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Wide-ranging research has shown that cleanliness is both a social and a historical construct, that is, a relative rather than an absolute concept. The rather complex social and psychological context and causes of cleansing change with time and space. The social change characterized by modernization and urbanization in the first half of the 20th century had a profound effect on the mentality, way of life and social behavior of Hungarian peasantry as well, including the meaning of cleanliness and related customs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the practices and customs related to washing and bathing and their modification triggered by socio-economic and political change. The first part of the article gives a brief clarification of the terms “cleanliness” and “hygiene,” surveys Hungarian and international research on the topic, and presents a brief history of cleansing as a universal custom. In the second part, the author outlines a socio-historical model of the major stages of change in Hungarian village habits of cleanliness based on extensive field experience.

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Tanulmányunkban három XV. századi humanista költő bukolikus költeményeit vizsgáljuk. Caspar Tribrachus, Baptista Mantuanus és Faustus Andrelinus eclogáiban szembetűnő mind a műfaj eszményítő tájábrázolásától merőben eltérő realista ábrázolásmód, mind pedig a római szatíra hatása. Noha Mantuanus esetében számos allúzióra már kortárs magyarázója, Jodocus Badius is fölhívta a figyelmet, az újabb szakirodalomban a szatíraköltőktől, elsősorban Persiustól és Iuvenalistól származó átvételeknek — a nyilvánvalóan Iuvenalis ihlette V. ecloga kivételével — nem tulajdonítanak kitüntetett jelentőséget. A következőkben tehát e hatás részletesebb föltérképezésére teszünk kísérletet. Vizsgáljuk a szatíra hatását az eclogák képi világában, szókincsében, külön figyelmet fordítunk a szatíraköltőktől származó, ámde idillikus színezetű képek imitációira, majd a kettős imitációra hozunk példákat, ahol is a szatírából származó átvételek Vergilius egy-egy klasszikus szöveghelyének parodizálására szolgálnak. Megkíséreljük kimutatni, hogy a Mantuanus eclogáiban kulcsszerepet játszó Umber alakjának megformálásában mind a Iuvenalisnál szereplő Umbricius, mind a középkori Iuvenalis-kommentárok fontos szerepet játszottak. Ezt követően a két műfaj rokoníthatóságának műfajelméleti hátterét vesszük szemügyre. Amellett érvelünk, hogy a szatíra meghatározó szerepet játszott a bukolika új, ábrázolásmódjában realista, intenciójában didaktikus változatának létrejöttében.

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What is ἀργός? Whiteness? Luminosity? Or, simply a range of bright shades? Having undertaken an on-going research project on the perception of colour-sense in antiquity that explores colour’s metaphorical function(s) and its social role, in this paper I shed light on bright shades in the Iliad, mainly ἀργός, and examine their contexts to investigate how the poet employs ἀργός in developing a richer narrative, including character portrayal. How are various appearances of ἀργός composed and interconnected? How do they metaphorically affect their contexts? What do they symbolise within the narrative? Through detailed analysis, I show that ἀργός, being appropriately selected to contribute to each context as a significant indicator, plays an important role in brightening the context, effectively and picturesquely.

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Authors: Elek Benkő and Gyöngyi Kovács
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A budavári koronázó főtemplom mint királyi temetkező hely

III. Béla és Antiochiai Anna sírja és síremléke a Mátyás-templomban

Author: Lilla Farbakyné Deklava

After his death Béla III (r. 1172-96) was buried in the venue of coronations and burials of medieval Hungarian kings, the provost church of the Virgin in Székesfehérvár. After the Ottoman rule and the subsequent demise of the church the location of the grave fell into oblivion. The king’s and his wife’s mortal remains were found accidentally in December 1848. Custos of the National Museum János Érdy had the valuable finds and the rest of the grave goods transported to the museum. The significance of the discovery was largely enhanced when scientific research soon verified that it was Béla III’s grave, the only identified royal grave in Székesfehérvár.

During the military operations of the ongoing war of liberation of 1848/49, then in the period of retaliations after the crushing of the freedom fighting the idea of reburying the royal remains in the manner they reserved could not even be raised. In 1859 Ágoston Kubinyi, director of the National Museum commissioned Ferenc Reitter to make a plan for the extension of the museum. The arcade in classical or Rundbogenstil to be erected on the rear limit of the plot would have been terminated at either end with a chapel. Kubinyi wanted to deposit the royal remains and the grave goods in a worthy environment in the chapels. Governor of Hungary Móric Pálffy was shocked to find during a visit to the museum that the bones were in the museum and visitors were allowed to view them without, he thought, the right conditions of reverence being available. He immediately ordered the remains to be buried quietly. In vain did Kubinyi argue that the planned chapels would be worthy places of rest for them, the political situation still did not allow that the grave of the only identified king of the Árpád dynasty be buried in the museum of the nation, in such an exposed place. The remains of the royal couple were buried in the baroque crypt of the Matthias Church on 10 July 1862 in a simple funeral ceremony celebrated by archbishop of Esztergom János Scitovszky. The memorial service was held a year later on 26 March 1863 when a (new) verification process at the Academy of Sciences had confirmed that the remains did belong to Béla III and his wife.

Owing to the reconstruction of the Matthias Church begun under Frigyes Schulek’s guidance in 1873, the remains were transferred to the Anthropological Institute in 1883 where the director Aurl Török put them to scrutiny. The protraction of the renovation also kept putting off the case of reburial. The consecration of the church took place in 1896 as part of the millenary festivities. However, the theme of the festive series was much more Francis Joseph I and the restored Hungarian constitutionalism than the thousand-year-old Hungarian state, consequently the ceremonious reburial of Béla III was left out of the program, although it had been called for by the press. After 1896 at last Aurél Török launched a press campaign and a parliamentary interpellation on 13 February 1897 cata lyzed the events. Under the leadership of Prime Minister Dezső Bánffy the minister of religion and public education Gyula Wlassics organized the royal reburial in cooperation with the Monuments Commission and the building committee of the church. After a long debate the funerary monument was built in the Holy Trinity chapel of the upper church after plans by Frigyes Schulek. (At the beginning Schulek designed a more modest tomb for the crypt, but now it was out of the question.) He took the carvings of French portal pediments (Chartres, Arles) as his models. The sculptural work was done by Ferenc Mikula. A genealogical table on the monument announced that Francis Joseph I descended from the Árpád dynasty on female line. This reference is also included in the royal deed of gift by which the king granted 25 000 florins for the monument and the burial. At last on 21 October 1898 the ceremonious burial took place as a national holiday, officiated by archbishop of Esztergom Kolos Vaszary.

