I provide a synchronic account of the variation between the marked and unmarked forms of the 1SG.INDEF of Hungarian (-ik) verbs; verbs that end in (-ik) in the 3SG.INDEF. I use a generalised mixed-effects regression analysis to explore how these forms vary in an extensive sample of the language, the Hungarian Webcorpus. I find that verbs' preference for the marked/unmarked form is determined by their lemma frequency and their prototypicality as members of the (-ik) class. These results are consistent with a morphological levelling account of variation in Hungarian verbal morphology, in which verbs migrate away from the minority (-ik) class and into the majority regular class. This suggests a picture of variation in Hungarian verbs that is shaped by lexical organisation, morphophonology, and social dynamics.
Mural paintings of the International Gothic style in the parish church of Torna (today: Turňa nad Bodvou, Slovakia). The study gives as an introduction a short survey of the medieval history of the Hungarian Kingdom. It introduces the mural paintings of the sanctuary of the village church of Torna, which came to light between 2007 and 2014. The author emphasizes their high artistic level and presents their artistic context in Hungary. The patron of the village and the church after 1409 was Paulus Özdögei Besenyő. He was an outstanding person of the Hungarian royal court and a member of the Order of the Dragon of King Sigismund of Luxembourg. He was the donor of the painted decoration of the church of Torna. The author dates the frescoes between the years of 1410–1414.
L’article retrace les débuts de la carrière d’Aurélien Sauvageot, « l’homme de France qui connaît le mieux hommes et choses de Hongrie ». Elève d’Antoine Meillet, ﬁgure-clé des relations culturelles franco-hongroises de l’entre-deux-guerres, premier titulaire, en 1931, de la Chaire des langues ﬁnno-ougriennes à l’Ecole des langues orientales à Paris, Sauvageot fait son entrée sur la scène scientiﬁque, littéraire et politique française et hongroise à la sortie de la première guerre mondiale dans laquelle la Hongrie et la France étaient dans les camps opposés. L’arrivée de Sauvageot à Budapest (en 1923) et ses débuts dans le milieu de la linguistique ﬁnno-ougrienne permettaient de croire, pour la science et la politique françaises, que ce jeune linguiste bientôt hungarophone serait capable de servir la propagande intellectuelle, c’est-à-dire « la cause » française en Hongrie. Dans le sens inverse, aux yeux des autorités hongroises, on espérait qu’il pût disséminer la propagande intellectuelle hongroise en France. Or les objectifs communs (le rapprochement intellectuel) ne pouvaient compenser les contradictoires entre les deux pays, ces dernière se sont constamment imposées sur le chemin d’Aurélien Sauvageot.
Authors:Maria Crîngaci Ţiplic and Ioan Marian Ţiplic
Sibiu and the urban archaeology. During the last two-three decades the urban archaeology in Transylvania has pointed towards a visible progress. In the cities of Alba Iulia, Bistriţa, Braşov, Baia Mare, Dej, Cluj-Napoca, Lugoj, Orăştie, Oradea, Sebeş, Sfântu Gheorghe, Sibiu, Sighişoara, Timişoara, Târgu Mureş and Turda archaeological investigations were carried out. In Sibiu, the first preemptive archaeological excavation took place in 1970 and focused upon the house and residence of the town's former mayor, Altemberger. Afterwards any archaeological campaign has been stopped for more than a decade. It was in 1983 that such endeavors have made a new start – once again in the respect to the same gothic historical civil monument. In Sibiu this was a year that is to be regarded as the beginning of scientific and salvage archaeological research, at an institutional level. Ever since then up until 2016 more than hundred archaeological interventions have taken place in Sibiu. After more than three decades of urban archaeological research and collecting information we must emphasize the need for centralizing, for developing a chronological repertoire, a mapping of archaeologically investigated objects, for listing the involved archaeologists, the results and various interpretations, the numerous papers, studies and monographs, as well as their abstracted interpretation.
This paper engages in methods of deception, dissimulation and manipulation that the Ottoman Empire employed in the 16th century. It demonstrates how the Ottomans misled their enemies in realms of diplomacy and warfare by feeding them with tailored information. They did not only successfully hide the target of their military preparations from enemy spies and foreign ambassadors, but also resorted to disinformation in order to manipulate diplomatic negotiations. Moreover, Ottoman commanders employed a number of tricks and ruses in order to gain the upper hand on the battlefield.
This paper provides a morphosyntactic account of particle reduplication in Hungarian, a case of reduplication whose function is to express repetition of events. The most conspicuous property of this process is that it can only apply when the particle is strictly left adjacent to an overt verb. We develop an analysis in terms of a syntactic process that yields a string of doubled particles that do not form a constituent, following the insight of Piñon (1991), and we propose that reduplication targets subwords and derives the facts via a local doubling process.
