheca Teubneriana) előszavának egyik, bővített fejezetét jelenti.

This paper reviews the textual tradition of Hyperides’ speech Against Demosthenes by presenting fragment groups of the Harris-Arden papyrus scroll. It complements Gianfranco Bartolini’s comprehensive analysis published half a century ago with data acquired since 1972. It constitutes an extended chapter of the preface to the forthcoming Hyperides edition (Bibliotheca Teubneriana).

Open access

Kallimachos: Ektheósis Arsinoés

Rekonstrukciós kísérlet

Antik Tanulmányok
Author: Zsolt Adorjáni

E tanulmány Kallimachos az elhunyt II. Arsinoé előtt tisztelgő költeményét elemzi. Először az Ektheósis Arsinoés a költői életműben elfoglalt helyét, a műfaj kérdéseit és a mű szerkezetét vizsgáljuk. Ez vezet át a versben fellelhető irodalmi allúziók értelmezéséhez (főként Hésiodos, Ibykos, Simónidés, Pindaros). Ezenfelül részletesen tárgyaljuk a történelmi hátteret és a töredékes hagyományból származó filológiai nehézségeket. A befejező rész a kallimachosi költemény utóéletét térképezi fel a görög és latin irodalomban.

This article aims to present an overall interpretation of a poem by Callimachus on the dead Ptolemaic queen Arsinoe II. Firstly the position of the Ectheosis Arsinoes in Callimachus’ rnuvre, the genre to which it belongs and its structure will be investigated. This leads to the analysis of the highly allusive character of the work (above all to Hesiod, Ibycus, Simonides and Pindar as well as to hymnic poetry). In addition, realia (the historical background) and textual difficulties arising from the fragmentary transmission will also be treated. The conclusive part looks at the reception of Callimachus’ poem in later Greek and Latin poetry.

Open access

A tanulmány a Moreai Krónikában (Τό Χρονικόν του Μορέως) megjelenő magyarok szerepét és megítélését vizsgálja. Bemutatja azokat a szöveghelyeket, amelyekben a Krónika megemlíti a magyar népet vagy a Magyar Királyságot, majd összehasonlítja ezeket más ófrancia és bizánci görög nyelvű, kortárs irodalmi és történeti művek olyan részleteivel, amelyekben szintén említésre kerülnek a magyarok. Megoldási javaslatot tesz arra a kérdésre, hogy miért beszél az általában Bizánc-közeli, illetve a Bizánci Birodalom utódállamait segítő magyarokról az ellenséges keresztes államok történetét megörökítő Krónika a többi korabeli - magyarokhoz közelebb álló - forráshoz képest elismerőbb hangon, dicsérőbb kifejezésekkel: ennek oka elsősorban III. Béla lánya, Margit és dédunokái, a Saint-Omer fivérek hírnevében keresendő. A tanulmány vizsgálja továbbá a Saint-Omer fivérek irodalmi és történeti szerepét, illetve bemutatja a Krónika azon részletének részletes filológiai elemzését, amelyben a szerző Akova báróságának örökösödési tárgyalását részletezi.

The study examines the role and perception of Hungarians in the Chronicle of Morea (Τό Χρονικόν του Μορέως). It presents the passages in which the Chronicle mentions the Hungarian people or the Kingdom of Hungary, and compares them with passages in other contemporary literary and historical works in Old French and Byzantine Greek that also mention Hungarians. It proposes a solution to the question of why the Chronicle - which records the history of the hostile Crusader states - speaks of the Hungarians - who were generally close to Byzantium and helped the successor states of the Byzantine Empire - in a more laudatory tone and in more praiseworthy terms than other contemporary sources closer to the Hungarians: the reason for this is to be found primarily in the reputation of Béla Ill’s daughter Margaret and her grandchildren, the Saint-Omer brothers. The study also examines the literary and historical role of the Saint-Omer brothers and presents a detailed philological analysis of the excerpt from the Chronicle in which the author discusses the succession of the Barony of Akova.

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Abstract

This paper draws attention to a robust grammatical change trajectory, here dubbed the copula-to-cleft pathway. We show that the emergence of the copular clause construction tends to lead to the emergence of the cleft construction, and the decline of one tends to be in tandem with the other. We further propose that the above pattern follows from a syntactic treatment that derives the cleft structure from a copular clause. Such copular syntax can be further combined with a semantic analysis where the focus interpretation of clefts is computed based on a copular structure.

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Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning technologies have impacted on the language mediation market with the spread of machine translation (MT) and the creation of sub-tasks such as text preparation for translation and post-editing. Up until this time, the impact of machine interpretation on the interpretation profession cannot be felt to the same extent as that of MT on the translation profession. Technological advances, however, have not come to an end and nowadays fully-automated machine interpretation and AI-based computer assisted interpreting (CAI) tools are increasingly common in the interpreting profession. However, the use of AI and big data in interpreting raises several ethical questions in terms of data protection and confidentiality. The earliest references to MT date back to the 1930s. Despite this long history ethical considerations in MT have rarely been discussed in Translation Studies, and to our knowledge, they have not been discussed at all in Interpreting Studies. This article first examines how AI can be used in interpreting as well as the various tools already available, then discusses the ethical considerations raised by the use of AI in general and in interpreting in particular.