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The aim of the article is to introduce certain characteristic features of life in extended families of Bunjevci in the different regions that they have inhabited since the 17th century, with a focus on interrelations of the family members in everyday organization of life and work; the role of the master and the mistress — her duties in relation to other female family members; and (in)formal partition as well as some specific transitional forms of family life from the zadruga to nuclear families. The authors observe the zadruga phenomenon as a dynamic process, depending on the internal as well as the external socio-economic factors, and provide a comparative insight into the zadruga phenomenon in two branches of the same subethnic group, which largely reflects the historical and social circumstances in which such a family lifestyle existed and was transformed. The authors pay attention to the influence of common law, which had a great importance in preserving specific features of family life, despite the strong influence of historical, socio-political, ecological and economic factors on the Bunjevci family life structure in the final stage of the existence of the zadruga.

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The focus of this study is the concept of cleanliness among the Mari, a people speaking a Finno-Ugrian language living in the Volga region of Russia. I personally had a chance to carry out ethnological expeditions in the Mari Republic and in the Mari villages of the Bashkir, Tatar and Udmurtian Republics, and the Kirov and Perm regions from 1981 until recently. In this article, I discuss the concept of hygiene among Mari women and the changes it went through from the Soviet times until today. I explore cleanliness discourse and practice as a traditional moral concept, and as a concept of hygiene adapted by Soviet mass culture. How has the propaganda of health and hygiene influenced the practices of everyday life? What was the connection between the traditional concept and the propaganda of power?

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The Tocharian A Maitreyasamitināṭaka, a long dramatic text about the future Buddha Maitreya that is translated into Old Uyghur prose as the Maitrisimit, is one of the most important texts of Tocharian and Old Uyghur Buddhism. It is of crucial importance for Tocharian studies because even smaller fragments can often be interpreted successfully with the help of the better preserved Old Uyghur parallels. In this paper, the beginning of the 11th act about the birth of Maitreya is studied, comparing the Tocharian A and Old Uyghur fragments which are in part parallel and in part complementary.

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This paper examines two Tibetan sources to show how Tibetan masters could introduce people of totally different cultural background into Buddhist doctrines. The Explanation of the Knowable (Tib. Shes-bya rab-tu gsal-ba) was written by ’Phags-pa lama, while the Answers to the Questions of Sken-dha from Europe (Tib. Rgya-gar rum-yul-pa Sken-dhas dris-lan) is the compendium of Kun-dga’ Chos-legs. Both analyse the same subject: cosmology as part of the basic doctrines, and both have the same aim: initiating foreigners into Buddhist precepts. Thus we can observe the similarity of the two works and the teaching methods used by the masters who followed different traditions at different times.

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The article examines the poly-semantic concept of cleanliness in traditional Udmurt practices in respect to religious, ritualized and daily life, focusing on the definite object of a human body. The idea of cleanliness is directly connected with the notion of purity. The “unclean” or “dirty” body is a symbolic phenomenon, and its semantics can be revealed in context. Cleanliness is an important virtue, and maintaining the cleanliness of a body is not an individual but a controlled common social duty. In the tradition of the Udmurts, the sauna was and still is a very important part of daily and ritual life. It is understood that in the sauna one is cleaned physically and spiritually. The act of bathing in the sauna means also purifying morally. Special cleansing and purifying regulations are required before calendrical and commemorative rituals. The sauna also has a role in rituals connected to birth and death. The article gives a brief survey of several rituals around the notion of cleanliness and purity.

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One of the modernization conflicts of Kyrgyz and Kazak society is discussed in this article. It is the conflict between traditional religious activities, post-Soviet Islamic revival and fundamentalism. The Islamization process in Central Asia started during the Mongol Era (13th–16th centuries). The nomadic population was also influenced by Sufitradition in Central Asia that goes back to the 12th century, but it was labeled as shamanism during Soviet times. After the democratic changes and the declaration of religious freedom, some elements of this 1000-year-old tradition have been revived or revitalized. But the so-called official Islam, sponsored by Arabic states, has turned against the popular version of Islam by using the Soviet label of shamanic tradition. In reality, people practicing these traditions are devoted Muslims, they consider them to be pure Islamic traditions. But nationalist or ethnic religious movements, as well as urban esoteric practices, also incorporate elements of this tradition to legitimize their activities. This creates a very complex situation and a growing hostility between fundamentalist and traditional religious groups.

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On the territory Transcarpathian Ukraine, about 100 Palaeolithic localities are known up to our days. Most of them are surface finds. In spite of the rich archaeological heritage, the elaboration of the material, especially its petroarchaeological evaluation supported by professional scientific analytical methods, is in the initial phase as yet. The aim of the present study is to supply information on the lithic raw materials of the Palaeolithic settlements in Transcarpathian Ukraine, the detailed survey and description of the primary raw materials, their identification, description and terminology, as well as the outlining of the local raw material provinces and study of the distribution of the raw materials on archaeological sites.

In the archaeological literature of Transcarpathian Ukraine, lithic raw materials are still described under incorrect petrographical terms. For example, for the raw material of Korolevo Palaeolithic site is, correctly speaking, hyaline dacite, and the “flints” of Beregovo region are indeed rocks of volcanic origin which have undergone metasomatic processes. Field survey for collecting geological samples localized 19 different raw material sources all of which yielded hard rocks with conchoidal fracture that are suitable for tool making with knapping.

Out of the 19 raw material types 11 were actually found in archaeological assemblages of the studied area. The most popular raw materials of Transcarpathian Ukraine are the Korolevo hyaline dacite, Rokosovo obsidian, (Carpathian 3 type) and siliceous rhyolite tuff varieties (type I and II), siliceous tuffite (type I and II), siliceous and opalised rhyolite (type I and II) from the Beregovo Hills area, as well as silicified sandstone (type II) and the siliceous argillite. Certain types of potential raw materials were found in archaeological assemblages as yet. These are the Kriva limno-chalcedonite and limnoopalite, radiolarite of Svalyava type I, II and III, the siliceous limestone of Svalyava and Priborzhavske, and the hornfels of Suskovo.

The paper also points out patterns in lithic raw material circulation in the prehistoric period of Transcarpathia. In the Palaeolithic, the settlement system and location of sites was largely dependent on the lithic sources. Altogether 9 types of rocks played important role: Korolevo hyaline dacite, the Carpathian 3 type obsidian from Rokosovo, 6 types of metasomatites of Beregovo Hills, and the silicified sandstone (type II). Upper Palaeolithic communities settled close to the outcrops of primary and secondary geological positions and this phenomenon is observable at each important Palaeolithic settlement.

