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The study describes the household items and furnishings of the court through the pottery and glass finds recovered from the cesspit of the royal palace at Visegrád, alongside an examination of the assemblage’s composition and its place of origin. A comparison of the mid-14th and late 15th century finds sheds light on the changes that took place during this period.

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An welchem Ort huldigt man dem neugeborenen Christus?

Leonardos Anbetung von San Donato in Scopeto unter dem zeichen des produktiven widerspruchs zwischen christlicher tradition und antikenrezeption

Author: Sabine Frommel

Leonardo’s Adoration of the Magi’s (Galleria degli Uffizi) belongs to an iconographic and semantic tradition, which beneficed of an extraordinary evolution during the second half of the fifteenth century. In such representations the poor wooden construction described by the Bible is combined with the ruins of splendid classical buildings and mean the beginning of Christianity on one hand and the submitted pagan era on the other. A comparison of the two drawings of Leonardo, held in the Louvre and the Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe of the Uffizi, and the unfinished painting reveals the various steps of the development of the architectural background. Recent ultraviolet studies identified different solutions, conceived and then abandoned by Leonardo, which allow to reconstruct the ruins and architectural fragments in a more detailed manner. In the first version, the Holy family is placed before a heterogeneous structure of wood and stone, while an antique ruin with two flights of stairs raises on the right side. The drawing of the Uffizi focuses its attention on this ruin now shifted to the left side, while the stairs advance strongly toward the centre. On the right side a fragment of a classical order completes the feature, which evokes an antique forum. In the painting the Holy family is situated is the foreground, without any wooden construction to protect them, and the ruin, whose structure and position is slightly changed, is linked to it by the moving of figures and animals. Like in the drawing of the Uffizi many busy craftsmen reveal that the ruin is intended as a building site.

The parallel flights remind us of the church of San Sebastiano in Mantua, built according to Leon Battista Alberti’s project, and seems to have been inspired by the Roman temple of Claudius. In Lorenzo de’ Medici’s villa of Poggio a Caiano, begun in 1485, such a pattern had been adopted for the first time in a private building, introducing a complete metamorphosis of this type. Vasari records that several architects proposed drawings for this villa and if such a competition had taken place before Leonardo left Florence in 1482, the latter could have seen sketches or models, like those of Giuliano da Sangallo, and perhaps even proposed his own project. This could explain his interest for architectural features in his Adoration, a concern less present in his other paintings. No document confirms the hypothesis of a direct link between Lorenzo’s villa and the ruin of the Adoration, but it is sure that the latter one is nearly connected to the entourage of Lorenzo de’ Medici who promoted in this years a renewal of architectural typologies and idioms, founded on the principles of Leon Battista Alberti, the spiritus rector of Lorenzo’s youth.

When Perugino finished in 1496 another Adoration for the Augustans of San Scopeto he privileged the poor stable conformingly to the biblical tradition, perhaps as required by the monks. Leonardo’s ruin as building-site, as an original metaphor of the new Christian religion, had only little Nachleben. A significant testimony is however an Adoration about 1522/1523 attributed to Sebastiano Serlio, who could have known Leonardo’s bold architectural background through his master Baldassarre Peruzzi.

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The aim of this study is to investigate the transition between Hunnic and Gepidic period on the basis of female burials in the Middle Danube Region. The analysis of burial practices, female dress accessories and artificial skull deformation prove that there was a continuous cultural transformation during the 5th century, not a radical change. The power structure changed in the middle of the century but it didn’t cause the disappearance of the phenomena which formed from the beginning of the century. The new female representation that emerged after the end of Roman rule in the Carpathian basin can be widely observed from a geographical as well as from a social point of view. The early graves of the Gepidic cemeteries (Reihengräberfelder) fit perfectly in the general archaeological features of the 5th century.

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Баллада «Уэльские барды» Я. Араня и ее русский перевод Л. Мартынова

К двухсотлетию со дня рождения классика венгерской поэзии Яноша Араня

Author: Михай Петер

After the suppression of the Hungarian freedom fight in 1849 and the following period of repression, the preeminent poet János Arany was asked to praise the Austrian emperor on the occasion of his visit to Hungary. Arany rejected the request and wrote instead the allegorical ballad The Bards of Wales relating to 500 Welsh bards burned at the stake by order of the English king Edward I as they refused to praise the bloody conqueror of their country. Martynov’s translation successfully renders the idea of the poem and also its high poetic values: conciseness and dramatic dynamism of rhythm supported by inner rhyming.

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Constructions with depictive attributes representing a special kind of secondary predication have been the object of recent discussions within the formal and constructional frameworks. One of the key issues in understanding this phenomenon and the variants of its realization in various languages is the identification of its prototypical model. The present paper shows that in Bulgarian, the core construction with the subject-oriented depictive secondary predicate contains the verb of controlled action as the main predicate and a non-finite form of the verb of uncontrolled action. In this way, the search of the prototypical model is related to the feature “controllability/uncontrollability of action” discerned in the semantics of both main and secondary predication. Based on the suggested parameter, the other variety of the construction in question, the one with the object-oriented depictive secondary predicate, has a different organization not only in the syntactic but also in the semantic aspect. It is demonstrated that different semantic varieties of constructions with the depictive secondary predicate have different translations in Russian.