Open access

O leksiku u kajkavskom narječju

Vocabulary in the Kajkavian Dialect

Studia Slavica
Author: Đuro Blažeka

U radu se daju temeljni podatci o kajkavskom leksiku, njegovu podrijetlu, kontaktu s mađarskim i njemačkim jezikom te suvremenim pojavama u interferenciji s hrvatskim standardnim jezikom (pseudoanalogonimija, najnovije semantičke adaptacije). Kako je leksik hrvatskih kajkavskih govora rubno zastupljen u postojećim etimološkim rječnicima hrvatskoga jezika, u radu se ističe da je teško napraviti klasifikaciju velikog broja leksema koji se ne nalaze ni u kojem od slavenskih jezika.

Kod leksičkog posuđivanja hungarizama vrlo je rijetko riječ o popunjavanju leksičkih praznina, a mnogo češće o posuđivanju zbog izvanjezičnih razloga (zemljopisnih i političkih) jer ih je velika većina u trenutku primarne adaptacije imala ekvivalente u govorima primaocima. Od semantičkih polja koje pokrivaju hungarizmi najbrojnije je ono koje se odnosi na pejorativna značenja u kontekstu osobina, izgleda i ponašanja ljudi, a od onih koje pokrivaju germanizmi je ono koje se odnosi na tehničke izraze iz najrazličitijih obrta.

Arhaičan kajkavski leksik ili nestaje ili suvremenim semantičkim adaptacijama pronalazi novo mjesto u vokabularu suvremenih govornika kajkavskog narječja. Apostrofira se velika učestalost deminutiva / hipokoristika, i to ne samo kao tvorbena mogućnost ili rubni sloj leksika, već kao izuzetno često korišteni leksik u svakodnevnoj komunikaciji. Opisuju se istraživanja pseudoanalogonimije koja su osim za lingvističke spoznaje važna i za metodiku nastave hrvatskog jezika, što bi mogla biti stožerna točka oko koje bi i kajkavsko narječje dobilo bolji položaj u školama.

Na kraju se govori o najnovijim trendovima u istraživanju kajkavskog leksika i solidnom razvoju kajkavske dijalektne leksikologije zbog pojave velikog broja amatera koji cijeli život skupljaju leksik i prepuštaju njegovu obradu jezikoslovcima pa djelo objave kao zajednički rad. Na kraju se predlaže metodologija istraživanja razlikovnosti leksika između pojedinih mjesnih govora kad za neki mjesni govor već postoji objavljeni opsežni znanstveni rječnik. Na taj bi se način lakše pratili procesi širenja i rasprostranjenosti najrazličitijih jezičnih pojava iz područja semantike i tvorbe riječi, a ne samo općepoznatih jezičnih izoglosa koje se tiču uglavnom fonologije.

U zaključku se ističe da je posljednji trenutak da se leksička istraživanja kajkavskog narječja intenziviraju jer za razliku od fonologije i morfologije, semantika je puno brže podložnija promjenama s obzirom na to da nove realije doslovce svakodnevno prodiru u suvremeni život, a to se manifestira na i na standardni jezik i na interdijalekt i na mjesne govore.

The paper provides basic information about the Kajkavian lexicon, its origin, its contact with the Hungarian and German languages and about contemporary phenomena in its interference with the Croatian standard language (pseudo-analogonymy and the latest semantic adaptations). As the lexicon of Croatian Kajkavian dialects is marginally represented in the existing etymological dictionaries of the Croatian language, the paper points out that it is difficult to classify a large number of lexemes that are not found in any of the Slavic languages.

Lexical borrowing of Hungarianisms occurs very rarely to fill in lexical gaps and is much more common for non-linguistic reasons (geographical and political) because the vast majority of them had equivalents in the recipients’ vernaculars at the time of primary adaptation. Of the semantic fields covered by Hungarianisms, the most numerous is the one that refers to pejorative meanings in the context of human characteristics, appearance and behaviour, whereas those covered by Germanisms refer to technical expressions from various trades.

The archaic Kajkavian lexicon either disappears or finds a new place in the vocabulary of modern speakers of the Kajkavian dialect with modern semantic adaptations. A high frequency of diminutives / hypocorisms is emphasized, not only as a creative possibility or a marginal layer of vocabulary but also as an extremely frequently used vocabulary in everyday communication. Research activities of pseudo-analogonymy are described. They are important not only for linguistic knowledge but also for the methodology of teaching the Croatian language, which could be a pivotal point around which the Kajkavian dialect could get a better position in schools.

The paper continues to talk about the latest trends in the research of Kajkavian lexicon and the solid development of Kajkavian dialect lexicology due to the emergence of a large number of amateurs who collect lexicon all their lives and leave it to linguists and publish the work as a joint work. Finally, a methodology for researching the distinctiveness of lexicons between individual local dialects is proposed, when an extensive scientific dictionary already exists for a local dialect. In this way, it would be easier to follow the processes of spreading and prevalence of various linguistic phenomena in the field of semantics and word formation, and not only the well-known linguistic isoglosses that concern mainly phonology.