On the basis of the principal raw material circulation of the Palaeolithic three territorial groups have been formulated. These are named after the most abundant and used rock types of the given region. Three raw material regions are recognized in Transcarpathia: volcanic, metasomatic, and sedimentary. Furthermore, sub-regions were also established in the volcanic region (Rokosovo-Maliy Rakovets and Korolevo-Veryatsa sub-regions) and in the metasomatic region (Beregovo, Muzhiyevo and Bene- Kvasovo sub-regions).

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Authors: Д. Д. Шайбакова, Ясмина Войводич and Vera Vasić
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This study deals with the use of the Holy Crown of Hungary in Hungarian revolts and Habsburg representation between 1604 and 1611. It describes how the meaning of the crown suddenly changed after 1604 and how this meaning was spread across the borders of Hungary. The focus is on the use of the crown in the propaganda of King Matthias II at the time of his crowning as King of Bohemia in 1611. This is a rare example of the use of the Hungarian crown in the political legitimation of a ruler in another country outside Hungary, but it has a special ideological background. This use is an aspect of the history of the crown that has been overlooked to this day.

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There is hardly any ancient work as complex and multi-layered as Apuleius’ novel Metamorphoses. Whether we regard it as a mere sophisticated literary entertainment, or a religious lesson disguised as fabula Graecanica, it certainly offers many angles of research. The aim of the paper is to examine one of its most significant aspects, namely its multicultural character. Although modelled on a Greek narrative and taking place in completely Greek environments following the Greek literary tradition, it undeniably possesses an air of Romanness. The author lets his characters fluctuate somewhere between Roman and Greek, urban and provincial, local and imperial, barbarian and sophisticated. In many places, Lucius, Apuleius’ alter ego, refers to the relationships between different cultures, especially Greek and Roman, not to forget African with respect to Apuleius’ origins. But we have to look even further and see the novel as a fictitious world of its own, playing on readers’ expectations, prejudices, as well as historical and cultural background. To understand the novel, one must try to uncover these subtle nuances reflecting the tastes of its readership. The paper tries to answer the question how Apuleius treats his target audience which was, no doubt, composed of a very multifarious mass of people, without losing sight of the famous Quis ille? – a paradigm of Apuleius’ approach in this novel, in which the questions asked never seem to expect any answers, and even if so, not just one is tenable.

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Authors: Csanád Bálint and Éva Garam

Numerous finds, excavated from the probably isolated grave along the Lower Tisza, were taken to the Vojvođanski Muzej (Novi Sad, Serbia). The grave can be dated unambiguously to the second half of the 8th century. Drawing a parallel between the silver cup and the 8th-century dish of the Nagyszentmiklós treasure has a considerable significance both for the chronologic and cultural identification of the latter, and for the Avar-Age chronology of tendril decoration with punched background as well. Accordingly, this decoration had been around already in the 7th century, which is an equally important condition for the chronology of the late Avar Period, and especially for the research of the question of continuity between the middle and late periods.

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Germanicus Iulius Caesar translated Aratus’ Phaenomena when the Roman interest in astronomy and astrology was on the rise. The Romans, including the imperator, were amazed by the fact that with the knowledge of the motion of celestial objects one can predict the future. And people wanted to learn more about the stars and the constellations. Did Germanicus’ work perform the task of teaching its readers about the heavens? Did he manage to play his role as a teacher? Did he only translate the information contained in Aratus’ text, or did he transfer even the didactic aspect of the poem? And how did he try to make the lecture more interesting? Did he make an attempt to interact with the reader? In this paper, Germanicus’ text will be examined focusing on his didactic strategy. The core of the paper is the analysis of manners used by Germanicus to meet characteristic constituent features of the genre of didactic poetry, which will be briefly introduced in the beginning.

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Béla Balázs‘ Der sichtbare Mensch wurde 1924 publiziert und gilt als das erste systematische theoretische Werk über das Medium Film in deutscher Sprache. Dem Buch wurde daher große Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet und es wurde mehrfach versucht, es im Werk von Balázs zu kontextualisieren. Im Aufsatz Die frühe Filmtheorie von Béla Balázs wird angestrebt, die Anfänge von Balázs‘ Beschäftigung mit dem Film differenzierter darzustellen, als das bislang geschehen ist, um das geistige Milieu und die Diskurskontexte, in denen Der sichtbare Mensch entstand, präziser rekonstruieren und einzelne Begriffe und Konzepte des Buches — wie Physiognomik, Sichtbarkeit und Visualität — genauer erfassen zu können. Aufgrund von Berichten in der Wiener ungarischen Migrationspresse lässt sich eine Diskussion über Film nachvollziehen, in der Balázs‘ erste Versuche auch zu verorten sind. Die Auflistung einiger Aspekte zur Wiener Filmindustrie der 1920er Jahre, filmbezogene Texte in der ungarischsprachigen Wiener Emigrantenzeitschrift Bécsi Magyar Ujság, Balázs‘ Auseinandersetzung mit Mitgliedern einer ebenfalls nach Wien emigrierten ungarischen Avantgardegruppe, der Sprachwechsel eines migrierten Literaturschaffenden und Balázs‘ Tagebucheinträge machen sichtbar: Der Verstehenshorizont von Balázs‘ Filmtheorie kann nur vor dem Panorama seiner breiten Interessensgebiete und Erfahrungswelten ausgelotet und bestimmt werden.

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This paper re-analyses the Early Byzantine metal and glass weights excavated at Kunszenmárton in the early 1930s. It offers the latest comparanda for the weights, an up-to-date bibliography for non-specialists, and an appendix of finds of Byzantine weights from central and south-eastern European contexts.

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In this paper we examine the influence of text editing (edited vs. verbatim subtitles) and subtitle presentation rates (12 vs. 15 characters per second) on the comprehension and reading patterns of interlingual and intralingual subtitles among a group of 44 deaf, 33 hard of hearing and 60 hearing Polish adult subjects. The results of the eyetracking study show no benefit of editing down the text of subtitles, particularly in the case of intralingual subtitling and deaf viewers. Verbatim subtitles displayed with the higher presentation rate yielded slightly better comprehension results, were skipped less often, and resulted in more effective reading patterns. Deaf and hard of hearing participants had lower comprehension than hearing people; they also had a higher number of fixations per subtitle and were found to dwell on subtitles longer than the hearing.