Authors:Katarzyna Stachowiak-Szymczak and Paweł Korpal
Simultaneous interpreting is a cognitively demanding task, based on performing several activities concurrently (Gile 1995; Seeber 2011). While multitasking itself is challenging, there are numerous tasks which make interpreting even more difficult, such as rendering of numbers and proper names, or dealing with a speaker's strong accent (Gile 2009). Among these, number interpreting is cognitively taxing since numerical data cannot be derived from the context and it needs to be rendered in a word-to-word manner (Mazza 2001). In our study, we aimed to examine cognitive load involved in number interpreting and to verify whether access to visual materials in the form of slides increases number interpreting accuracy in simultaneous interpreting performed by professional interpreters (N = 26) and interpreting trainees (N = 22). We used a remote EyeLink 1000+ eye-tracker to measure fixation count, mean fixation duration, and gaze time. The participants interpreted two short speeches from English into Polish, both containing 10 numerals. Slides were provided for one of the presentations. Our results show that novices are characterised by longer fixations and they provide a less accurate interpretation than professional interpreters. In addition, access to slides increases number interpreting accuracy. The results obtained might be a valuable contribution to studies on visual processing in simultaneous interpreting, number interpreting as a competence, as well as interpreter training.
The role of charms in Iranian belief narratives remains largely unexplored. Hereby, I attempt a preliminary survey. First, I examine the text of the Iranian national epic, the Shahname of Ferdowsi (X–XI century A.D.), in which the word afsun denotes charm or magic spell. In contemporary folktale texts (I mainly rely on the voluminous Dictionary of Iranian Folktales), an Arabic loan-word verd (which also means a kind of prayer) is used to mean a charm which facilitates supernatural results such as shape-shifting, transformation or miraculous healing. Ritual prayer (namaz) and supplication (do’a) also function as charms in folk narratives. I also give a brief overview of the Iranian folklore scholarship.
The eponymous site of the Jankovichian industry was found at the Öreg kő cliff, in the northern part of the Transdanubia, Western Hungary. From the thick layer complex of the Jankovich cave, however, only 104 lithics were collected and the scarce data showed that the pieces belong to several archaeological entities. At the same time, the nearly total lack of the field documentation allowed the reconstruction of the stratigraphic position of each artefact only in a few cases. The stratigraphic integrity is missing from the archaeological material of the Kiskevély and Szelim caves as well as the Csákvár rock shelter, and according to the recent evaluations the bifacial tools from the Dzeravá skála (Pálffy cave) and Lovas belong to the Micoquian and the Late Palaeolithic period.
In this paper we analyse the following three assemblages, excavated after World War II in Transdanubia: the Pilisszántó rock shelter II, the Bivak and the Remete Felső caves. The chronological, basically, bio-stratigraphic data known from these layers are also evaluated.
The conclusion of the study is that (1) the chronological data of the studied sites do not permit to place the archaeological occupation of each cave into the Early Würm or to the Late Middle Palaeolithic period and (2) the validity of a distinct Jankovichian industry cannot be proved.
A tanulmány a Szubotci-horizonthoz tartozó szubotci, katyerinovkai és novonyikolajevkai veretek, valamint a dél-uráli isimbaji, a felső-kámai redikori lelőhelyről származó veretek és a Verhnyij Szaltov, Bolsije Tyigani temetőiből ismert párhuzamaik képi motívumainak eredetét kutatja történeti forrásokra, folklorisztikai és vallástörténeti adatokra támaszkodva.
Authors:Balázs Nagy, Márton Gyöngyössy and Olivér Gábor
2016 tavaszán Mohács-Sárháton egy késő középkori kincslelet került elő, mely összesen 61 dénárból, illetve egy ezüst fülesgombból áll. A kincslelet összetételében kivétel nélkül nova moneta-vereteket találunk, melyeket 1521 és 1525 között bocsátottak ki. Így a legkésőbbi veret alapján elrejtését, illetve földben maradását a törökök 1526. évi kivonulásával hozhatjuk összefüggésbe.
Kunstkammer in Word and Image. The ‘Kunststube’ of Johann Septimius Jörger (1594–1676) in Nuremberg. The Kunstkammer of Johann Septimius Jörger in Nuremberg, created in the middle of the 1630s and dispersed only after 1676, is not among the well-known collections of the 17th century. It is not mentioned in the correspondence of famous art collectors, nor is it recorded in the travelogues of the time. Only sporadic information is available about the works of art that had been kept in the Kunstkammer. We regard the owner as an art collector because of a watercolour in the collection of prints and drawings of the University Library of Erlangen, in which the Nuremberg painter Michael Herr (1591–1661) depicted the interior of Jörger’s Kunstkammer. The present contribution aims to enrich our knowledge of this collection based on two new sources, namely a visual representation (cabinet painting) and an inventory of the Kunstkammer drawn up in 1667.