In conclusion, it is pointed out that it is the last moment to intensify the lexical research studies of the Kajkavian dialect because, unlike phonology and morphology, semantics is much more susceptible to change, given that new real objects literally penetrate modern life on a daily basis and this is manifested in both the standard language and in the interdialect and the local vernaculars.

Open access
Studia Slavica
Authors: Полина Оленева and Анна Литовкина

В течение многих столетий паремии (пословицы и поговорки) служили великолепной почвой для бесконечной трансформации. В последние же десятилетия паремиологическая трансформация приняла такие масштабы, что порой можно чаще встретить трансформы, чем традиционные паре-мии. Вольфганг Мидер назвал такого рода паремии антипословицами (нем. Antisprichwörter, англ. anti-proverbs). Этот термин был широко принят паремиологами всего мира.

Данная статья посвящена анализу русских пословиц и антипословиц о деньгах. В первой части работы были рассмотрены способы трансформации традиционных русских по-словиц: замена одного или двух слов; замена второй или первой части пословицы; добавление новых слов или, наоборот, выпадение слов; использование буквального значения вместо метафоричного; смешение нескольких пословиц. Многие антипословицы одновременно включают в себя несколько способов трансформации.

Во второй части статьи мы кратко осветили такие понятия как семантическое поле и гиперсема в контексте денег (к которой относятся помимо лексемы деньги также и такие слова как рубль, ко- пейка, платить, богатый, бедный, золото, долг, платеж и др.), а также мы привели примеры по-словиц о деньгах из различных языков мира (например, из английского, немецкого, французского, испанского, итальянского).

Третья часть статьи была посвящена анализу русских пословиц и антипословиц о деньгах. Сна-чала нами были рассмотрены примеры трансформации пословиц, в текстах которых есть слова, относящиеся к гиперсеме «деньги» (19 примеров). Потом мы направили фокус нашего внимания на антипословицы, в текстах которых присутствовала гиперсема «деньги», но в самих пословицах ее не было (14 примеров). Всего в этих двух разделах нами было проанализировано 33 русские пословицы и 88 антипословиц о деньгах. Фокус нашего внимания был прежде всего на том, что происходит в ходе трансформации с пословицами, какие виды трансформации являются наиболее популярны-ми в нашем корпусе, а также мы рассмотрели, какие смысловые изменения происходят с послови-цами во время их модификации. Эту часть статьи мы завершили анализом трех самых популярных в нашем корпусе пословиц о деньгах: Не в деньгах счастье; Не имей сто рублей, а имей сто друзей; Долг платежом красен и их многочисленных переделок.

Большая часть антипословиц о деньгах отражают актуальные реалии для носителей русского языка, в которых добавлены темы секса, коррупции, преступного мира, работы, кредитов, здоровья, ежедневных будней и праздников, качеств характера и др. По мнению В. Мидера, антипословицы нередко становятся моралистичными или даже дидактичными высказываниями, и мы это наглядно увидели на примере многочисленных антипословиц о деньгах.

For centuries, proverbs have provided a framework for endless transformation. In recent decades, the modification of proverbs has taken such proportions that sometimes we can even meet more proverb transformations than traditional proverbs. Wolfgang Mieder has coined the term anti-proverb (or in German, Anti- sprichwort) for such deliberate proverb innovations. This term has been widely accepted by paremiologists all over the world as a general label for such innovative alterations and reactions to traditional proverbs.

This paper is devoted to the analysis of Russian proverbs and anti-proverbs about money.

In the first part of the work, we have demonstrated various mechanisms of proverb variation, e.g. replacing a single word; substituting two or more words; changing the second part of the proverb; adding new words; omitting words; adding literal interpretations; melding two proverbs. Many anti-proverbs include several ways of transformation.

In the second part of the paper, at first, we have briefly covered such notions as the semantic field of the word money (which includes, in addition to the lexeme money, such words as ruble, kopeyka, pay, rich, poor, gold, debt, payment, etc.). Moreover, we have also introduced examples of proverbs about money from various languages of the world (for example, English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian).

The third part of the paper has been devoted to the analysis of Russian proverbs and anti-proverbs about money. In the first section, we have considered examples of transformations of proverbs with words related to the semantic field of the word money (19 proverbs). In the second section, we have focused on anti-proverbs in which the words belonging to this semantic field are present but in the original proverbs are absent (14 proverbs). In a nutshell, in these two sections, we have analyzed 33 Russian proverbs and 88 anti-proverbs about money. Mainly, we have focused on what happens during proverb transformation as well as on what types of transformation are the most common in our corpus. In addition, we have also examined various types of semantic change occurring to proverbs during their modification. We have finished the third part of the paper with an analysis of three most common proverbs about money in our corpus: Не в деньгах счастье [Money does not bring happiness]; Не имей сто рублей, а имей сто друзей [Do not have a hundred roubles but have a hundred friends]; Долг платежом красен [Debt should be returned by paying back].