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Recently, we marked 80 years since the first appearance of Molnar’s novel in Croatia (the translation by L. Matijević was published by Minerva in 1933). The novel was first published in 1906. Like other classical works of children’s literature that entered Croatian children’s literature, The Paul Street Boys had to be adapted to the literary and socio-historical context. Turbulent relations between Croatia and Hungary in the early 20th century, on one hand, and the changes in the social context, in particular after 1945, on the other hand, had a considerable impact on Croatian editions of the novel. This study focuses on censorship and adaptation of the text to the circumstances in which it was published. Interventions introduced by the translators and editors that very often went deep into the content of the novel did not have an adverse effect on the popularity of the book with the children’s audience. However, they certainly testify about the times when ideological correctness of the published book was paramount to all other considerations, even esthetical and ethical ones.

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The study addresses the find types decorated with ring-and-dot motifs and the interpretation of this motif in relation to three brooches from Tolna County. Although the three brooches are decorated in a similar manner, their forms differ, reflecting cultural contacts with entirely different regions.

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This paper deals with new epigraphical material which was excavated in Wādī al-Hašād in Jordan. The importance of this study lies in the publication of these yet unpublished inscriptions.

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At the beginning of the series of Augustine’s earliest extant literary works are the three philosophical dialogues Contra Academicos, De beata vita and De ordine, which were composed in the autumn of 386 during Augustine’s otium philosophandi in Cassiciacum. In the introductions of all three works, the marine metaphors are widely used. The author compares human life with a stormy sea and sees as the only salvation the port of philosophy. In beata v. 1. 2 Augutin compares the people to whom philosophy can accommodate with navigantes, which he groups in tria genera. Although the people who belong to the respective group are described in detail, the author does not mention names. This arouses research interest and justifies the attempt to propose a representing person for each group.

The present work sets itself the goal by parallel reading of beata v. 1. 2, with some passages from Cicero’s Epistulae, Tusculanae disputationes and De officiis to make a new proposal. And this in addition to the currently existing assumption that Romanianus, to whom the dialogue Contra Academicos is dedicated, should be considered as a representative of the second group of seafarers. However, the author of the present work now ventures a completely new approach, in which Cicero can be accepted as a representative of this group.

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The study presents the pottery finds from a pit uncovered under the eastern wing of the monastery excavated at Esztergom-Prímás-sziget, dated by a coin of András I (1046–1060).

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Au lendemain de la première guerre mondiale, János et Lujza Esterházy s’engagent pour la cause de la restauration monarchique et pour la révision du traité de Trianon. Au cours des années vingt, leurs visions respectives de la nation hongroise s’éloignent. Lujza adopte peu à peu la conceptions ethnique de la nation, tandis que János reste fidèle au territoire de la couronne. Toutefois, les vicissitudes de l’histoire aux années trente et quarante les voient toujours unis, notamment en raison de leur foi chrétienne partagée. Les mémoires de Lujza Esterházy donnent une vision allégorique du destin de sa famille et de la Hongrie au XXe siècle.

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Authors: László Domboróczki, Anna Budek, László Daróczi-Szabó, Małgorzata Kaczanowska, Tomasz Kalicki, Edyta Kłusakiewicz, Janusz K. Kozłowski, Angela Kreuz, Péter Pomázi, Michał Wasilewski and Zsuzsanna K. Zoffmann

The topographical position and size of the site, the number of detected houses, the presence of the early phase make the Apc-Berekalja I settlement one of the most significant sites of the LBK in Hungary. The ongoing processing of the excavation data provided already some very important observations. The geoarchaeological results demonstrated the presence of the in situ soil of the Neolithic period and effects of floods on the settlement. The study of the chipped and ground stone material coming from the Neolithic features revealed no conspicuous changes in the lithic industry of the settlement from the pre-Notenkopf to Želiezovce phases of the LBK. Lithic raw materials came exclusively from territories to the east of the site, which is an evidence of the isolation of the LBK groups that inhabited Apc.

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Some of the manuscripts and books of the Hungarian humanist, Johannes Sambucus (1531–1584) are still kept in Vienna, in the Austrian National Library. A source of information puts a new light on the sale and reception of his library. In his last will made in 1583, Sambucus left his library, the manuscripts he still owned and his maps to his son, in 1584, not long after his death, his widow started negotiations about selling them to the Emperor Rudolf II. However, the data clearly suggest that Sambucus’ library did not become en bloc part of the Imperial Library, if the purchase took place at all: only 44 years after Sambucus’ death was a certain part of his library bought by Sebastian Tengnagel for both the Imperial Library and himself. Another result of the research confirms that the philologist Sambucus cannot be separated from the book and manuscript collector Sambucus, and the examples presented here justify why it is worth involving in the research the extant books of the Hungarian humanist.

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Fejezetek a Képzőművészeti Alap történetéből: a Tavaszi Tárlat és a „három T” a dokumentumok tükrében

II. Rövid séta a „három T” és az „önköltséges kiállítások” körül

Author: György Horváth

Artists’ recollections of the Kádárist period of Hungarian socialism as well as the analyses of the cultural policy of the one-party state include as a permanent motif the “three T’s” for the initial letter of the Hungarian words for banning, toleration and support (tiltás, tűrés, támogatás) designed in theory for works and in practice applied partly to works and partly to artists. The reminiscing artists and the analysts are more or less at one declaring that “three T’s” were “created” by György Aczél to describe the working of the art policy he dictated between 1957 and 1985.

The matter is however far more complicated. First, the control of art policy was only partly in Aczél’s hand at the beginning of the period, and at that time there was no trace of the “three T’s”, but at most two were experienced: banning and support. Secondly, Aczél’s art policy was not solely his: the demarcation of his scope always fundamentally depended on the actual high political circumstances and on the party leaders who tried to hold them in sway.

In the years of retaliation after the 1956 revolution between 1957 and 1962 the HSWP addressed all social groups including of course the artists from the position of power. For Aczél, it would have been in vain to add anything to the memorandum “on the situation of our literature” discussed by the party PC on August 6, 1957 as much as it was in vain to include that “reserving the right of criticism, the party and the government (…) allow publicity to any non-realist trend that is not hostile to the people’s democracy” in the released resolution – that was not an indication of a “tolerant” art policy. This is massively proven by the “guiding principles” of the HSWP’s “cultural policy” announced in the summer of 1958 which declared that “the party will not put up with the fact that the inferior formalist products of bourgeois decadence (…) should pollute the taste of our people without inhibitions.” Consequently, the “non-realist” trends – though not hostile “to the people’s democracy” did not have a say in literature or any other genre, including fine arts. Only the Ministry of Culture could have allowed them some scope, for the key to all publicity – in case of fine arts, the preliminary permission process for exhibitions – got into the hands of the art department of the ministry from autumn ’57, but they had no intention to give room to artists creating abstract, surrealist, etc. works qualified as “anti-humanist”.