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One of the topical problems of modern grammar is the qualification of doublesyntactic connection. Its nature conforms to none of the features of syntactic connection on the axis of closeness /openness. The problem of the particularity of this syntactic phenomenon appeared in the early twentieth century but it is still not resolved. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the conditions for the birth of the idea of double-syntactic connection and to review the evolution of this phenomenon in Ukrainian and Russian scholarly works. As the analysis demonstrates, the double-syntactic connection does not determine a single phenomenon but it includes a set of phenomena. It is a type that combines different varieties of syntactic connection according to their common features, such as three-member-construction and the complex realization of the syntactic connection. Various linguists have interpreted the patterns of the establishment of that phenomenon and the forms of its realization in different ways. The prospective of our study is to define grammatical markers of the double-syntactic connection and to describe the structure of the constructions in which it appears.

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The presented Dictionary of Collocations is the first of its kind in Slovakia. It covers collocational profiles with nouns and is based on a lexical database of collocations in the Slovak language. The Slovak National Corpus of the Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics at the Slovak Academy of Sciences was used to conduct the research. The database covers collocational profiles of several hundred words of different parts of speech (nouns in the first phase of the project). The Dictionary is aimed at the registration and description of not only multiword lexemes, but also at the registration of the so-called typical collocations having a wide collocability. They are differentiated by frequency, and their number is limited in that way. An innovative approach has been applied for sorting out collocations in the Dictionary. The combinatory of flexional potentials of these elements are the basis for the creation of the so-called collocational templates which serve as the basis for the patterns of collocations.

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The aim of this paper is to present László Dezső’s achievements in the field of Ukrainian linguistics and historical dialectology as well as to show the importance of his research in the development of Ukrainian studies.

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Gogol’s art (first of all, his works Dead Souls and Selected Passages from the Correspondence with the Friends) is considered in the aspect of the problem of a “philosophy of an economy” formulated by S. Bulgakov. Gogol’s views also are correlated with its development in the art of I. Goncharov (Oblomov) and L. Tolstoy (first of all, his late works).

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This paper presents examples of special-purpose banking language items which illustrate word formation processes in present-day Russian used in the sphere of banking in order to compress meaning, i.e. univerbation as well as abbreviation. As a rule, these particular phenomena are considered one of the manifestations of the principle of linguistic economy. The orientation towards linguistic economy provides a stimulus for multiplying the number of new lexical items in banking language, which can be related to technical terms and professional slang. The productivity of word formation processes used in order to compress meaning can also be linked to the needs of adjusting written and oral communication to the world standards in the sphere of Russian banking.

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This paper focuses on Vasily Shukshin’s “working records” dated from 1966. It is established that a lot of contexts and names are important for the interpretation of these records: from the antique myths to Russian literature. In the paper, it is proved that the motive of the waterway of a ship appears in Shukshin’s texts as the concentrated symbol of spiritual aspirations, warm rushes, as the allegory of movement towards the aim and the overcoming of obstacles. At the same time, it is also a symbol of moral ascension, which is shown by the reflections about intelligence as the aim of the artist. The conclusion drawn is that the poetics of Vasily Shukshin’s texts represents a very open and dialogical structure with wide referential installations.

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The paper studies the presentation of Belarusian and Ukrainian biblical similes in dictionaries as well as their use by native speakers. Some of the examples are supplied with etymological commentaries.

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This paper deals with the comparative analysis of Slavic similes that characterize sound sleep as a part of the linguistic image of the Slavic world. Through the analysis of the figurative structure of similes, the authors demonstrate a great variety of models describing sound sleep in Slavic similes as well as the distinctive and similar ways of expressing the main meanings of similes in different languages. They also demonstrate the semantic differentiation of similes created by the model used in the comparison. Finally, the authors describe several national or cultural specific features of similes in various Slavic languages.

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Шаткий трон и зыбкое стекло

Семантика прилагательных сквозь призму поэзии

Author: Олег Федосов

This paper is devoted to the corpus-based study of Russian adjectives шаткий ‘wobbly, unstable, shaky’ and зыбкий ‘unsteady, shaky’ in the context of Russian poetry. The comprehensive research shows that the similarity of these lexemes has only surface features. The symmetry of the two adjectives is discussed: they are synonymous practically in all the meanings they have but this semantic area has a lot of differences. The following differences are revealed: the adjective шаткий is used in its direct meaning more frequently than зыбкий, while the adjective зыбкий is used more frequently in metaphoric contexts. It is necessary to study how the hidden component of the meaning takes place in the “naive mind”.