The vast majority of the anti-proverbs about money portray real situations for native speakers of Russian. Among the themes treated in our proverb alterations are sexuality, corruption, criminal world, work, credits, health, weekdays and holidays, character traits, etc. According to Mieder, anti-proverbs often become moralistic or even didactic statements, and we have observed it in the numerous anti-proverbs about money treated in our study.

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Прах и промах. А. Белый и В. Набоков: полигенетизм, параллель, пародия

“Prakh” and “Promakh” (Ashes and Failures). А. Belyi and V. Nabokov: Polygenetics, Parallelism, and Parody

Studia Slavica
Author: Жужа Хетени

В статье проводится анализ концовки двух романов двух авторов, «Серебряного голубя» А. Белого (1909) и «Отчаяния» В. Набокова (1934) с целью раскрыть, каким образом последний отвечает на традицию символизма и на его эмблематического автора-теоретика.

Влияние А. Белого на В. Набокова рассмотрено в статье как многоплановое явление, не только как следование по стопам принятого наследия или его отрицание. Это скорее внимание ученика к мастеру поэтической формы, рождающее стилистические параллели, с одной стороны, а с дру-гой стороны – это отношение к преодолеваемому литературному предшественнику, выражающееся в сложных трансформациях. Тончайшим жанром второго типа отношения является амбивалентная по натуре пародия, касающаяся и критики идейного и мировоззренческого плана.

Исходя из этих тезисов, статья, впервые в набоковедении, предлагает определить «Отчаяние» В. Набокова по жанру как роман философский.

Роман опровергает прежде всего символистскую теорию жизнетворчества, отвечая не только А. Белому, но, в более широком плане, и идейной и поэтической традиции Серебряного века.

Сравнение Дарьяльского с Германом, включением фигуры Раскольникова поставлено в статье в расширенный контекст «идейных убийств», касающихся вопроса свободы воли человеческой управлять своей судьбой, строить ее по планам. Особенно наглядно это в тройном сопоставлении, указывающем такое же амбивалентное отношение Набокова к наследию Достоевского, на которо-го явно опирается сюжет романа Набокова. Он становится объектом прямой пародии Набокова, открыто опровергающего и высмеивающего Достоевского, но тем самым (невольно) и ставит его в роль центральной фигуры внимания. Тройное сравнение раскрывает и то, что наследие Достоев-ского воспринято и интерпретировано Набоковым через наследие символизма. Это наследие, хоть и через кривые отражения, все же и именно тем самым и увеличено, ибо воспроизведение непосред-ственными предшественниками придает ему дополнительную глубину косвенной интерпретации.

Статья затрагивает своеобразие приема двойников у В. Набокова, который отрицал и высмеивал прием «Doppelgänger», и предлагается термин «псевдодвойники».

Приведенные тезисы основаны на тщательном анализе полигенетических коннотаций палки, ох-ватывающих культурные коды мифических аллюзий, античной и сакрально-библейской традиции, и косвенных, интертекстуальных литературных перекличек. В рассмотрении образа палки просле-живается сравнительная статистика синонимов в двух романах, и даже их языково-графические свойства; образы, построенные на форме букв ассоциациями автора-синестета.

The paper focuses on the endings of two novels by two authors, The Silver Dove by A. Bely (1909) and Despair by V. Nabokov (1934) to reveal how the latter responds to the tradition of Symbolism and its emblematic author-theorist.

The influence of A. Bely on V. Nabokov is considered in the paper as a multidimensional phenomenon, not only as following in the footsteps of the accepted heritage or its denial. Rather, it is the student’s attention to the master of the poetic form, giving rise to stylistic parallels, on the one hand, and on the other hand, it is the attitude to the literary predecessor being overcome, expressed in complex transformations. The finest genre of the second type of attitude is parody (ambivalent in its nature), parody, concerning here both ideological and philosophical criticism.

Based on these theses, the paper, for the first time in Nabokov studies, proposes to define Nabokov’s Despair as a philosophical novel by genre. The novel disproves, above all, the Symbolist theory of “zhiznetvorchestvo” (‘the creation of life’), responding not only to A. Bely but also to the ideological and poetic tradition of the Silver Age.

The comparison of Daryalsky to Herman, by also involving the figure of Raskolnikov, is placed in the paper in the extended context of “ideological murders” concerning the question of the freedom of the human will to control his fate, to build it according to human plans. This is particularly evident in the triple juxtaposition, which indicates the same ambivalent attitude of Nabokov toward the legacy of Dostoevsky, on which the plot of Nabokov’s novel is clearly based. He becomes the object of Nabokov’s direct parody, openly refuting and ridiculing Dostoevsky, but in doing so, (unwittingly) also places him as the central figure of attention. The triple comparison also reveals that Dostoevsky’s legacy is perceived and interpreted by Nabokov through the legacy of Symbolism. This legacy, even if through a distorted reflection, is nevertheless and precisely thereby magnified, for the reproduction by his immediate predecessors gives it an additional depth of indirect interpretation.