In the early sixties the grip of the dictatorship was loosened. In his closing address at the 8th congress of the HSWP János Kádár announced the slogan of the new times: “Those who are not against us are with us.” In this relaxed atmosphere the ministry in charge of artistic matters was ready to make concessions. Small concessions, of course: they deemed it sufficient to give permission for four exhibitions a year in the smallest exhibiting room of Budapest for the representatives of “artistic trends alien to our goals but not hostile in its contents”, provided that they were willing and able to cover all costs of the exhibitions from their pockets. The plan was thrashed out in detail. György Aczél consulted personally with the head of the cultural subsdivision of the HSWP László Szecsődi before the memorandum to be submitted to the party’s Committee of Agitation and Propaganda. Yet the case did not reach the committee and in 1963 it was removed from the agenda. Notably because, in late 1962, the Soviet political leadership launched a campaign against all modern styles – not for the first or the last time — which the Hungarian decision-makers – who had enough trouble with the architects’ viewpoint that they would not see any “thematic works” in their buildings — could not disregard.

The case of the “self-paid exhibitions” came up again around the middle of the decade when preparations for the “new economic mechanism” to be launched in 1968 required the differentiation of the tools of a cultural policy that until then only knew of support and banning and the increased flexibility of allocating financial support, so they inserted the category of “tolerable” or “permissible” works between the supported and banned ones concerning public showing. Then on May 4, 1967 the ministry ordered the Lectorate of Fine and Applied Arts to insert in the schedule of exhibitions “self-paid” and “semi-self-paid” showings, and instructed the Kunsthalle to stage them in the Fényes Adolf gallery. The cost to be paid was 5000 and 2500 HUF, respectively. The first such exhibitions were opened in 1968.

Not many such showings took place. There was no point. From the early sixties nearly all forbidden fruits — works by the classic and new generations of Hungarian avant-garde — were accessible at first in private homes, later in university clubs, culture houses, the Club of Young Artists, from 1963 in the most important venue, the King St Stephen Museum in Székesfehérvár and later in the Janus Pannonius Museum in Pécs.

The paper whose preliminary writing was published in Művészettörténeti Értesítő 2015/2 presents the archival sources of the above process in the appendix.

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Ethnographic research that focused mainly on agrarian groups living at the lower level of society did not really seek or find a handle to approach Jewish culture in the late 19th and early 20th century. At the same time, for its part, the Hungarian Jewry made no effort to deal with its own culture from the viewpoint of ethnography. Although ethnographic and anthropological research has been conducted since then, and important results have been achieved, it cannot be claimed that the subject has been exhausted. That is why the Ethnography Museum’s exhibition Picking up the Pieces: Fragments of Rural Hungarian Jewish Culture was an important, unique and timely opportunity for both experts and audience. The exhibition aimed to conjure up an image of rural Hungarian Jewish life before the Holocaust based the materials in the museum. For the first time, the exhibition presented the Museum’s small but important collection of Judaica, Jewish implements, objects that entered the collection through art dealers and private collectors, not to mention the rich photographic material. In addition, local “case studies” were utilized to grasp the distinctive culture of the everyday life of the Jewish population, their position within the majority society, and the possible paths (mazes) of modernity. Various issues were discussed, not in general but through concrete examples (family histories, specific communities, local characteristics, etc.), and in this spirit, several specific themes were presented, such as weekdays and festive days, various situations, occupations and social strata. In the second part of the study, special mention is made of a few highlighted objects from the exhibition through the eyes of visiting American students.

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This article compares Euripides’s Iphigenia Taurica with Goethe’s Iphigenie auf Tauris, and investigates how the theme of love between siblings is related to the religious issue in both tragedies. I firstly analyze how, in the Euripidean tragedy, the value of familial love can connect the two worlds of gods and humans, thanks to the parallel between the human (Iphigenia and Orestes) and the divine couple of siblings (Artemis and Apollo). By sharing this human value, the gods demonstrate that they can be different from the immoral deities depicted in myth, and correspond to Iphigenia’s ethically purified image of them. However, the Euripidean plot included at least three elements which an Eighteenth-century intellectual could not accept (paragraph three): the obscurity of the divine messages; the centrality of theft and cunning; the inability of men to solve the tragic predicament autonomously. The value of family affection is momentous for the removal of those elements (paragraph four): in the Goethean play, the Gods demonstrate that they share it not by directly intervening, but by providing the human sister with the powers of the divine sister: therefore, Iphigenia can heal her brother, and the statue of Artemis need not to be stolen. Iphigenia proves that the gods speak to the human heart, and in this way the problem of communication with the supernatural sphere is solved.

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The period between the beginning of the 4th century and the middle of the 5th century AD is the peak of glass production in Pannonia: there is a significant amount of very colourful and diverse glass finds, and there are whole series of vessels. This study is based on the typological classification of about 1000 glass finds. From the second half of the 4th century AD two regions can be highlighted with regard to the geographical distribution of glass vessels. The stretch of the limes between Arrabona and Intercisa, within the area of which the Danube Bend was the most remarkable one, as more than half of the vessels (53%) were found in this region. The other zone was the city of Sopianae and its vicinity, where 20% of the studied glass finds were found.

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The article is about the work of Joseph Hatzinger, son of builder Paul (Pál) Hatzinger from Székesfehérvár (Hungary), and Joseph’s sons Heinrich and Paul. Joseph worked in Osijek and in Slavonia in the second half of the eighteenth century. In the early nineteenth century, his older son Heinrich spent almost a decade as a professor at the Genie-Akademie (Military Academy of Engineering) in Vienna and designed two important Early Neoclassical churches at Terezin and Josefov fortresses in Bohemia. His younger son Paul, after a brief period as a lecturer at the Genie-Akademie, worked as an engineer in various parts of the Habsburg Monarchy during the first half of the nineteenth century, from Galicia, across Dalmatia, to Vienna and Lower Austria in the final phase of his career. Finally, his great-great-grandson Gusztáv Kasper, the grandson of Paul Hatzinger Jr, became a Hungarian railway engineer at the turn of the twentieth century.