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Kálmán’s 1928 operetta Die Herzogin von Chicago reemerged in the 1990s after decades of oblivion. Productions of this work can reveal much about topics such as the relationship of Central Europe and America and attitudes toward outsider groups, both in the 1920s and in more recent times. This study of the 2004 production at the Vienna Volksoper uses interviews to explore the work’s political and social meanings for Austrian audiences. It also examines the changes made in this production, which was adapted from the original by Stefan Frey and Dominik Wilgenbus, examines the question of what is “true operetta style,” and considers recent operetta reception in Vienna, with attention to the very different responses of the audience and the critics.

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Author: Zsolt Adorjáni
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One of the significant problems with Old Turkic inscriptions is that it is not known by which peoples’ or tribe’s Turkic language the inscriptions were written in. Although among the clans and persons who wrote and erected the large inscriptions of the Turkic and Uyghur Khanates, those of Köl Tegin, Bilge Kaghan, Şine Usu, Tariat, Tes and Karabalghasun I were identified, the peoples or clans having erected the other inscriptions are mostly unknown. The most serious problem encountered by researchers in consideration of the tribal seals present in the inscriptions is the uncertainty whether the seal belonged to the tribe that wrote or erected the inscription, or the tribe that was in power at that time.

This paper investigates the inscriptions of the Uyghur Khanate. Our scrutiny is based on the examination of the peculiarities of the Uyghur Khanate inscriptions which cannot be observed in any other inscriptions of Mongolia, Yenisei, Altai and Kyrgyzstan. By substituting these peculiar words with other words to be found in other inscriptions, an attempt has been made to prove that these words are Uyghur dialectal words. After an inquiry whether the words were used subsequent to the runic period, etymological suggestions concerning the words have also been put forward.

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Der Artikel befasst sich mit der Rolle der Buddhisten in der frühindischen Gesellschaft. Das monolithische Bild eines buddhistischen Zeitalters erfuhr in den letzten Jahrzehnten eine starke Änderung, wobei die sozioökonomischen Prozesse, statt eines großen Sprunges, eher als ein zeitlich und räumlich länger andauernder Entwicklungsprozess beschrieben wurden. Zu dieser Änderung beigetragen haben unter anderem die philologische Forschung, die neuere Datierungsergebnisse der Stadtentwicklung aufgrund der archäologischen Funde in den letzten Jahrzehnten, sowie die ertragreiche und immer noch offene Debatte über die Buddha-Datierung und nicht zuletzt die Ansicht, dass das Zeitalter des historischen Buddha im Vergleich zur traditionellen Auffassung etwas später anzusetzen sei. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, eine neue Lesart des sogenannten buddhistischen Zeitalters wahrnehmbar zu machen.

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In this paper, a new approach of interpreting Egyptian Dramatic Ramesseumpapyrus 45, Scene 12, is undertaken. In the concrete case a new explanation for ś in is put forward. The old view of K. Sethe, who translates the whole passage as ‘to kill goose’ or ś alone with ‘to strangulate goose’, is questioned. The new proposal tries to prove that ś can be a defective writing for ś ṯt ‘pluck’ or ṯśi ‘bind’, respectively. The exchange between ś and dentals may have played a vital role.
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In the search for reasons, why Weinberg’s opera Passažirka op. 97 never made it into public despite the praise it received after various hearings, one reason can be found in the way the opera deals with remembrance, especially in the context of the Holocaust. Whereas remembrance provides a mental shelter to those in need, others are denied to take refuge in memories or are even forced to confront brutal truths. Not only the libretto but also the music deals with the act of remembrance in a way, that made the opera a daring composition in the time of its origin.

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This paper will investigate the ethnic conditions of the Ptolemaic Fayum. Society under the Ptolemies was multi-ethnic and multicultural, and besides native Egyptians there were primarily Greeks and Jews. One of the main centres of Greek colonization was the Fayum Oasis, and a great deal of the settlers were Greek soldiers. The uniquely rich documentation from the Fayum offers valuable insight into the ethnic structure of the region. The sources reveal the culture, religion and customs of particular peoples and allow to present their political and economic situation in the state and to examine the relationships between them.

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Goldmark was the first of several composers to write a work based on Heinrich von Kleist’s controversial play, Penthesilea. Early critical opinion about the overture was divided. Hanslick found it distasteful, whereas others were thrilled by Goldmark’s powerful treatment of the subject. Composed in 1879, during the 1880s Penthesilea became established in orchestral repertoire throughout Europe and America. The overture represents the conflict of violence and sexual attraction between the Queen of the Amazons and Achilles. Exoticism in the play is achieved by contrasting brutal violence, irrational behaviour and extreme sensual passion. This is recreated musically by drawing on topics established in opera. Of particular note is the use of dissonance and unexpected modulations, together with extreme rhythmic and dynamic contrast. A key feature of the music is the interplay between military rhythms representing violence and conflict, and a legato, rocking theme which suggests desire and sensuality.