The overview study summarises in an updated context the findings of a long-term research into sepulchral sculpture in Moravia and Czech Silesia, which dealt primarily with whole-figure sepulchral monuments, ranging from examples dependent on fading Central European late Gothic tradition, through examples gradually influenced by early Renaissance italianising elements up to such forms that were marked by Italian and Nordic Mannerism. Based on a comprehensive regional and broader Central European style-critical comparison, applying the criteria of contemporary artistic influences, individual creative approach, craftsmanship routine and other indicia important for a work to be done, the study presents the efforts to incorporate works into circles given by a specific author or workshops, or to highlight the provenience ties of solitary works.
The study shows that despite the enormous loss of sepulchral monuments that have occurred in the past, Moravia and Czech Silesia excel in its numerous production of figural tombstones, which demonstrate the ability of the monitored area to accept and operate with new humanist and representative content, and by the existence of which the local sepulchral sculpture reached specific expression. In addition to eschatological significance and private memorial function, the sepulchral monuments of nobility served also as a family policy, whereby the privileged strata confirmed the old tradition; which contained a personal, genealogical, confessional and political reminder.
Despite the selective character of the study, the processed material brings findings that can contribute to deeper understanding of the overall picture of sepulchral tomb sculpture of the monitored area as well as to its evaluation in the national and European context.
The Hungarian Parliament – construction, decoration, ideology. The Hungarian Parliament in Budapest (1885–1902) was one of the largest buildings of its time in Europe. As home to the nation’s legislature, it also had to serve as a veritable monument glorifying the country’s history and its newly-acquired status within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Following an architectural competition, Imre Steindl, a professor at the Budapest Technical University, received the commission to realise his plan. In fact, Count Gyula Andrássy, a highly influential aristocrat and statesman, had picked his entry due to its style, analogous to the Neo-Gothic style of the London Houses of Parliament. Though historicist in appearance and opulent in terms of materials and decoration, modern technology also played a considerable role in its construction. The statues in the rotunda and on the exterior of the building were meant to immortalise Hungary’s great historical personalities, even if their moderate size, uniform style and subordinated position curtailed artistic expression. The relatively small number of mural paintings, highlighting outstanding events of Hungarian history, were virtually overwhelmed by the wealth of colourful decoration. All in all, Steindl wanted the whole structure to be a single work of art bearing his mark. The Hungarian Parliament ranks high among parliament buildings on the international scene.
The legend of St. Sisynnios has been widespread in both Christian and popular Ethiopian tradition up to the present time. It exists in the form of written texts in the Ge’ez language, inserted in so-called magic scrolls among other closely connected texts of both magical and religious character. These scrolls have a protective function, and St. Sisynnios is venerated by the Ethiopian Church. There are two versions of his life. The shorter one comprises part of the Synaxarion whilethe longer one is included in a corpus of hagiographical compilations entitled “The Lives of the Martyrs”. Both of these were translated from the Arabic prototype, borrowed from the mother Coptic Church of Alexandria. There is a notable interconnection between the legend in the amulets and the religious texts. It is unknown whether the text of the legend once existed in form of verbal charm or not. In any case, different elements of the saint’s life passed to the legend. Some have remained unchanged while others have undergone transformations or lost some elements. It is important to study different elements of the legend using the examples conserved in the available manuscript scrolls. Analysis of these interconnections and the evolution of the text constitutes the basis of the present research.
A Kilian Fleischertől közölt (ZPE 207  21–38) új Hypereidés-testimonium (Antipatros követei ellen) elemzése alapján a tanulmány történeti-filológiai érvekkel életrajzi és történelmi adatokat pontosít. Ps. Plutarchos (Vitae X Or. 850A) tudósítását egyértelműen úgy kell értelmezni, hogy Hypereidés Antipatros követeivel szemben Rhodoson Kr. e. 341-ben beszélt az Athénnal kötendő szövetség mellett. Az új töredék másfelől olyan beszédhez köthető, amely Athénban hangzott el a Kr. e. 330-as évek végén, mivel az jól illeszkedik Hypereidés más hasonló, makedónbarát politikusokat támadó beszédeinek sorába.