The paper touches upon the peculiarity of the reception of doubles in V. Nabokov and proposes the term pseudo-doubles (as the author denied and mocked the technique of Doppelgänger).

The thesis is based on a thorough analysis of polygenetic connotations of the stick, covering cultural codes of mythical allusions, ancient and sacral-biblical tradition, and indirect, intertextual literary interferences. In examining the image of the stick, the comparative statistics of synonyms of the word in the two novels are traced as well as their linguistic and graphic properties, images built on the form of letters by the synaesthete author’s associations.

Open access

В статье предлагается несколько стихотворений русских поэтов на тему моря. Описательный аспект в них пропитан эмоциональными переживаниями авторов. При этом меняющийся вид моря, его богатство световыми и звучными оттенками и переливами нарисованы c высоким поэтическим мастерством, позволяющим ощущать определенный параллелизм между динамикой моря и изме-нениями в душевной жизни человека. Эти романтические стихотворения содержат явные элементы реалистического подхода к действительности, а вместе с тем и некоторые черты, свидетельствую-щие о склонности авторов к трансцендентальности.

Элегия Жуковского «Море» (1822) – прекрасный пример олицетворения: море рассматривается как мистическое существо, которое живет, дышит и исполнено тревожной мыслью. Реалистичное изображение моря содержит скрытую аллюзию на переменчивые настроения человеческой души.

В стихотворении Пушкина «Погасло дневное светило…» (1820) поэт вспоминает о своей поте-рянной бурной молодости. В его же стихах «К морю» (1824) море как символ абсолютной свободы напоминает судьбы двух великих мужей века: Наполеона и Байрона.

В стихотворении «Море и утес» (1848) Тютчев выражает свою веру в миссию России как защит-ника христианства. Помимо аллегорического смысла, мастерство изображения яростных бурь волн против «спокойного и уверенного в себе утеса» предлагает прекрасную параллель с известными морскими картинами Айвазовского. В его стихотворении «Как хорошо ты, о море ночное» (1865) непрерывное движение моря намекает на трансцендентальное. Последние строки этого стихотво-рения говорят о неутолимой скорби поэта, вызванной недавней смертью его возлюбленной. Его же стихи «Волна и дума» (1851) представляют эмблематический символ взгляда поэта на аналогию природы и человеческого духа: наши мысли – это то же непрерывное, тщетное и обманчивое явле-ние как бушующие и отступающие волны моря.

Бунин посвятил два стихотворения морю. В одном из них (1895) вид спокойного ночного моря вызывает у наблюдателя восхищенное предчувствие вечной красоты и неземной истины. В другом стихотворении (1897) описание бурного Северного моря напоминает унылое настроение поэта. Па-раллель между этим зрелищем и подавленным состоянием души поэта проявляется в уничижитель-ных семантических тонах эпитетов и предикатов.

В стихах Бальмонта «У моря ночью» (1903) вид ночного моря возбуждает у поэта отчаянное ви-дение нависающей смерти.

В своем коротком стихотворении (1884) Надсон сравнивает море с мощным органом в величе-ственном соборе, но вместе с тем оно приводит видение кого-то «безумно смеющегося и грозящего».

При этом цитированные романтические стихотворения содержат явные элементы реалистиче-ского подхода к действительности, хотя в то же время некоторые их черты свидетельствуют о склон-ности авторов к трансцендентальности.

The paper presents a selection of poems about the sea, written by Russian lyric poets in the 19th century. The descriptive aspect in the poems is imbued by the emotional experience and actual mood of the authors. At the same time, the changing sight of the sea, the abundance of its luminous tints and sounding modulations are shown with high poetic mastery suggesting a certain parallel between the dynamism of the sea and the alternating states of the human mind. Parts of the texts indicate the authors’ disposition to transcendence.

Zhukovsky’s elegy Море [The Sea] (1822) is a fine example of personification: the poet addresses the sea regarded as a mystical being that lives and breathes, filled with anxious thought. The realistic portrayal of the sea contains a hidden allusion to the changing moods of the human soul.

Pushkin’s poem Погасло дневное светило… [The Day Star is Gone] (1820) recalls reminiscences of his lost turbulent youth. In the poem К морю [To the Sea] (1824), the sea as the symbol of absolute freedom reminds of the fates of the two outstanding men of the century, Napoleon and Byron.

Tyutchev’s poem Море и утес [The Sea and the Cliff] (1848) pertains to the Western European revolutionary events of 1848. In the form of an allegory, the poet expresses his belief in the mission of Russia as the defender and stronghold of genuine Christianity. Apart from its allegorical sense, the mastery of depicting the furious storms of waves against the “calm and self-confident Cliff ” offers a fine parallel to the well-known maritime paintings of Ayvazovsky. The poem Как хорошо ты, о море ночное [How Fine is You, the Sea at Night] (1865) includes a hint at transcendence in the description of the continually moving sea. The last lines of this poem allude to the unappeasable grief of the poet caused by the recent death of his beloved. The poem Волна и дума [The Wave and the Thought] (1851) is an emblematic symbol of Tyutchev’s view on the parallelism of nature and the human mind: our thoughts are regarded as just the same incessant, idle, and deceptive phenomena as the storming and receding waves of the sea.