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An honour killing that took place in Ottoman Aintab at the end of the 16th century is examined in this paper. As it seems the qadi (kadı) of Aintab did not punish the murderer at all. What underpins the qadi’s decision is the opinion held by shari’a jurists indicating that anyone who commits adultery could be killed and the killer, by doing so, will not be punished for the crime. The issue of killing fornicators has been generally addressed through the fatwas of the Shaykh al-Islam. How the qadis reached a verdict regarding this type of cases has been largely ignored. Thus, the issue has not been made clear completely and there have been certain misinterpretations on this subject. We aim to ascertain how the qadi gave a verdict by looking closely at a particular murder case, which is not frequently encountered in Ottoman qadi records. For that purpose, the opinions of Islamic jurists related to the issue, the fatwas of Ottoman Shaykh al-Islams and Ottoman criminal code have been examined together with the verdict of the qadi of Aintab. It is also studied which juridical opinions the parties referred to in their statements and how those references affected the verdict of the qadi.

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In the Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus, due to the influence of Apollonius Rhodius, Jason, the main character of the epic, has several cloaks. The most important of these is the one Jason receives from Hypsipyle, when he leaves Lemnos. According to an ekphrasis in Book 2, two pictures woven on the cloak represent the rescuing of Thoas, father of Hypsipyle and the abduction of Ganymede. My paper analyses the function of the description of these representations in the Argonautica, besides, it examines the relationship between the two pictures described in the ekphrasis. It is argued that the purpose of Jason donating all his other cloaks (one from Cyzicus, one woven by his mother, and another one also given to him by Hypsipyle) is to emphasize the importance of the cloak he received from Hypsipyle and to remind the reader of her fidelity, in a further part of the epic.

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For people living in London during the 1890s, China and the Chinese were largely mythical constructions. Attitudes towards China, as well as the Chinese themselves, were being imagined at the time through various media, including popular musical theatre. Two shows, both with music by Sidney Jones and produced by George Edwardes at Daly’s Theatre, were significant in this identity construction: The Geisha (1896) and San Toy (1899). Both musicals are set in East Asia and include Chinese and British characters. In The Geisha, which takes place in Japan, the sole Chinese character is Wun-Hi, the owner of a teahouse. He is less than honorable, and his music is in an ethnic-based music hall style, with nearly speech-sung melodies and unashamed Pidgin English. In Jones’s score for San Toy, which is set in China, characters who endorse Western views sing glorious melodic lines reminiscent of Gilbert and Sullivan while those who do not sound like Wun-Hi in The Geisha, with clipped articulations and non-standard English.

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If Bedřich Smetana is thought to be the father of Czech national opera, Antonín Dvořák and Zdeněk Fibich would be his sons. Czech critics as well as the public expected that Smetana’s successors would bring Czech opera to international recognition. Dvořák and Fibich gave increased attention to opera composition during the 1890s and the beginning of the twentieth century. They both crowned their achievements with monumental operas on subjects with historical settings: Fibich’s The Fall of Arkona (1900) and Dvořák‘s Armida (1904). The reason for this apparent coincidence was, in part, that these works were written after Wagner’s operas and before the operatic successes of Richard Strauss, when it was possible to devise free combinations of symphonically composed scenes, arioso-like vocal lines influenced by verismo, and the dramaturgical effects of grand opera. As a praised model for successful historical opera might have served Karl Goldmark’s famous work Die Königin von Saba, especially in the case of Fibich’s last opera, which was explicitly compared with Goldmark’s opera. Operas on historical subjects form a little-known part of the works of Czech composers, but they extend from Smetana’s piece The Brandenburgers in Bohemia through the late operas of Dvořák and Fibich to Janáček’s two-part opera The Excursions of Mr Brouček. It is a line of operas that present an unforgettable counterpart to many successful Czech theatrical compositions – representative operas and intimate tragedies, comic operas and fairy tales, generally written on subjects from Czech villages and mythology, including Smetana’s Bartered Bride and Libuše, Fibich’s The Tempest and Šárka, Dvořák’s Jakobín, Kate and the Devil and Rusalka, Josef Bohuslav Foerster’s Eva, as well as Leoš Janáček’s Jenůfa.

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Karl Goldmark (1830–1915) was undoubtedly one the most influential composers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and through his first opera – The Queen of Sheba – he was also very well-known abroad. This opera, with its very fashionable oriental subject, was first performed in Vienna in 1875 and was one of the greatest successes of the period. After Merlin (1886) and The Cricket on the Hearth (1896), a “song-opera” strongly influenced by the Biedermeier-period, Goldmark wrote three operas over the next ten years. A Prisoner of War (libretto E. Schlicht, premiered in 1899 in Vienna) was based on one episode of the Iliad. In this short opera the composer tried to express the change of Achilles’ soul, but he mostly failed due to a relatively weak and conventional libretto and vague musical style. In the following opera, Götz von Berlichingen (libretto A. M. Willner, premiered 1902) the libretto is also the weakest element of the work and the whole opera reminds one of Meyerbeer ’s operas. The composer found a renewed inspiration during the work on his last opera – The Winter’s Tale (libretto by Alfred Maria Willner after Shakespeare, premiered in 1907 in Vienna). This fairy tale opera is full of interesting musical moments and elements written in Goldmark’s late style and is still attractive for the opera-going public.