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After drawing a brief history of audiovisual translation (AVT), the paper gives a definition of empirical research and it analyzes when, how and why empirical research started to develop and grow systematically in this field of research. The paper also emphasizes the role of empirical research as a tool enabling us to know more about the actual effectiveness of AVT on its audiences as well as to develop awareness of the audience preferences and viewing habits. Consequently, it functions as an important purveyor of knowledge providing a solid basis for shaping quality and tailor made products suiting diverse types of end-users — be them standard or vulnerable users.

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The conflict between the pagans and the Christian authorities of the Eastern Roman Empire has given birth to numerous polemical discussions among modern commentators, which is due to the fact that our sources on the subject were often biased. The closing of the Neo-Platonic Academy in Athens in 529 has nevertheless been cited as the end of pagan philosophy, even though its last leader, Damascius, would continue his philosophical activity around the Persian border. My paper deals with the persistent reception of one subject that was at odds with the Christian dogma, the cosmogony.

Damascius is also known for his De principiis, a lengthy treaty about the One and the Ineffable that precedes it. Although the work itself is first and foremost an answer to previous Neoplatonists, it is also an extremely valuable source for other lost Pre-Socratic cosmogonies, namely the Orphic ones, which are interpreted alongside other non-Greek creation myths in the final pages of the treatise.

On the other hand, John Lydus provides an intriguing adaptation of such creation myths in De magistratibus reipublicae Romanae, where he combines Platonic and Aristotelian ideas in order to build an explanatory model for the contemporary decline in offices of state. His choice of sources shows, however, that he was likely a pagan himself and that he had professed the official religion in order to avoid persecution. Thus, he bases his argumentation on a pagan cosmogony as a form of resistance against recent changes in Byzantine bureaucracy.

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In Hungary, the professional coordinator of the execution of the 2003 UNESCO convention about the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage is the Skanzen Hungarian Open Air Museum, celebrating its 50th birthday this year. During its existence, the institution has formed an extensive community and professional network and has become a knowledge center concerning the protection of cultural heritage. The establishment of the Directorate of Intangible Cultural Heritage at the Museum is closely connected to the topic, as it constructed its own national networks based on this background. With respect to the philosophy of the Skanzen, together with the sponsoring cultural ministry, the Directorate created a heritage protection mechanism that focuses on communities retaining and maintaining their identity as a cultural practice, actively engaging them in the unfolding and registration of their intangible cultural heritage. At the same time, it pays attention to continuous communication and options for exchanging experiences. The Hungarian model, which is internationally acknowledged, is exactly ten years old, since Hungary joined the convention in 2006.

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Investigating oral history

Interview with Professor Jan Vansina

Author: Szilárd Biernaczky

This interview with Professor Jan Vansina, conducted in the mid-1980s by Szilárd Biernaczky, is the result of extensive correspondence between the two. After a brief introduction to the achievements of the distinguished and pioneering scholar of African history, the interview addresses the following issues: 1. the current status of oral history research; 2. new theories in the field of oral history research; 3. ethno-history versus oral history; 4. ethnography, ethnology, European peasantry, and oral history; 5. the mythical dimension of the “beginning” and its inherent historical models (“outbound” segments, migration, new conquest, first ancestors, etc.); 6. oral history as a source of nationalist movements in Africa; 7. the appreciation of oral history (and its research) and African cultural movements.

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Authors: Elisa Perego, Monika Laskowska, Anna Matamala, Aline Remael, Isabelle S. Robert, Agnieszka Szarkowska, Anna Vilaró and Sara Bottiroli

Recent research on the reception of interlingual subtitling revealed that it is cognitively effective: watching a subtitled film results in a good understanding of the film content, it does not require a significant tradeoff between image processing and text processing, and it leads to a good performance in the recognition of the words and expressions contained in the subtitles. To date, the studies that revealed the effectiveness of subtitle processing have been conducted mono-nationally — e.g. d’Ydewalle and De Bruycker (2007) in Belgium; Wissmath et al. (2009) in Switzerland; Perego et al. (2010, 2015) in Italy; Hinkin et al. (2014) in the US. However, it has not yet been demonstrated empirically whether subtitle effectiveness varies depending on the familiarity of viewers with subtitles. The cross-national study described in this paper aims to fill this gap and appraise the cognitive performance and overall appreciation of a moderately complex subtitled film by viewers with different degrees of familiarity with subtitles, i.e., viewers living in countries (Italy, Spain, Poland and Dutch-speaking Belgium) with different audiovisual translation traditions. The main findings reveal that subtitling is effective irrespective of users’ familiarity with it, although it is not enjoyed equally among the tested populations.

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The study offers the slim beakers with curving body, slim beakers with curving wall and a base ring, slim, cylindrical beakers and slim, cylindrical beakers with a base ring. These all can be related to one workshop on the grounds of their same qualities, colours, measures, decorations, rims, and their chronological and geographical spread. The workshop may have operated at the end of the 3rd century AD, rather in the first half of the 4th century AD.

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Authors: Eszter Fejér and Béla Miklós Szőke
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Authors: Levente Takács, László Horváth, Ibolya Tar, Gyula Mayer and Zsolt Adorjáni
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During their tragically short artistic careers Sándor Galimberti (1883–1915) and his wife Valéria Dénes (1877–1915) roused the interest of the critics three times. After a stay in Paris for several years, they staged their first exhibition of their collected works in Budapest in January 1914, which elicited vivid, mostly appreciative reviews. The critics claimed they were representing the most up-to-date Paris trends in Hungary. Hardly a year later, several obituaries made their careers and artistic works known after their tragic death. In 1918 the group of activists organized by Lajos Kassák presented the work of the couple acknowledged as their forerunners in the exhibiting room of MA, which also drew wide and positive press coverage.

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Pour Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (ca. 106/724 – 142/759) l’acte d’écrire dépasse le souci de considérer l’écriture comme un acte, à celui d’un homme engagé pour qui « l’écriture devient comme une signature, une institution qui découvre son passé et ses choix, lui donne une histoire, affiche sa situation et l’engage sans qu’il ait à le dire. Ce qui peut évidemment nous renvoyer à la position d’al-adīb. Privé du pouvoir politique et de la force matérielle, il use du seul pouvoir dont il dispose : le pouvoir du langage verbal écrit. Craignant la déviation du lecteur de la visée de l’écrivain Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ a pris le soin de tracer un processus de lecture régit par des règles visant à orienter l’acte de lecture, se qui a mené à l’élaboration d’une théorie de la lecture fondée sur la conscience précoce de différents genres de lectures, de différents types de lecteurs possibles et de différentes formes d’interprétation du texte écrit; le tout nourrit par le souci de préserver le sens de l’écriture et d’assurer la pérennité de l’oeuvre écrite à travers le temps. Le résultat est la production d’un texte (Kalila wa Dimna) doté d’un double pouvoir au moyen duquel l’écriture a réussi à préserver et à conserver le sens que représente son aspect apparent, comme il peut produire un sens nouveau.