Literary societies are in focus both of literary studies and social history. In particular, they played an important role in the modernization of Central Europe in the 19th century. Becoming widespread in this era, they helped develop a democratic political culture and disseminated literature to a wider audience. Hungarian historiography has depicted this period as one of large-scale social segregation and a fragmented middle class which refused to have any contact with the bourgeoisie, while Slovakian historians have emphasized the exclusion of Slovaks from elite society. Kassa (today Košice), which was then situated in northern Hungary and is now the largest city in eastern Slovakia, has, however, been recognized as a more complicated example that challenges these assumptions. For instance, the importance of local citizenry was preserved in the ﬁrst half of the 19th century, in contrary to other cities in Hungary. The purpose of this article is to examine the composition of the most prominent social club of the town to provide fresh insights into the social history of Kassa in this period, and the larger processes shaping urban life in Central Europe in the period before the First World War. In particular, this article argues that a culture of both pluralism and exclusion was evident in the membership of Kassa’s Kazinczy Circle, and that their afﬁliations reveal a more complicated social network in the city, which both preserved communal solidarity during a period of rapid urbanization and encouraged the growth of modern democratic values.
Authors:JÁNOS CSAPÓ, ANDRÁS TÖRZSÖK and ISTVÁN GALAMBOS
In 1920 the Treaty of Trianon concluding WWI caused the Hungarian Kingdom to lose not only two-thirds of its area and population, but the country’s most important tourism destinations as well. This is the reason why the “domestic values” of the country were valorised in the following period in terms of tourism. Both the remaining tourism supply and the demand had to face signiﬁcant changes; for instance, the paying guest system was introduced in Hungary at the time in question. Some new investments were made from 1922 onwards in these destinations, such as the establishment of holiday camps and hotels, but the development of tourism was primarily supported through government regulations and the creation of national and regional tourism authorities. Due to these investments and innovations the interwar period became a flourishing era for domestic tourism.
The present paper examines the relationship between incantations and belief narratives, two types of oral genres based on human contact with the supernatural. Such contact attests to a dangerous disruption of the boundary between the human and demonic worlds and to the intensive efforts to reinforce it so that participants may return to the space they belong in. For this purpose, various verbal and nonverbal tools are used in belief narratives (gestures, objects, plants, sound or light signals, certain activities – such as walking backwards, placing a cap over the forehead, etc.). In contrast, incantations, an inseparable part of vernacular magical practices, rely solely on verbal communication with impure forces.
This paper will analyse the following aspects of interconnection between these oral genres: 1) the display of a genre within a genre – the presence of incantations in belief narratives, e.g., about dispersing hailstorm clouds; 2) the types of verbal communication with the supernatural in belief narratives (swearing, cursing, command, reproach) and their equivalents in incantations; 3) various motifs of protection from demons (counting the uncountable, using bodily fluids; thorn, fire, metal, broom, etc.). The consideration of shared elements in these genres that preserve the relationship with the mythological narrative include elements of the ceremonial context in which incantations are performed. I argue that some of these elements appear also in belief narratives, where they undergo a transformation.
Manasszé imája egy jól szerkesztett könyörgés. Mondanivalójának megértését szerkezete is segíti. A szerkezet nem mutat olyan sajátosságokat, amik alapján arra lehetne következtetni, hogy a mű fent elemzett szövege nem az eredeti lenne.
A korai zsidóság egyik kedvelt irodalmi eszköze továbbá, hogy előszeretettel építi írásműveit már létező tekintélyi szövegek kínálta panelekből. Ez egyes iratoknál egész extrém mértékű lehet,15 más esetekben csekély. Az ilyen referenciaszövegek felhasználásával egy adott mű szerzője nyilvánvalóvá teszi, mely szellemi hagyományok fontosak számára, másfelől írása tekintélyét is növeli. Manasszé imájának szerzője ezeket az intertexteket az Ószövetség minden részéből válogatja, leggyakrabban azonban a Zsoltárokra hivatkozik, ami minden bizonnyal a mű költői formájából következik.
In this article I will consider the general development of Welsh narrative charms from the earliest examples (late fourteenth century) up to the first decades of the Early Modern Era in Wales (mid-to-late sixteenth century). I will focus on the most common narrative charm types of this time: those that feature the motifs of Longinus, the Three Good Brothers, and Flum Jordan or Christ’s birth in Bethlehem. The development of these charms over time can provide insights into changing attitudes in Wales towards healing, religion, superstition, and even language. By the onset of the Early Modern era, Welsh narrative charms were increasingly subject to rhetorical expansions of the religious narratives that constituted the efficacious component of the charm. Additionally, by the end of the fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth, charms that once commonly featured Latin as the predominant language demonstrated an increased preference for the vernacular.
An examination of surviving healing charm texts originating in Ireland between 1700 and the mid-nineteenth century suggests a strong link between the contents of this corpus and a select few national saints (Columcille, Bridget, and Patrick) and international Catholic religious figures (Christ, Mary, and the Apostles). By contrast, local Irish saints, which otherwise figure so prominently in religious practices of the time, are significantly underrepresented in the Irish charm corpus of this time period. This essay looks at the long-term status of highly localized saints in religious and medical discourse, the effect of church centralization in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, and the rise of select national saints as factors in this feature of the Irish charms.