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This paper examines the approaches to prostitution within the frame of legal norms and social life in the Ottoman Empire via the case study of a Muslim woman who was adjudged to be a prostitute at a court in 1580. Compared with similar case reports, this case study also demonstrates the struggle of a prostitute for her rights against the unjust and arbitrary practices applied by officers and common people, which allows us to think about gender mainstreaming. One of the results of this paper establishes that there are no special regulations about prostitution in Islamic Law. Although it is viewed as ‘adultery’ in Hanefi Islamic Law, prostitution is understood to be punished with light sentences since most prostitutes were not married. The severe penalties in Islamic Law were designed to prevent married women’s adultery. Upon marriage a woman grants or transfers her right of sexual intercourse to her husband and if she lets another person use that right, it is seen as allowing someone to steal her husband’s property. In the case of unmarried women and prostitutes, the fee taken is counted as a gift or other consideration. The paper attempts to explain why the concept of prostitution did not occur in Islamic Law and why it was regulated in the Ottoman Empire as a part of private life.

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It is evident that The Three Kings march of the Christus oratorio by Liszt is a verbunkos associated with the Eastern identity of Hungarians. What message did Liszt, who used musical motifs very consciously, wish to convey to the people of his time? I will approach the question not from a musicological aspect, but in the form of a cultural-studies type research. On the basis of the studies of Jácint Rónay and János Erdélyi dealing with national characterology, I wish to highlight how the Hungarian national identity and the myth of Eastern origin were related. I shall also examine in my paper paintings that bear close connection with the piece in question. Among these, Adoration of the Magi by Stephan Lochner is of vital importance, as according to the biographer of Liszt, Lina Ramann, it was the inspirational source of the movement in question of the Christus oratorio. The study attempts to find an answer to the relationship between the Lochner painting and The Three Kings march as well; and we shall see that it is also related to the question of the Eastern identity of the Hungarians.

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The study examines one of the shield-descriptions of Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica. Its main aim is to demonstrate that Valeris Flaccus altered Canthus’ story in accordance with his literary purposes. The poet depicts the shield of Canthus in the catalogue of the Argonauts mentioning that the hero had inherited this famous shield from his father, Abas, albeit according to the mythology he is not known to have any shield. The paper displays how many other Abases there were in Greek mythology and in Roman literature having a shield and it is argued that Valerius Flaccus was influenced by the coincidence of names and transformed the original story of Canthus (which can be read in Apollonius Rhodius) in order to imitate his literary models: Vergil, Ovid and the Iliad. Furthermore, the author rewrites the story of Canthus so that the Argonaut can be paralleled with Patroclus. Consequently, Canthus must be an important person of the epic which is highlighted by Valerius Flaccus in several ways and his shield has to have a literary function.

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Archaeological remains yield remarkable information concerning the Nabataeans’ timing system; excavations and surveys revealed water clocks, sundials and ground shadow clocks in Nabataean sites, namely Petra and Hegra. Besides, certain Nabataean inscriptions expose a good deal of evidence regarding the Nabataean timing terminology: ywm ‘day’; šnt ‘year’; yrḥ ‘month’; š c h ‘hour’; šb c ‘week’, lyly’ ‘night’ and zmn ‘time’ are the most frequently used terms found in the different Nabataean texts. Moreover, the excavations uncovered some archaeological evidence concerning the Nabataean annual calendar. The study adopts a comparative historical and linguistic perspective in investigating the different aspects of time measurement in Nabataean civilisation.

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Mihály Nádor’s and Jenő Faragó’s three-act operetta entitled Offenbach was one of the biggest theater successes in Budapest in the period following World War I. The piece, whose first performance took place at the Király Theater in 1920, was also premiered in Vienna, Prague, Munich and in different adaptations in Berlin and New York. It represents a popular type of operetta of the era, whose main protagonists are nineteenth-century composers, and whose music was partly or entirely compiled of melodies taken from the musicians in question. In my study, I examine the extant musical and textual sources of the piece partly belonging to the composer’s estate preserved at the Music Department of the Széchényi National Library. I interpret Nádor’s work as a document of the Budapest Offenbach reception, and I reveal some intriguing differences between the Budapest and Vienna versions of the piece. I also demonstrate that the operetta was in all likelihood an imitation of Henrich Berté’s similar piece, Das Dreimäderlhaus, which was performed in every Budapest operetta theater between 1916 and 1924. At the same time, however, a successful new production of Offenbach’s La Belle Hélène was likewise an important antecedent for Nádor’s operetta.

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The appearances of the goddess Night in Virgil’s Aeneid can be profitably studied as a cipher to appreciating better certain key elements of the poet’s epic presentation of Troy’s fall and the rise of the future Rome. Detailed consideration of every epiphany of the goddess in the poem offers insight into Virgil’s rationale for how he presents the ultimate resolution of the conflict in Latium and the quelling of Juno’s rage against the Trojans.