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Recent research on L2 acquisition has been stressing the potential of audiovisual translation as a tool for boosting foreign language competence. Whereas most studies have concentrated on subtitled input, less attention has been devoted to dubbing, which is nevertheless the main audiovisual translation modality in several countries. Being the outcome of a translation process, dubbed dialogue is subject to translation universals, including simplification, explicitation and standardisation. These strategies may contribute to the greater accessibility of dubbed vis-à-vis original, non-translated products to non-native viewers. With a view to exploring the role of dubbing in ultimately fostering second language acquisition, an empirical study on the comprehension of different types of audiovisual input by learner-viewers was designed. The study moves from the assumption that input comprehension is a necessary prerequisite for acquisition proper and compares the degree of comprehension of dubbed vs. non-translated film scenes among intermediate-level learners of L2 Italian. Quantitatively and qualitatively comparable film scenes were selected and dialogue comprehension was assessed through closed and timed questions administered after exposure to each scene. Findings show that dubbed audiovisual input results in better comprehension than non-translated film dialogue independently of viewers’ L1 and audiovisual texts’ individual features. The study thus paves the way for further research on the acquisitional impact of dubbed dialogue, especially among learners at lower proficiency levels.

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Le droit coutumier de la Noble Nation Sicule de Transylvanie et la doctrine de la sainte Couronne

Deux aspects d’un sens du partage du pouvoir proto-democratique dans la Hongrie Medievale

Author: Nathalie Kalnoky

Avec la couronne de Saint Etienne et l’universitas des sicules, l’histoire de la Hongrie révèle deux types d’organisation du pouvoir qui, tout en appartenant à la civilisation féodales au sens large, offrent des particularités concurrentes en ce qui concerne la détention du pouvoir et les relations entre les différents échelons de la hiérarchie. Le règne du roi Matthias, en particulier, met en lumière le rôle des spécificités sicules dans la conduite des réformes royales, peu avant la systématisation opérée dans le Tripartitum au début du XVIe siècle.

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Authors: Szabina Reich, Mihály Kulcsár, József Lángi, György Bartos and Pál Lővei

Archaeological excavations in 2014–2016 carried on outside the western front and in the western towers of St Stephen’s cathedral of Székesfehérvár built in the 18th century in baroque style using the remains of the mediaeval parish church as well as wall research related to the restoration of the western facade of the church have brought to light several important finds for art history. They include mediaeval tombstones, tomb lid fragments and under the floor of the northern tower details of the base strip of a gothic wall painting. The most important find is a tomb lid surviving in its entirety but crushed to pieces by the weight of the collapsing vault. The unfinished — uninscribed — stone slab placed over the grave was carved of red marble around 1415–1420, but the coat of arms represented on it cannot be associated with any person or family so far. It appears to be connected to the beginnings of the Buda workshop — and this connection particularly enhances its value — whose sculptor-entrepreneur owner was nicknamed by research, out of necessity, the Master of the Stibor tombs.

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Les relations complexes entre le roi, le territoire et les artéfacts du pouvoir (par exemple la couronne) n’étaient pas, au Moyen âge, l’exclusivité de la Hongrie, mais la doctrine de la couronne de Saint Etienne s’est peu à peu développée en symbiose avec des aspects religieux et identitaires qui expliquent l’apparition, au XVIe siècle, d’une doctrine juridique et métaphysique “clef en main” prête à soutenir le pouvoir royal aux temps modernes, au prix d’une interprétation paradoxale du découplage entre la personne du roi et la dignité (souveraineté) royale.

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Elsősorban római feliratokon találkozhatunk azzal a jelenséggel, hogy az idem névmás hímnem nominativusban tűnik fel olyan helyeken, ahol másik nem, más eset (általában dativus) vagy adverbium lenne indokolt. A feliratgyűjtemények az idem alakokat általában adverbiumként értelmezik, és itemre javítják. E. H. Sturtevant viszont azt állítja, hogy míg Ostiában az idem alakok az item adverbium helyi, dialektális változatai, ugyanezeket az alakokat Rómában tudatosan használt nominativusnak kell tekintenünk. A tanulmány Sturtevant elméletének kritikai vizsgálatával az idem névmás megkövesedésének és az item adverbiummal való esetleges összeolvadásának kérdésével foglalkozik.

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Authors: Małgorzata Kaczanowska, Janusz K. Kozłowski and Michał Wasilewski

The general inventory of the chipped stone artefacts coming from the LBK features at Apc indicates that a specific, small scale, local lithic production was conducted on-site. Majority of used raw materials are limnoquartzites (nearly 70%) originating mainly from the Mátra and Cserhát Mountains. The use of rather poor quality local raw materials influenced the technique of working raw materials, which was employed throughout the period of the functioning of LBK settlements at Apc. As a consequence, most tools were made on flakes. At the same time, as early as the oldest phase a limited supply of blade blanks and blade tools, produced elsewhere, was used. The ground stone artefacts and fragments included lower and upper grinding stones, plaquettes with polished surfaces, hammerstones, grinders/pounders. The raw materials used in the ground stone industry are either local (quartz, conglomerate, sandstone) or mesolocal (gabbro, basalt) coming from river alluvia or from the hills at the Hungarian—Slovakian border. Andesites, probably from the Mátra Mountains, occur in small quantities. Thus, the raw materials exploited at Apc demonstrate contacts with eastern region, however the site is the easternmost LBK settlement.

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In Hinblick auf den von Viktor Orbán im Jahr 2001 neu, oder vielmehr: wieder eingeführten Staatspreis, die sogenannte Ungarische Corvin Kette (Magyar Corvin Lánc), beschäftigt sich der Artikel mit den Anfängen des modernen staatlichen Auszeichnungssystems in Ungarn, die im Ungarn der Zwischenkriegszeit zu verorten sind. Konkret wird auf die Entstehungs-und Vergabegeschichte der ursprünglich von Miklós Horthy gegründeten Staatspreise, namentlich der Ungarischen Corvin Kette sowie des Ungarischen Corvin Kranzes (Magyar Corvin Koszorú), eingegangen, wobei zur Einschränkung, aber insbesondere zur Exemplifizierung der hinter der Vergabe stehenden kulturpolitischen Strategien der Fokus der Betrachtungen auf den mit den Corvin-Preisen ausgezeichneten Literaten liegt. Damit soll der Anstoß zu einer kritischen Auseinandersetzung mit der 2001 wiedereingeführten Ungarischen Corvin Kette und deren Vergabepraktiken gegeben werden.