Authors:Helle Dam-Jensen, Carmen Heine and Iris Schrijver
Writing Research and Translation Studies are not only neighbouring disciplines, but also have conflating research interests. Correspondences between the two can be found in five aspects: the ontological nature of the object of study, cognitive factors, the situational factors, the disciplinary nature of the two fields, and the paradigmatic turns they have gone through. This article discusses the similarities and differences and proposes a strengthening of the cooperation between the fields on the basis of an overarching category of text production. Areas of current and apparent fruitful cooperation in research projects and education are described. The article promotes the idea of a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of text production through systematic cooperation of both disciplines.
Many parts of the Kül Tegin and Bilgä Kagan inscriptions are almost identical with each other. Although most parts of these inscriptions are well understood, some parts like the letter group ïKIDmz in the second sentence of KT S 6 and in the last sentence of BK N 4 are not so. The letter group ïKIDmz has been read and interpreted in various ways. The author regards
ïKIDmz as a spelling error (or an alternative spelling) for
KIDmz and suggests that it can be read as akïdmaz ‘they do not become generous / openhanded’. As a hapax legomenon, the verb akïd- ‘to become generous / openhanded’ is analysed as akï ‘generous, openhanded’ + -d- ‘a suffix making a denominal verb’.
Among the discoveries of excavations carried out by a joint team of Chinese archaeologists between the autumn of 2010 and the early summer of 2011 in the Tuyoq Grottoes in Turfan, 22 pilgrim inscriptions in Old Uyghur script were found in the Northern Cave 10 (NK 10). All of them are notes made by Buddhists who made a pilgrimage to the cave. Although the photo of these inscriptions has been published twice in recent years, an edition of them is still missing. This paper presents results of philological investigation on 20 of these pilgrim inscriptions. One inscription is briefly discussed in the general description as its structure is difficult to recognise, whereas an edition of another inscription, the one on the upper side of the left wall, is reserved for further research, as the inscription is not clearly visible in the available photo.
The author of this article focuses on a defendant of an Inquisition trial (1641–1644) and its sources, namely a healing hermit and the Saint Cyprian prayer, published in Catalan in 1557 and used by the hermit as a verbal charm. Beyond the philological and folkloristic study of the prayer text, this paper presents the vulgarisation of reading skills and the realization of reading practice in a specific social context in the Principality of Catalonia. The author uses the most important and relevant theological literature of the period and the attestations of the trial as keys of reading. She pays special attention to the context of prayer and its actual social use. Her aim is to analyse the textual elements and gestures of the healing rite; hence, she investigates the probable readings of the healing specialist, which makes possible to reach a deeper understanding of the hermit’s role as a cultural mediator.
Az alábbi tanulmányban amellett érvelek, hogy Platón Phaidrosának egyik passzusában tudatos és jól megszerkesztett allúzió olvasható Pindaros első pythói ódájára és az abban kulcsszerepet játszó Typhón mitikus alakjára. A nyelvi és gondolati párhuzamok elemzésével feltárulnak a platóni szövegrész eddig rejtett jelentésrétegei, többek között a Pindaroson túlmutató zenei metaforák. Ezzel együtt felszínre kerülnek olyan témák, mint egység és sokaság, zenei éthos és kritika, melyek Platón gondolatrendszerében központi jelentőségűek, és az elemzett passzus kifejezésmódját meghatározzák.
Der Aufsatz analysiert Péter Nádas’ Roman Parallelgeschichten mit Blick auf die Poetik des Raumes. Die Frage nach der Behandlung von Raum und Zeit im Text wird anhand des Motivs des Durchgangs gestellt, der in der Darstellung der Wohnungen eine zentrale Rolle spielt. Durch die detaillierte Schilderung von Zwischenräumen wie dem Entrée und dem Vorraum setzt sich nämlich der Erzähler mit jenen historischen Bezügen von privaten Räumen auseinander, die auf die Wahrnehmungen und Erinnerungsprozesse der Figuren einwirken. Hier erscheinen die funktionslos gewordenen transitorischen Räume als Reste der allmählich entschwindenden bürgerlichen Welt und fallen aus dem einheitlichen Schema der Wohnungseinrichtungen, wodurch der vertraute, Sicherheitsgefühl verströmende Charakter der letzteren angegriﬀen wird. Es wird gezeigt, dass die Durchgänge im Roman somit zu bedrohenden, verstörenden Räumlichkeiten werden, in denen sich die hier orientierungslos werdenden Figuren gezwungen sehen, sich mit fernen Erinnerungen aus der unverarbeiteten Vergangenheit zu konfrontieren.