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This essay is an analytical study of sixteen new Ancient North Arabian inscriptions collected by the author during an epigraphical survey in 2010 in the area of Ġadīr Al-Aḥmar in Al-Ṣafāwī Region Northeast Jordan. On the grounds of the shape of script and the language, these inscriptions are classified as Safaitic. The script was known in the region to the south and southeast of Damascus (including north and northeast of Jordan) and in north and northwest Saudi Arabia.

The goal of this analysis is to study the inscriptions, the semantics and morphology of the words and the proper nouns contained therein. Furthermore, the paper also identifies certain new vocabulary items, such as four personal names mentioned for the first time in the corpus of the Safaitic inscriptions.

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This paper examines the term ā-rè recorded in mediaeval Chinese historical sources as the title of the ruler of the Yenisei Kirghiz state. The author aims to discover which Old Turkic title this Chinese phonetic transcription corresponds to. By reconstructing the sounds in ā-rè according to Middle Chinese the author argues that the most likely pronunciation of the term was änäl, which he suggests is a phonetic variant of the Old Turkic title inäl. The author also argues that this was a temporary title of the ruler of the Yenisei Kirghiz during their vassalage under the Uyghurs.

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After its premiere in 1849 Ambroise Thomas’ and Thomas Sauvage’s opéra-bouffon Le caïd remained extremely successful throughout Europe. This was caused mostly because of its parodistic references to the orient in plot, scenery, libretto and music. This article examines the orientalistic features of Le caïd, which contemporary music critics perceived as comical. The reception documents are also evaluated in the context of the perception of orientalism in the nineteenth century as well as in the tradition of opéra-comique. The categories considered in the work’s analysis are the comical dimension of the orient, the opposition between France and Algeria functioning as a comic element, as well as the parody of the orientalistic Italian opera buffa.

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Serbia was an Ottoman province for almost four centuries; after some rebellions, the First and Second Uprising, she received the status of autonomous principality in 1830, and became independent in 1878. Due to the historical and cultural circumstances, the first stage music form was komad s pevanjem (theater play with music numbers), following with the first operas only at the beginning of the twentieth century. Contrary to the usual practice to depict “golden age” of medieval national past, like in many other traditions of national opera, the earliest Serbian operas were dedicated to the recent past and coexistence with Ottomans. Thus the operas Na uranku (At dawn, 1904) by Stanislav Binički (1872–1942), Knez Ivo od Semberije (Prince Ivo of Semberia, 1911) by Isidor Bajić (1878–1915), both based on the libretti by the leading Serbian playwright Branislav Nušić, and also Zulumćar (The Hooligan, librettists: Svetozar Ćorović and Aleksa Šantić, 1927) by Petar Krstić (1877–1957), presented Serbia from the first decades of the nineteenth century. Later Serbian operas, among which is the most significant Koštana (1931, revised in 1940 and 1948) by Petar Konjović (1883–1970), composed after the theatre play under the same name by the author Borisav Stanković, shifts the focus of exoticism, presenting a life of a south-Serbian town in 1880. Local milieu of Vranje is depicted through tragic destiny of an enchanting beauty, a Roma singer Koštana, whose exoticism is coming from her belonging to the undesirable minority. These operas show how the national identity was constructed – by libretto, music and iconography – through Oriental Self. The language (marked by numerous Turkish loan words), musical (self)presentation and visual image of the main characters of the operas are identity signifiers, which show continuity as well as perception of the Ottoman cultural imperial legacy.

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Although it is primarily through Tacitus’ narration of the event that we are able to reconstruct the Pisonian conspiracy, the particular details of the plot can be partially completed from other sources of information. In that regard, relatively little time has been devoted to Plutarch’s account — found in his essay De garrulitate — of the discovery of the Pisonian plot. The account to some extent poses a problem, as it does not explicitly specify which conspiracy it refers to. In addition, the account is in the form of a moral essay; most importantly, it proffers a version of the events of AD 65 (when the plot was disclosed) that is totally different from that of Tacitus. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is at least partially to incorporate Plutarch’s report into the whole, rather foggy portrayal of the Pisonian conspiracy, and simultaneously to point to the fact that Plutarch’s report may not be an alternative to Tacitus’ one, but rather a complement of it. The author strives to evaluate the various literary and historical elements of the report, as well as its possible sources, and following the knowledge obtained, to assess its informative value within the broader context of the entire conspiracy.