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In the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy financial affairs remained the sovereign right of the Hungarian Kingdom. In the decades after the Compromise (1867) the finance ministry functioned at several separate venues in Buda Castle. Without calling a plan competition, finance minister László Lukács commissioned architect Sándor Fellner (1857-1944) to design a building complex that would house the entire ministry, and 4 million crowns were earmarked in article XXXIV of 1900 for the construction. The sketches submitted by Fellner, who started his studies in the forerunner of the Budapest Technical University and completed them in Vienna and Paris, were approved on the very last day of the 19th century. In terms of function, the design adopted the cell model, providing each official a room of his own. The rooms were separated and only accessible from lateral corridors. The most attractive appearance was given to the wing with the main staircase and state-room in Szentháromság square. The pair of towers flanking the projecting central section were crowned by roofs adopting the outline of the gothic tower cap of Maria am Gestade in Vienna. The brass knights on the pinnacles also reminded of the Rathausmann of the imperial city. The first section of the lateral wing in Hess András square contained the minister’s suite of rooms, the wing across from it in Országház street included the secretary of state’s offices and representative rooms. The ceremony of laying the foundation stone was held in spring 1901 and the capping celebration was on 19 September 1902, the centenary of Lajos Kossuth’s birth. (Female day-wage labourers got 2 crowns bonus, the chief master builder received 1500 crowns.) The palace, which caused controversy among contemporaries as well (Wasn’t it in conflict on account of its volume and forms with the architecture of the Matthias Church, the church of coronations, renovated by Frigyes Schulek?) could be occupied in late 1904. In terms of innovation and engineering, the archival wing was outstanding, a witness of early Hungarian concrete iron constructions documented by sources. Built with great craftsmanship and abounding in splendid details – equipped lavishly with materials and products from all over historical Hungary – the palace, which represented its status well, was badly damaged in the siege of Buda in 1944/45 (Festung Budapest). The architect, whose active career of sixty years was acknowledged by his admission to the Incorporated Architects & Surveyors (London) in 1937, did not live to see the crumbling of the walls. The monument he had designed in the Jewish cemetery in Kozma street only features his wife’s name who died young (1907). The new looks of his building resulted from the reconstruction led by Jenő Rados (1947-1950). A contemporary critic with the fresh outlook of the new era declared that the resulting simplified form, particularly of the main façade, turned the former Finance Ministry into a truly monumental building.

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Manetto di Jacopo Amannatini, the Fat Woodcarver

Architecture and migration in early Renaissance Florence

Author: Katalin Prajda

The Story of the Fat Woodcarver, written by Antonio di Tuccio Manetti, probably recalls a popular anecdote about a Florentine artisan who was humiliated by his friend, Filippo di ser Brunellesco. The joke played by the architect has been at the forefront of scholarly interest, while the main protagonist has so far received limited attention. This article aims to reconstruct the life of Manetto di Jacopo Amannatini, that is, the Fat Woodcarver, in the context of his social relationships with the other figures in the story. It argues that Manetti’s account is grounded in concrete historical facts and therefore provides us with a unique picture of the intersections that existed between artisan and merchant networks in and beyond early Renaissance Florence. Manetto’s character may well symbolize those itinerant craftsmen who, by acknowledging their position in their own communities, and thanks to their skills and their courage to migrate to remote places, like the Kingdom of Hungary, managed to improve their social status significantly.

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In a study published in Archaeologiai Értesítő 139 (2014), Tibor Kemenczei reviewed the research history of various prehistoric finds in the collection of the Hungarian National Museum. Based on his meticulous examination of the museum records, he clarified the problem of how the La Tène sword from Hatvan-Boldog was “doubled”. As it turned out, the sword did not perish during World War II, but was taken to Nyíregyháza as part of a loan, where it was later inventoried as an artefact originating from Gáva-Katóhalom. This discussion article addresses the relevant problems based on the records from the 1970s, which offer some instructive conclusions from a museological perspective (documentation of loaned items, re-inventorying, etc.). One significant information for international scholarship is that the sword from Hatvan-Boldog does not have a “twin” in Nyíregyháza. The final section of the study corrects the dating of the sword and touches upon the issue of the type’s designation.

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Middle comedy: Not only mythology and food

The political and contemporary dimension

Author: Mastellari Virginia

The disappearance of the political and contemporary dimension in the production after Aristophanes is a false belief that has been shared for a long time, together with the assumption that Middle Comedy – the transitional period between archaia and nea – was only about mythological burlesque and food. The misleading idea has surely risen because of the main source of the comic fragments: Athenaeus, The Learned Banqueters. However, the contemporary and political aspect emerges again in the 4th c. BC in the creations of a small group of dramatists, among whom Timocles, Mnesimachus and Heniochus stand out (significantly, most of them are concentrated in the time of the Macedonian expansion). Firstly Timocles, in whose fragments the personal mockery, the onomasti komodein, is still present and sharp, often against contemporary political leaders (cf. frr. 17, 19, 27 K.–A.). Then, Mnesimachus (Φίλιππος, frr. 7–10 K.–A.) and Heniochus (fr. 5 K.–A.), who show an anti- and a pro-Macedonian attitude, respectively. The present paper analyses the use of the political and contemporary element in Middle Comedy and the main differences between the poets named and Aristophanes, trying to sketch the evolution of the genre, the points of contact and the new tendencies.

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This paper focuses on Kalbak-Tash Inscriptions Nos XX, XXI and XXII which belong to the group of the Mountainous Altai Inscriptions. It provides an analysis of the problematic issues of these three inscriptions having emerged in previous studies, as well as to some new reading proposals for some parts of the inscriptions. The words kara and égil in Inscription No. XXI are interpreted as “commoner, an ordinary person”; and the word igen “deer” (< Old Turkic ingen “she-camel”) in Inscriptions No. XX and No. XXI is explained with the correspondence of Old Turkic teve “camel” = Yakut taba “reindeer”. In addition, the study lays emphasis on the fact that the antepenultimate sign of Inscription No. XXII could be s 1, and the word asŋar- which includes this sign could be interpreted as “(he) stopped (work) on the affair and sat down”. Another proposal which is put forward for Inscription No. XXII is that the signs g 2 t 2 r 2 are explained as éget er “servant, retainer”.