Bunin devoted two poems to the sea. One of them (1895) presents the sight of the tranquil nocturnal sea, arousing a delighted state of the observer, his presentiment of everlasting beauty and “unearthly truth”. The other poem (1897) describes the stormy Northern Sea with its piercing wind and heavy waves. The parallel between this sight and the depressed state of mind of the poet appears in the pejorative semantic tones of the epithets and predicates.

In Balmont’s poem У моря ночью [At the Sea by night] (1903), the sight of the sea by night stirs up in the poet a desperate vision of imminent death.

In his short poem (1884), Nadson compares the sea with a powerful organ in a majestic cathedral but at the same time a vision appears to him of “somebody insanely laughing and threatening”.

In the cited poems, the romantic (i.e. individual and emotional) attitude to the sea is integrated with superior skill in describing elements of reality, and reveals a certain inclination of the poets to transcendental experience.

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Abstract

In Hungary, the academic study of folklore started at the turn of the 20th century. In the period between 1889 and 1920, institutions for the study of folklore and ethnography were established. The author points out that ethnographic collections in this era were motivated by concern about the loss of folk culture phenomena owing to changes brought by modernisation. Major arguments for the establishment of the Hungarian Ethnographic Society as well as the Museum of Ethnography referred to the need to salvage endangered items of folk culture from vanishing. Folklore collections were interpreted as rescue missions aiming to save material in the penultimate moment. The author of this paper investigates the way in which an outstanding folklorist of the period, Lajos Katona (1862–1910), professor of comparative literary studies, defined the essence, purpose, and method of ethnographic/folklore collections. Katona urged on several occasions that collectors of folklore be equipped with professional guidebooks and other auxiliary materials. He played a role in the popularisation of the activities of the Folklore Fellows, furthering the establishment of a network of voluntary collectors. Empirical data collection in the field is a central notion of folklore studies, one of the most important methodological and epistemological categories of the discipline, which functions as a distinctive feature differentiating it from other fields of study. Therefore, it is of central importance to shed light upon how and why the principles of the collection and recording of folklore phenomena in oral culture have changed.

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Abstract

The village today is only partially what we used to know of in the past, our previous image rooted in a sinking world, nothing but memories. In the 21st century, even in rural communities, the daily routine, practices and strategies of economic life are determined by the processes of modernization and globalization, in conjunction with information and communication technologies along with the wide-ranging proliferation of digital devices. It can be said that life in the 21st century village also shows a simultaneous constraint of modernization (the constraint of evolution and change) and the presence of masses incapable of changing (even if their number is continuously decreasing). The coexistence and confrontation of these opposing forces and ideologies characterizes the Hungarian/Transylvanian rural space in Romania during the 21st century. All these have led to the degradation of previous community patterns, resulting in the faltering position of tradition as well as a major change in the role it plays in the life of said communities.

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Abstract

As a result of globalization processes, the lives of average people are nowadays filled with uniform products. In Ukraine, contemporary clothing featuring national markers stands out from among the wide range of cultural and artistic trends. Ukrainian academics are currently studying the specific features of the diffusion of traditional clothing into everyday urban life. A knowledge of the historical path of the penetration, adaptation, and development of traditional Ukrainian clothing within the urban cultural system is necessary for an understanding of its modern transformation processes. An examination of the theoretical model of the diffusion and development of nationally marked clothing from 1861 to 2020 reveals that, in the context of urbanized culture, the spread of Ukrainian clothing is subject to five factors: social and economic, religious and ritual, identification (patriotic), cultural and artistic, and design and production. Within each subperiod, namely 1861–1920, 1921–1990, and 1991–2020, these factors have influenced clothing culture to varying extents, and their content is transformed in accordance with the historical circumstances. In addition to the publication of the above developments in scientific journals, considerable efforts to popularize them are also being made. Several thematic lectures have been given on the influence of the above-mentioned driving forces at different historical stages, accompanied by the multimedia presentation of prominent members of the Ukrainian intelligentsia posing in Ukrainian attire. The ZETA Atelier clothing manufacturing team produces collars embroidered with Ukrainian folk motifs, which became fashionable among Ukrainian intellectuals in the early 20th century. Collaboration based on the educational platform of the clothing brand Zerno has given rise to the idea of producing a line of stockinette T-shirts with prints of historical photographs of the Ukrainian cultural figures previously featured during lectures and presentations. The aim is to shape a contemporary urban culture of nationally marked clothing via the introduction of national images into consumer practices.