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Among the wealth of German operettas, an important place is occupied by works referring to Polish subjects in their plots, or featuring Polish characters. The moral judgments passed on the persons of the drama frequently reveal generalisations concerning large communities or even entire nations. At the present stage of research, I can confirm the existence of about a dozen German operettas containing Polish motives. For my analysis, I have selected three operettas: Polnische Wirtschaft, Polenblut and Die blaue Mazur, composed in more or less the same period – the 1910s. An analysis of characters and topics recurring in these operettas proves that certain prejudices and stereotypes play a major role in the construction of events and the characterisation of dramatis personae. An important role in the creation of national stereotypes is also played by musical categories associated with Polish culture, mainly national dances – the krakowiak and the mazur. The three stage works discussed in this paper, created in a period of historical transformation associated with Poland’s rebirth as an independent country, appear to offer excellent arguments in the ongoing debate on the role of national stereotypes in communication between neighbouring nations.

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Author: András Barati
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This paper gives an overview of all major identifications of the site of Tigranokerta, the famous foundation of the Armenian king, Tigranes II (the Great, ca. 95‒55 BCE). Firstly, the paper presents ancient literary evidence; secondly, it discusses all major locations of Tigranokerta suggested to date (Siirt, Silvan, Arzan, Diyarbakιr, Tell Abad, and Kιzιltepe); and finally it reaches its own conclusions. It appears that in the current state of research, it is Arzan which is the most likely candidate for the site of Tigranes II’s new capital. The paper also engages with the latest archaeological excavations in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and takes issue with the identification of the site near Shahbulagh as the foundation of Tigranes the Great.

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In his autobiography, Goldmark boasted that he had employed four distinct orientalist idioms in his works: one in Sakuntala and three in Die Königin von Saba. Actually, his deployment of orientalist signifiers was a lot more varied and subtle than that. None of them, moreover, was based on actual ethnographic models. All were purely imaginary and conventional – and for that reason legible and effective. This essay surveys and classifies them, analyzes their motivation and effect, and compares them with the practice of contemporaries such as Anton Rubinstein and Camille Saint-Saëns.

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The present state of the art on legionary centurions owes its core to the works of Brian Dobson. This paper will show how and why his results need a close scrutiny in order to correct factual errors and faulty assumptions about the centurions and their careers.

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From the ancient Life of Persius we learn that the poet was a cognatus of Arria the Younger, the wife of Thrasea Paetus. Furthermore, we are told that he was pietatis erga matrem et sororem et amitam exemplo sufficientis. As evidence for his piety towards his mother and his sister the biographer mentions that Persius bequeathed his property to them. But we can also find another act of piety towards a relative mentioned in the poet’s biography: a laudatory poem on Arria the Elder. Some considerations about the dates of birth and death of both Arria the Younger and the Elder, Thrasea, and Persius’ father corroborate the assumption that Arria the Elder may have been Persius’ aunt.

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In the earlier scientific literature dealing with the Hungarian masters’ mark (thus also in the book of Kőszeghy Elemér: Magyarországi ötvösjegyek a középkortól 1867-ig / Merkzeichen der Goldschmiede Ungarns vom Mittelalter bis 1867. Budapest 1936) the data about the smiths of Miskolc was corrupted, because it had been mixed up with the data about the smiths from other cities (eg. Munkács, today Mukačeve, Ucraine). The study includes the revision of the scientific literature about the smiths of Miskolc, and collects with an ambition of completeness all the data related to them. We have relatively few sources dating from the 16th-17th centuries, but the smiths begin to appear in written sources from the 18th century onwards. The appearing names are sometimes related to the works which are still around today. The study details many of these connections. The smiths of Miskolc were working organized into guilds. The Jewish smiths living in the city have joined the guild of masters of Jewish faith which was founded in 1836.

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Tonal residua and other remnants of older musical styles and idioms seem to be inevitably bound to Ligeti’s musical language. The numerous ways of integrating the stylistic heterogeneity in his works are extremely individual and may be seen as part of each work’s specific narrative. In his early essay about musical form, Ligeti interprets Adorno’s idea of material as a parameter of form either as congealed time or as traces of musical memory. This article aims to show the different levels and qualities of musical thought Ligeti deals with by analyzing the different layers of traditional strata in his music.

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The newly acquired register data reveal that the Viennese baroque painter, the younger brother of sculptor Johann Georg Dorfmeister (1736-1786) and cousin of the painter Johann Evangelist Dorfmeister (1742-1765) was born on 13 October 1741 in Pozsony. The signature of one of his pictures already divulged his age and he specified his place of birth for his marriage in Kremsier (Kroměříž) in 1762 correctly. The uncertainty prevailing so far was caused by a mistake in the death register in Sopron, as the deceased was registered as aged 68 in 1797, as well as by the fact that the populous Dorffmaister family – of shoemakers and embroiderers – living on Spittelberg did not have any son called Stephan registered at the St Ulrich parish of Vienna. His marriage data corroborates the so-far only presumed role of the Premonstratensians of Hradisch (Hradisko u Olomouce) in Dorffmaister’s career start in Hungary. While the decoration of the Premonstratensian church and monastery of Türje in west Hungary painted between 1761 and 1763 is being brought to light in its increasing richness as restoration progresses, there is no trace remaining of the painter’s work done for the Promonstratensians of Csorna, and moreover, the relevant sources are also uncertain. Research in the archives of the Premonstratensian abbey of Hradisch kept in Brno will hopefully bear further fruit.