Die Ereignisse der Bücherverbrennungen in Deutschland riefen in vielen Ländern ein großes Presseecho hervor. Die Reaktionen der ausländischen Presse auf dieses Ereignis wurde in mehreren Aufsätzen untersucht, die Untersuchung der Reaktionen der ungarischen Presse war aber bisher ein Desiderat der Forschung. Die vorliegende Studie gibt einen umfassenden Überblick über das Presseecho im Horthy-Ungarn.
This article aims to reconstruct the reception of Act XVII adopted by the Hungarian Parliament in 1916, which brought about the legal recognition of Islam, from the stance of the Holy See of Rome. The research is based on archival material preserved at the Vatican Archives, namely letters exchanged between the Nunziature of Vienna and the Holy See, which are published and translated here. The presentation of so far unpublished material provides an opportunity to follow the growing understanding of the contents and background of this law; the key points of interest of the Catholic Church in this matter are identiﬁed; while lexical references seek to shed light on the perceptions of Islam.
The Christian Museum in Esztergom preserves an epitaph depicting the Death of the Virgin Mary. The panel painting, dated by its inscription to 1498, was ordered by Stephan Geinperger, then burgher of Wiener Neustadt, for his deceased wife, Dorothea Gerolt. The donor’s name was for a long time misread as “Heinperger”, thus hindering his identification. The correct transcription made it possible to reveal information about the person of the donor and detect his family and their kinship network in the contemporary written documents. Based on the inscription and the archival material in Wiener Neustadt, Knittelfeld, Nuremberg, Passau and other related towns, the lives of Geinperger and his wife could be reconstructed and a stepfamily could be identified. In addition, the original placement of the epitaph was determined as was the social topography of the related families in Wiener Neustadt, including their economic and social importance. Moreover, art historical analysis placed the painting in the artistic milieu of the wider region.
This study presents the pivotal moments in the history of anti-ecclesiastical politics and architectural legislation. Definitive factors in church construction projects, the obtaining of planning permissions, fundraising processes, the identities of designers and the possibilities of designing, the size and quality of building materials have been uncovered through researching archival sources and church media records from that period. Regarding the tendencies of architectural morphology, it is safe to say that where financial conditions made it possible, commissioners insisted on traditional solutions. Highly qualified architects with international experience, Lajos Tarai, Antal Thomas, and Bertalan Árkay, however, identified with the modern ecclesiastical art evolving mainly in 1920s Germany. The detailed introduction of Bertalan Árkay’s work provides us with an opportunity to describe Hungarian architectural practice (designing every detail of the building including its interior and the reasons behind the repeated use of certain shapes in the building material), most of which can also be found in the international architecture of the period.
This paper tests Tirkkonen-Condit's (2004) Unique Item (UI) Hypothesis, which claims that UI are under-represented in translated texts and, on the other hand, Baker's (1993) Simplification Hypothesis and Halverson's (2003) Gravitational Pull Hypothesis, which predict over-representation of UI in translated texts. These hypotheses are contrasted by comparing the presence of English self-directed motion in English texts translated from Spanish from the Translational English Corpus (TEC, Baker 2003) and texts spontaneously produced in English from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA, Davies 2008). Self-directed motion expressions are employed because of their linguistic divergences in English and Spanish. Twenty-eight English manner-of-motion verbs and eight English path-denoting satellites were selected to compare the number of self-directed motion expressions in the TEC and the COCA. This study yielded a total of 41,852 tokens from both corpora, that is, 209.2 expressions per million words in the TEC and 395.5 expressions per million words in the COCA. An independent samples t-test revealed that the number of expressions is significantly higher in the COCA (M = 3.32) than in the TEC (M = 1.76). A two-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects for Corpus and Lexical Frequency, but no Corpus*Lexical Frequency interaction effect was found. These results support Tirkkonen-Condit's UI Hypothesis and confirm that non-translated English is significantly richer in self-directed motion expressions than translated (from Spanish) English.
This paper provides a new analysis for the semantics and pragmatics of weak (permission/acquiescence) imperatives. In a significant modification to the To-Do-List (or minimal semantics – strong pragmatic) theory of imperatives (Portner 2007; 2012; von Fintel & Iatridou 2017), I argue that in weak imperatives, the utterance of the imperative is directed not at the To-Do-List of the addressee, but at a separate list which contains the set of possible courses of action contemplated by the addressee (which I term the List of Actions Under Consideration by the addressee). I support this claim by a new detailed analysis of free-choice item licensing in imperatives (based on the dependent indefinite analysis of FCIs put forth by Giannakidou 2001). I also show how my model correctly predicts that strong imperatives are felicitous out of the blue whereas weak imperatives need the prejacent to be already part of the context. It is also pointed out how this new approach helps us cut through the familiar controversy of whether weak imperatives can create obligations. Finally, I argue that the strong vs. weak imperative distinction is orthogonal to the degree of speaker endorsement (pace von Fintel & Iatridou 2017): this claim is also supported by a new look at data from Rhaetoromance (Poletto & Zanuttini 2003), where the strong vs. weak imperative distinction is encoded overtly on the morphosyntactic level in a binary fashion.