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Abstract

The present study introduces the role played by the Hungarian Heritage House in applied ethnography and the folk art revival. It is the first such study to review their antecedents over the past 70 years, the evolution of the institutional background, and activities of varying emphasis (research, teaching, certification) in the fields of folk dance, folk music, and folk handicrafts. The second part of the study evaluates professional tasks in the context of the organizational framework of the Hungarian Heritage House, which was founded in 2001, highlighting the internal relationships among activities embedded within the historically developed structure. The study then goes on to describe the intermediary role of the institution in relation to the practical use/usefulness of basic ethnographic research in terms of: (a) knowledge transfer — the utilization of basic ethnographic research in trainings and courses; and (b) digitization — ensuring wide access to ethnographically authentic archive folk music and dance recordings as the socialization of basic ethnographic research; and (c) research activities within the scope of applied ethnography and existing and potential cooperation with the academic sector. By way of conclusion, the study outlines pressing tasks in the field of applied ethnographical research that are crucial to the everyday, practical work of folklorism. These tasks include delineating the image (i.e., concept) of folk art and folk tradition in the Hungarian Heritage House; clarifying the terminological issues that affect the profession as a whole; creating a professional historical archive of folklorism; organizing a regular forum for critical discussion; and rethinking the cultural context and function of the folklore revival in light of the present-day challenges.

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Abstract

The UNESCO World Heritage Convention (1972) was originally focused on nature conservation and built heritage. The immaterial aspect of the worldwide heritage discourse arrived at a turning point in 2003, when the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage was adopted. The definition of the intangible cultural heritage provides essential frames for a wide range of interpretations. The UNESCO concept focuses on inclusive, representative and community-based traditions which are contemporary and living at the same time. In this sense, the intangible cultural heritage conception is based on the fundamental dichotomy of tradition and modernity. For the communities concerned, a new perspective for living traditions is the process from tradition to heritage. There are four essential features of this process: participation, consciousness, organization and valorization. They can make a difference between tradition and heritage. The Hungarian model for the implementation of the UNESCO Convention is based on a bottom-up system, where the heritage bearers themselves initiate the nomination process for the National Inventory. It is based on their strong commitment to their heritage and it relies on their involvement and participation. In this paper, three case studies from North-East Hungary (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County) represent different ways of “creating a heritage.” The various patterns are closely related to the ideas of identity, community cohesion, tourism, local economy and the preservation of living traditions.

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Abstract

The texts of Zsuzsa Bánk (being born in Germany to Hungarian parents, so growing up bilingually, writing in German and having at least one character with a Hungarian background performing in each of her works) explore affiliations. This is perhaps best seen in the volume of stories The Hottest Summer. With the present contribution, it was my aim to examine spatial concepts in this volume as concepts of belonging.

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Kālidāsa and the Bastard Son •

An Attempt to Read Kālidāsa’s Nāṭakas Politically

Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Péter Száler

Kālidāsa’s nāṭakas, namely the Abhijñānaśākuntala and the Vikramorvaśīya are undisputedly among the greatest works of Sanskrit literature. Thus it is not surprising that there have already been many excellent literary interpretations focusing on these works. My aim is not to augment this list, but instead I intend to shed some light on the less-investigated political message of these dramas. In other words, I am attempting to re-read Kālidāsa’s plays as pieces of political theatre.

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While the subject of the Venetian espionage in the Ottoman empire has received scholarly attention, no attempt has been made to study the baili’s intelligence-gathering activities on Safavid issues in a systematic way. Through the close scrutiny of baili dispatches and other relevant materials of the Venetian State archives, this paper examines the role of the Venetian diplomats in Istanbul in information-gathering on the Safavids. It demonstrates that the baili used various techniques, particularly gifting, bribery, and information exchange with the Ottoman officials in order to collect and transmit to Venice a wide range of information on Ottomans’ arch-rivals, the Safavids.

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Acta Linguistica Academica
Authors: Lena Borise, Irina Burukina, and Éva Dékány
Free access

Abstract

This paper is concerned with the Q-particle in Sinhala wh-questions and polar questions. Previous approaches propose a two-legged semantic dependency: (i) the lower leg projects a set of alternatives and (ii) the upper leg forms a choice function dependency. The contribution of the present paper is two-fold. First, it presents novel empirical data on complex questions with islands that pose a serious problem for this architecture when applied to polar questions. Second, it develops a new proposal that maintains a common meaning for the Q-particle in the two question types while avoiding this empirical problem. The key insight of the new analysis is to liberalize the upper dependency leg as to pass up a focus value that can later combine with different operators: with the Q-operator in wh-questions and with the squiggle operator in polar questions.

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Abstract

In this paper, I investigate the distribution and semantic behavior of various proportional quantifiers (PQs) in Polish. Based on novel evidence including corpus data, I conclude that Polish PQs do not constitute a uniform category, but rather can be divided into four distinct classes based on the following properties: i) (in)compatibility with numerals and measure words, ii) (in)compatibility with approximative modifiers, iii) (in)compatibility with cumulative predicates and iv) (non)occurrence of spatial integrity effects. I propose that such a typology results from an interplay between more primitive semantic notions. In particular, the data call for combining degree semantics with a mereotopological approach to the meaning of PQs.