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Le langage de Béla Hamvas, tel qu’il apparaît notamment dans son ouvrage inachevé, acta sacra, dont la première partie fut terminée en 1944, est riche en terminologie particulière. Hamvas fait notamment référence, en écho à René Guénon, à une « tradition archaïque » renvoyant à un « état primordial » qui était, en quelque sorte, celui du rapport direct entre l’homme et Dieu, là où régnait l’harmonie, l’amour fraternel et la charité. Hélas, la corruption s’est emparée du monde, par le péché originel. Ces éléments qui relèvent de l’époque mythique ont laissé place à des régimes et à des religions spécifi ques aux diverses communautés humaines. Hamvas considère cela comme un temps de crise. D’ailleurs, le temps historique est un temps de crise dont il s’agit de sortir en « renormalisant » le monde. Parmi les diverses religions, le christianisme occupe une place spéciale, selon Hamvas, car il offre en lui-même tous les moyens de l’existence « normale ».

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The notion of sound (Klang) has been discussed intensely during the last 200 years. Similarly, in the writings of György Ligeti, timbre (Klangfarbe) is one of the crucial terms. The aim of this text is to reconsider the role of timbre and the relationship between timbre, space, and time in Ligeti’s music. With an analysis of Atmosphères and the first movement of the Piano Concerto, the discussion also includes two further important notions: process and threshold.

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The miraculous escape of the icon of Máriaradna representing Our Lady of the Carmel Mountain (originally a coloured woodcut sheet of Italian origin) had a longlasting effect on 18th century Hungarian popular religious literature. To our present knowledge the Landerer printing workshop issued it between 1756–1771/1773? in Latin, Hungarian and German languages, in altogether seven editions. The unknown author tells how the icon escaped and also the miraculous events effected by the icon. From 1762 on these editions were decorated with illustrations: an engraved frontispiece and a series of engraved images telling the history of the icon. Later beside the engraved series of images woodcut technique was also employed.

As a result of the systematic reconstruction of the typographical and decorative elements employed in the Landerer-press carried on by the author several new facts can be stated. First of all, the Landerer office employed three variants of the engraved frontispiece, of which the first was the one signed by Johann Philipp Binder in the 1762 Hungarian edition. The next was a variant, an after-cut of Binder’s, while the third is an image of quite different concept as compared to the previous two ones, although all the three represent Our Lady of Radna, with the child Jesus, and the church of Máriaradna, the place of worship. The two later ones were used from 1771 and were the products of the copper-plate engraving workshop in Buda founded by Binder. The practice of the workshop was to sign their works only shortly as „Binder”. The series of engraved illustrations telling the history of the shrine was also used from 1762 on, but some time between 1771 and 1773 the pictures were copied to woodcuts, probably also in the Binder workshop. Although the paper highlights on the 18th century Buda editions of the miracle book and its illustration, mention is also made on the survival and after-life of illustrations related to the Máriaradna icon.

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The case study presents certain aspects of modernization and cultural changes in a small Nahua Indian village in Mexico. It investigates the local cargo system and its religious background; analyses the emergence of protestant denominations and its impact on the cargo system. Debates about locality, inclusion and exclusion, and the symbolic borders of the community are also discussed. The study is based on fieldwork conducted in the Huasteca hidalguense during the period 1996 and 2002.

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Authors: Zsuzsanna Ráduly, Péter Pátrovics and В. М. Moкueнкo
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Relations between the Roman and the early Chinese Empires have been considerably popular fields of research, however, principally from a trade-oriented point of view. Contextualising Roman-related glass finds unearthed in the People’s Republic of China provides a more complex nexus. Transparent glass vessels carry multiple testimonia of cultural impacts and interactions, leading towards a stereotyped and utopian perception of the Imperium Romanum.

This paper focuses on the complexity of such inter-imperial connections through contextualising the most significant Roman-interpreted glass finds in China. Furthermore, by a detailed and critical examination of Roman-related transparent glass vessels, it also aims to highlight problems of earlier identifications and interpretations. In addition, a precise recollection of the existing data not only allows to catalogue these various glass objects, but also helps to insert these glass artefacts into the Roman glass typology system.

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The language policy of the French Revolution is known today especially for the imposition of the national language and the oppression of the dialects and regional languages in France. In my contribution, I want to focus on a less known aspect: the translation policy. From 1790 on, several decrees stipulated the translation of national laws and decrees into the regional languages in France. From the mid-1790s on, the translation policy was extended to other countries and regions under French rule. I will consider the case of the Southern Netherlands (Belgium), annexed by France in October 1795 and under French administration until the end of the Napoleonic era. According to the opinio communis, the period under consideration was strictly monolingual in France and Belgium, with French as the only language of administration and justice. I will argue that there was a covert multilingualism, that today is often ignored.

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Authors: Péter Pátrovics, György Zoltán Józsa and Miloš Zelenka