Authors:Dragoş Măndescu, Mihai Constantinescu and Monica Mărgărit
Red deer canine ornaments have been known since the Upper Paleolithic as symbolic markers of the status of the possessor. A recent discovery made at the Iron Age cremation necropolis of Valea Stânii (Romania) probably provides the latest prehistoric occurence of this type of personal ornament. This find was part of the grave goods in the burial in barrow no. 4, a double grave (an adult woman and a subadult individual of unidentified sex). Among the cremated bones of the subadult individual were 16 personal adornments made of red deer antler, imitating red deer canines. Most likely, the ornaments were sewn on the funeral clothes. Such imitations of red deer canines indicate the transmission of certain cultural traditions, perhaps related to prestige and representation, over the millennia until the end of the Iron Age in Eastern Europe.
This paper is concerned with the situation aspectual properties of creation and consumption verbs. More specifically, it aims to explore how telic interpretations arise in this verbal domain. The analysis which is couched in a scalar semantic framework will focus on how created/consumed themes contribute telicity given the unique, verb-mediated relationship that obtains between these themes and the scales of creation/consumption verbs. Although it is Hungarian verbs that constitute the main data set of this study, examples from English and some other languages will also be discussed for cross-linguistic comparison.
Studying food culture in early Sufism has been paid little scholarly attention, though it is able to afford us a way of reconstructing one of the pillars of early Sufi practice. This paper examines two aspects of Sufi food culture—individual and communal ‘food fashions’ with a special focus on 4th/10th-century Sufism. The exploration of early Sufi social relations is closely bound up with the food culture and eating manners of early Sufis. This profoundly social activity played a large role in forming and transforming collective Sufi identity. Al-Makkī's Qūt al-qulūb gains a special reference being the most important textbook on eating customs in the period under investigation.
The images, characters, and events featured in a charm enter into mutual, organic relations with other images, characters, and events that are not explicitly included in the given text but contribute implicitly to the overall significance of the charm. The aim of the current article is to reveal the unspoken components of St. Elijah narrative file embedded in the deep horizon of beliefs and knowledge implied by a given charm. Following the charm step by step, I point out items that imply the unvoiced – but still present – level of images and beliefs taken from the non-charming narrative corpus.
This study analyses the distinctive features of stories of magical healing – thematic (meeting of the natural and supernatural as the core of the narrative), structural (stability of motifs, incorporation of other folklore genres – curses, blessings; didactic statements, cumulativity), and ideological (being based on a system of beliefs). In the genre system of folklore, stories of magical healing occupy a liminal space, right at the crossroads of two semantic fields, the demonologically coded and the secular(ised), as the connection with the supernatural is sometimes only latently present. On the one hand, they introduce mythologicaldemonological elements into the everyday, and on the other, they make abstract demonic content concrete by linking it to the plane of experience. Stories told by cunning folk about successful magical healing are an important factor in their social positioning and the verification of magical practice. The circulation of such stories within a community facilitates the creation of a picture of specific practitioners, the domain of their competences, and the effectiveness of the ritual acts. Viewed more broadly, it also creates ideas about the natural and the supernatural, the worldly and the otherworldly, eschatology, morality, and codes of conduct in the broadest sense, even when tradition is rationalised, subjected to doubt, or disagreed with.
In this paper, we propose that the contexts of fortition and lenition can be represented with a very simple autosegmental tool: branching. We point out a major shortcoming of Coda Mirror Theory: though this model tries to account for strength with lateral relations, length should also be factored in order to account for the inalterability of geminates. In order to unify the principles that regulate strength, we propose a consistent theory built exclusively on length, without lateral relations.
The following article is based on a study into the reception of subtitled song lyrics in audiovisual translation. The study involved nine musicals subtitled into Polish and screened at a recurring cultural event every two weeks over a span of eight months. After each screening, a survey was distributed to investigate the perception of the target text: whether the audience could spot if the subtitles rhymed and respected the original rhythm, and whether the presence of rhymes and rhythm in song subtitles influenced audience satisfaction. The total number of songs tested was 88, and the total number of distributed surveys was 209. The results showed that the viewers were unable to recognize the presence or absence of the musical match – they tended to respond that the subtitles matched the music regardless whether the actual musical match of the translation was 70% or 5%. A high percentage of the surveys (40%) showed lack of attention towards the presence of rhymes. The responses of those who declared that they paid attention to rhymes were somewhat correct. Lastly, the results showed that the presence of the musical match and rhymes has little or no effect on the satisfaction with the subtitles.