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Abstract

Der Aufsatz beschäftigt sich mit der Rezeptionsgeschichte der Gedichte Albrecht von Hallers im Ungarn des 18. Jahrhunderts. Als Grundlage für die Untersuchung dienen die Haller-Zitate in zeitgenössischen Stammbucheinträgen. Mit dieser Frage setzten sich zwar sowohl deutsche als auch ungarische Forscher schon früher auseinander, jedoch, wie im vorliegenden Aufsatz behauptet wird, unter Anwendung einer gewissermaßen falschen Methode. Es wurde nämlich in diesen früheren Arbeiten nicht näher darauf eingegangen, ob das Zitat gegebenenfalls einer sekundären Quelle entnommen wurde. Dieser Ansatz führte jedoch zu falschen Schlussfolgerungen. Vorliegender Aufsatz versucht, die aus sekundären Quellen stammenden Zitate von jenen aus dem „Original“ zu unterscheiden. Es wird festgestellt, dass die in Stammbucheinträgen im 18. Jahrhundert zu lesenden Haller-Zitate überwiegend aus nachweislich sekundären Quellen herzuleiten sind. Je „berühmter“ ein Autor war – diesen Eindruck gewinnt man anhand des Korpus –, umso mehr zitieren ihn die Zeitgenossen aus indirekten Quellen.

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Nicolaus, scriptor librorum serenissimi Mathie regis •

A Corvina könyvtár budai scriptora

Nicolaus, scriptor librorum serenissimi Mathie regis •

The buda scribe of the Corvina library
Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author: Árpád Mikó

Wholly new aspects have lately enriched the research of the Buda library of King Matthias Corvinus, Bibliotheca Corvina. the library – in the last years of its history – is regarded as a self-contained new entity. Research has adopted a far more complex approach than earlier, including the differentiation of the Buda scribes, the recognition of the text critical work of the humanists and of course the activity of the book-binders. Of particular importance are the new investigations of Edina Zsupán, who has managed to prove that several important Corvina manuscripts were copied in Buda. they include the ransanus codex (Budapest, OSzK, Cod.Lat.249), the Beda Venerabilis Codex (Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 175), the philostratus (Budapest, OSzK, Cod. Lat. 369) and the Averulinus corvinas (Venezia, Bibioteca nazionale Marciana, Lat. VIII. 2 [-2796]), as well as the nagylucse psalter (Budapest, OSzK, Cod. Lat. 369) adapting to the corvinas in all respects. the material of the folios of each is a more roughly finished Central European parchment and the copiers could be identified on the basis of the individual features of their handwriting. However, no names can be attached to them for the time being.

Unexpectedly, a datum was found in a diploma in which a certain Nicolaus, alias scriptor librorum serenissimi Mathiae regis can also be read about. the datum was found in a formularium, so the information about the missilis is defective, but the protagonists can be identified. the letter was written to archbishop cardinal tamás Bakócz who was in rome at that time (1512–1514), and the writer of the letter was probably the bishop of Gyulafehérvár Ferenc Várdai (1513–1524), who asked that in view of the merits of magister senis, he should kindly try and get a papal promissory deed for some church stipend for his frater germanus, magister Nicolaus alias scriptor librorum serenissimi Mathiae regis. this magister senis, the only person actually named in the letter, is Filippo Sergardi (philippus de Senis) (1466–1536), a cleric with lots of curial stipends born in Siena. He visited Hungary as a member of cardinal pietro Isvalies’ legation (1500–1503). He established close relations with the cardinal and archbishop of Esztergom tamás Bakócz and other Hungarians. this nicolaus was his relative, who used to be the scribe of King Matthias’ books.

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Abstract

The basic goal of ecovillages is to create a sustainable lifestyle and community. Many residents of Hungarian ecovillages consider traditional peasant culture the example of an ecological lifestyle; for them, traditional peasant ecological knowledge and practice is an important reference point. Therefore, the pursuit of ecological ideology and an eco-conscious, sustainable way of life naturally leads ecovillagers to peasant material culture. In this study, I present the revival of handicraft heritage in rural eco-communities. I provide an insight into how traditional artifact-making activities come to life, how the old tools of Hungarian peasant culture are used, collected, and copied, and I present the place and interpretation of these old trades and their masters in these communities. The study is based on my ethnographic-anthropological research conducted in Hungarian ecovillages since 2007.

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Abstract

This paper is based on the assumption that there was a well-articulated idea behind the rapidly spreading phenomenon of theft after the formation of collective farms in Transylvania during socialism: people thought that what they were doing was not wrong because the real culprit was the socialist state that deprived them of their control over their lands. Had that not happened, they would still be their own masters, existentially complete, and should the supremacy of this state cease one day, they would once again be who they were before. This idea vitalized their expectations and hopes as a sacred aura. After 1989, these hopes came true temporarily, and partially, but, as it turned out, the peasant order imagined as existential completeness did not return. After joining the EU, the generation that went through socialization owning and cultivating their own land and then lived awaiting and hoping as collectivist peasants had to realize that it was all wrong: the new system brought its own shortcomings, frustrations, and disappointments as their world lost its sacredness.

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