Authors:Gábor Mesterházy, Gábor Serlegi, Bence Vágvölgyi, András Füzesi and Pál Raczky
A felső-Tisza-vidéki Polgár-szigeten a késő neolitikumban kialakult településhálózatot vizsgáljuk a jelen tanulmány keretein belül. Ehhez kapcsolódóan Polgár-Csőszhalom környezetében végzett, több évig tartó geomágneses munkák eredményét mutatjuk be. Ez alapján a Csőszhalom és a körülötte található horizontális település együttesen 67,5 hektár nagyságúnak határozható meg.
A tanulmány célja, hogy tájrégészeti szemléletben összefoglalja a tiszazugi és körösszögi halmok (kurgánok) teljességre törekvő kataszterezésének és állapotfelmérésének legfőbb eredményeit. Emellett kitér a kutatástörténeti előzményekre, és bemutatja az egyéb vizsgálati lehetőségeket is (névtan, folklór, tájtörténet, tájökológia).
Authors:Veronique Hoste, Klaar Vanopstal, Ayla Rigouts Terryn and Els Lefever
We investigate the cost-effectiveness of special-purpose crawled corpora versus more focused corpora for automatic terminology extraction (ATE). Our focus is on medical terminology on heart failure for two languages, viz. English for which we have more web and specialized resources at our disposal and the less resourced Dutch. We show that, although term density in the dedicated corpora is larger for both languages, the potential for term extraction is higher in the crawled corpora than in the dedicated corpora. Furthermore, in a set of experiments in which we evaluate both types of corpora, while keeping size constant, we observe that more Gold Standard (GS) terms are covered by the “noisy” crawled corpus than with a dedicated corpus of the same size.
Snake-thread glass vessels were used from the late 2nd to the mid-3rd century AD. At least two production centres/distribution circles have been identified in the western part of the Roman Empire, which probably owed their existence to Syrian glassmaking artisans migrating to the west. One was located in the Rhine region, the other in Pannonia. Considering the distribution of snake-thread glass fragments known to date from Pannonia, it is striking that 52 of the currently known 112 fragments were found at Intercisa, 45 exemplars came to light at Brigetio and only a few pieces are known from other sites. It is remarkable that in both towns, glass workshops were active during the same period and there is also some evidence that snake-thread glass had been produced in the workshop of Brigetio.
In the turn of the 1850’s and 1860’s a topic – which generated serious disputes in the reform era – flamed again in Hungary: it was the national clothing. With the slackening political rigour, the traditional Hungarian dress as a symbol of national togetherness was on the agenda yet again in Hungarian-language fashion magazines of Pest.
The Nővilág [Woman’s World] edited by János Vajda aimed to work on women’s aesthetical education since the start of the magazine in 1857. The column named Original Fashion Report was written by the leader contributor of the magazine Júlia Jósika, who has been corresponded up to date French and Belgian fashion from Brussels. Popularity of her articles was unbroken until 1860. The Original Fashion Report in this name was published for the last time in the february of 1860; then the column was renamed, and of results of a slow process until the end of the year Júlia Jósika’s fashion reports frayed from the Nővilág. Her place was taken by a young writer with increasing publicity, Lenke Bajza, who made a stand for national fashion. She – likewise Júlia Jósika – worked for the magazine as ﬁctionist and fashion professional.
This change can be associated not with aesthetical but political decisions. Because of a delicate international political situation in the year 1859 Hungarian revisionists started to hope again in a new revolution for independence from Austria. With a press being stricktly supervised by the police, traditional Hungarian fashion became part of the language of national solidarity.
In my paper I will confer the competition of French fashion and traditional Hungarian clothing through Júlia Jósika’s and Lenke Bajza’s confronting fashion reports and the alteration of Nővilág in the context of the politically charged alternative language of clothing.
Jelen tanulmányban amellett érvelek, hogy a „ἱερόσυλος” (szentélyrabló) és a „κατάρατος” (átkozott) szavak meghatározó elemei Démosthenés érvelésének a Timokratés elleni beszédében. Ebben a beszédben mindkét szó egyértelműen a vallásos szókészlet elemei közé tartozik, Démosthenés jogosan és meggyőzően használ ilyen erős kifejezéseket ellenfeleivel szemben. Mivel mindkét szó ritkán fordul elő a klasszikus kori prózai szövegekben, ezért a pontos jelentés meghatározása végett, ami alapfeltétele annak, hogy feltárhassuk az adott szavak érvelésben betöltött szerepét, megvizsgálom a Kr. e. V–III. századi párhuzamos prózai szöveghelyeket, továbbá az epigráfiai, valamint a korábbi drámai forrásokat is.